APOSTOLIC EXHORTATION
of  
POPE JOHN PAUL II
  FAMILIARIS CONSORTIO
March 19, 1981
 


Apostolic Exhortation Familiaris Consortio of Pope John Paul Ii to the Episcopate to the Clergy and to the Faithful of the Whole Catholic Church: Adhortatio apostolica Familiaris Consortio Ioannis Pauli pp. II Summi Pontificis ad Episcopos, Sacerdotes et Christifideles Totius Ecclesiae Catholicae de Familiae Christianae Muneribus in mundo huius temporis


   Celibacy/Virginity §16;   NFP §33-36§34 Gradualness   Divorced & Remarried §84


  INTRODUCTION (§1-3)


ON THE ROLE of the CHRISTIAN FAMILY
in the
MODERN WORLD


   
   

INTRODUCTION

Venerabiles fratres ac dilecti filii, 
salutem et apostolicam benedictionem

The Church at the Service of the Family

 

1. The family in the modern world, as much as and perhaps more than any other institution, has been beset by the many profound and rapid changes that have affected society and culture. Many families are living this situation in fidelity to those values that constitute the foundation of the institution of the family. Others have become uncertain and bewildered over their role or even doubtful and almost unaware of the ultimate meaning and truth of conjugal and family life. Finally, there are others who are hindered by various situations of injustice in the realization of their fundamental rights.

1. FAMILIARIS CONSORTIO aetate nostra, ut aliud fortasse institutum nullum, mutationibus amplis, praegravibus, velocibus societatis et cultus humani implicatur. Multae quidem familiae, in hac rerum condicione versantes, fideles manent illis bonis, quae funclamentum instituti familiaris efficiunt. Aliae vero incertae sunt ac turbatae ratione habita officiorum, quibus obstringuntur, aut etiam dubitantes et paene ignarae supremae significationis et veritatis vitae coniugalis familiarisque. Aliae demum variis condicionibus iniustitia notatis impediuntur ne primaria iura sua tueantur.

Knowing that marriage and the family constitute one of the most precious of human values, the Church wishes to speak and offer her help to those who are already aware of the value of marriage and the family and seek to live it faithfully, to those who are uncertain and anxious and searching for the truth, and to those who are unjustly impeded from living freely their family lives. Supporting the first, illuminating the second and assisting the others, the Church offers her services to every person who wonders about the destiny of marriage and the family.[1]

Ecclesia sibi conscia matrimonium et familiam unum e bonis pretiosissimis generis hominum esse, nuntium suum cupit afferre et auxilium polliceri iis qui, vim bonumque matrimonii et familiae iam cognoscentes, inde fideliter vivere student, qui haerentes et anxii veritatem exquirunt et, qui iniuste praepediuntur ne libere in vita sua ad effectum adducant propositum suam circa familiam. Illos confirmando, hos illuminando, ceteros iuvando Ecclesia paratam se praebet unicuique ministrare, qui de sorte matrimonii et familiae sit sollicitus (1).

In a particular way the Church addresses the young, who are beginning their journey towards marriage and family life, for the purpose of presenting them with new horizons, helping them to discover the beauty and grandeur of the vocation to love and the service of life.

Potissimum autem ea ad iuvenes convertitur, qui matrimonium sunt inituri familiamqne condituri, ea mente ut iis novos veluti prospectus patefaciat iisque auxilietur ad detegendam pulchritudinem et magnitudinem vocationis ad amorem ac ministerium vitae pertinentis.

The Synod of 1980 in Continuity with Preceding Synods

 

2. A sign of this profound interest of the Church in the family was the last Synod of Bishops, held in Rome from September 26 to October 25, 1980. This was a natural continuation of the two preceding Synods[2]: the Christian family, in fact, is the first community called to announce the Gospel to the human person during growth and to bring him or her, through a progressive education and catechesis, to full human and Christian maturity.

2. Postrema Synodus Episcoporum, a die XXVI mensis Septembris ad diem XXV Octobris anno MCMLXXX Romae celebrata, documento fuit quanto studio in familiam teneretur Ecclesia. Ea profecto continuatio consentanea fuit duorum eiusmodi coetuum, qui praecesserant (2): christiana enim familia est prima communitas, cuius est Evangelium personae humanae crescenti annuntiare eamque progrediente educatione et catechesi ad plenam maturitatem humanam et christianam perducere.

Furthermore, the recent Synod is logically connected in some way as well with that on the ministerilal priesthood and on justice in the modern world. In fact, as an educating community, the family must help man to discern his own vocation and to accept responsibility in the search for greater justice, educating him from the beginning in interpersonal relationships, rich in justice and in love.

Praeterea recens haec Synodus cogitatione ac mente quodammodo etiam ad Synodum de sacerdotio ministeriali ac de iustitia in mundo huius temporis revocatur. Etenim familia, quatenus est communitas institutoria, hominem adiuvare debet ad discernendam propriam vocationem ac necessarium suscipiendum officium ad maiorem spectans iustitiam, eumque inde ab initio ad rationes inter personas intercedentes formare, quae iustitia et amore commendentur.

At the close of their assembly, the Synod Fathers presented me with a long list of proposals in which they had gathered the fruits of their reflections, which had matured over intense days of work, and they asked me unanimously to be a spokesman before humanity of the Church's lively care for the family and to give suitable indications for renewed pastoral effort in this fundamental sector of the life of man and of the Church.

Synodi Patres, Coetus finem facientes, amplam nobis exhibuerunt indicem propositionum, quo fructus considerationum suarum collegerant, quibus per plures dies impense transactos institerant, et unanimi sententia nos rogaverunt ut coram hominum genere nuntii essemus acris sollicitudinis Ecclesiae de familia, et ut opportunas traderemus normas eo pertinentes ut renovatum susciperetur officium pastorale in hac primaria parte vitae humanae et ecclesialis.

As I fulfill that mission with this Exhortation, thus actuating in a particular matter the apostolic ministry with which I am entrusted, I wish to thank all the members of the Synod for the very valuable contribution of teaching and experience that they made especially through the Propositiones, the text of which I am entrusting to the Pontifical Council for the Family with instructions to study it so as to bring out every aspect of its rich content.

Id muneris per hanc Adhortationem Apostolicam implentes, quasi ministerium apostolicum nobis commissum peculiari ratione adducentes ad effectum, gratum animum cupimus omnibus Synodi sodalibus significare quod doctrina sua et experientia tam frugifere ad rem operam contulerunt idque nobis tribuerunt praesertim « Propositionibus », quarum textum Pontificio Consilio de Familia tribuimus, mandantes ut eum studiose penitusque cognoscat ea mente ut singulas facies thesauri, qui in illo continetur, in lumine ponat et provehat.

The Precious Value of Marriage and of the Family

 

3. Illuminated by the faith that gives her an understanding of all the truth concerning the great value of marriage and the family and their deepest meaning, the Church once again feels the pressing need to proclaim the Gospel, that is the "good news," to all people without exception, in particular to all those who are called to marriage and are preparing for it, to all married couples and parents in the world.

3. Ecclesia, fide illuminata, ex qua totam veritatem de pretioso bono matrimonii et familiae et altissimas eorum significationes cognoscit, iterum urgeri se sentit ut Evangelium, id est « bonum nuntium », omnibus sine ullo discrimine deferat, praesertim vero cunctis, qui ad matrimonium vocati sunt ad idque se componunt, necnon universis coniugibus ac parentibus, qui sunt per orbem terrarum.

The Church is deeply convinced that only by the acceptance of the Gospel are the hopes that man legitimately places in marriage and in the family capable of being fulfilled.

Ecclesiae eidem penitus persuasum est solum acceptione Evangelii omnem spem plane impleri, quam homo merito in matrimonio et familia collocat.

Willed by God in the very act of creation,[3] marriage and the family are interiorly ordained to fulfillment in Christ[4] and have need of His graces in order to be healed from the wounds of sin[5] and restored to their "beginning,"[6] that is, to full understanding and the full realization of God's plan.

Matrimonium et familia, a Deo in ipsa creatione instituta (3), intrinsecus eo spectant ut in Christo compleantur (4), eiusque indigent gratia ut a vulneribus peccati (5) sanentur atque ad suum « initium » (6) revocentur, id est ad plenam cognitionem et ad integram effectionem consilii divini.

At a moment of history in which the family is the object of numerous forces that seek to destroy it or in some way to deform it, and aware that the well-being of society and her own good are intimately tied to the good of the family,[7] the Church perceives in a more urgent and compelling way her mission of proclaiming to all people the plan of God for marriage and the family, ensuring their full vitality and human and Christian development, and thus contributing to the renewal of society and of the People of God.

Hoc tempore historiae, quo familia multis impetitur viribus, eam delere aut saltem deformare nitentibus, Ecclesia, probe conscia salutem societatis suamque ipsius arcte cum fausta condicione familiae conecti (7), modo vehementiore et urgentiore munus suum percipit omnibus consilium Dei de matrimonio ac familia declarandi, cuius plenum vigorem et promotionem humanam et christianam in tuto collocet ac sic confer at ad renovationem societatis ipsiusque Populi Dei.

PART ONE: LIGHT and SHADOW (4-10)  

 

 

 

 

PART ONE
BRIGHT SPOTS and SHADOWS for the FAMILY TODAY

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

The Need To Understand the Situation

 

4. Since God's plan for marriage and the family touches men and women in the concreteness of their daily existence in specific social and cultural situations, the Church ought to apply herself to understanding the situations within which marriage and the family are lived today, in order to fulfill her task of serving.[8]

4. Quoniam consilium Dei de matrimonio et familia virum et mulierem respicit in ipso cotidianae vitae usu constitutos ac quidem in certis ac definitis condicionibus socialibus et culturalibus, Ecclesia ut ministerium suum adimpleat, studeat oportet cognoscere adiuncta, in quibus matrimonium et familia temporibus nostris efficiuntur (8).

This understanding is, therefore, an inescapable requirement of the work of evangelization. It is, in fact, to the families of our times that the Church must bring the unchangeable and ever new Gospel of Jesus Christ, just as it is the families involved in the present conditions of the world that are called to accept and to live the plan of God that pertains to them. Moreover, the call and demands of the Spirit resound in the very events of history, and so the Church can also be guided to a more profound understanding of the inexhaustible mystery of marriage and the family by the circumstances, the questions and the anxieties and hopes of the young people, married couples and parents of today.[9]

Haec igitur cognitio opere Evangelii nuntiandi modo pernecessario postulatur. Re quid em vera Ecclesia ad ipsas familias huius aetatis Evangelium Iesu Christi, immutabile semper autem novum, debet perferre, ad familias dicimus, quae, in condicionibus mundi huius temporis versantes, vocantur ad accipiendum consilium Dei de se ipsis et ad vitam secundum id ducendam. Quin immo postulationes impulsionesque Spiritus in eventibus historiae animadvertuntur; quapropter Ecclesia altius perspicere valet inexhaustum mysterium matrimonii ac familiae ex ipsis etiam rerum condicionibus, postulationibus, anxietatibus et exspectationibus iuvenum, coniugum, parentum, qui hac sunt aetate (9).

To this ought to be added a further reflection of particular importance at the present time. Not infrequently ideas and solutions which are very appealing but which obscure in varying degrees the truth and the dignity of the human person, are offered to the men and women of today, in their sincere and deep search for a response to the important daily problems that affect their married and family life. These views are often supported by the powerful and pervasive organization of the means of social communication, which subtly endanger freedom and the capacity for objective judgment.

Aliud praeterea est addendum, in quod mens ulterius intendatur; quod peculiaris momenti est nostris temporibus. Haud raro enim viro et mulieri hodie vitam agentibus, qui ad graves quaestiones vitae coniugalis et familiaris suae animo sincero et studiose indagante responsa exquirunt, imagines et propositiones, etiam allicientes, exhibentur, quae tamen varia quid em ratione veritatem et dignitatem personae laedunt humanae. Haec proponuntur saepe ope valentis et longe lateque manantis instituti instrumentorum communicationis socialis, quae libertatem et habilitatem obiective iudicandi callide in periculum adducunt.

Many are already aware of this danger to the human person and are working for the truth. The Church, with her evangelical discernment, joins with them, offering her own service to the truth, to freedom and to the dignity of every man and every woman.

Cuius quidem periculi, in quo persona versatur, iam multi sunt conscii atque ad veritatem provehendam incumbunt. Quibus Ecclesia, evangelica diiudicandi facultate praedita, sociatur, ministerium suum pollicens, quo veritati, libertati et dignitatiuniuscuiusque viri et mulieris deservit.

Evangelical Discernment

 

5. The discernment effected by the Church becomes the offering of an orientation in order that the entire truth and the full dignity of marriage and the family may be preserved and realized.

5. Hoc rectum iudicium ab Ecclesia factum evadit directio, quae proponiiur, ad servandam et efficiendam totam veritatem ac plenam dignitatem matrimonii et familiae.

This discernment is accomplished through the sense of faith,[10] which is a gift that the Spirit gives to all the faithful,[11] and is therefore the work of the whole Church according to the diversity of the various gifts and charisms that, together with and according to the responsibility proper to each one, work together for a more profound understanding and activation of the word of God The Church, therefore, does not accomplish this discernment only through the Pastors, who teach in the name and with the power of Christ but also through the laity: Christ "made them His witnesses and gave them understanding of the faith and the grace of speech (cf. Acts 2:17-18; Rv. 19:10), so that the power of the Gospel might shine forth in their daily social and family life."[12] The laity, moreover, by reason of their particular vocation have the specific role of interpreting the history of the world in the light of Christ, in as much as they are called to illuminate and organize temporal realities according to the plan of God, Creator and Redeemer.

Idem iudicium fit sensu fidei (10), qui est donum a Spiritu omnibus fidelibus imperiiium (11), estque igitur opus totius Ecclesiae secundum varietatem multiplicium donorum et charismaium, quae, una cum cuiusque munere et officio et secundmn ea, ad altiorem intellectum et effectionem verbi Dei cooperantur. Ecclesia ergo proprium iudicium evangelicum non solum per Pastores facit, qui nomine et potestate Christi docent, sed etiam per laicos: « quos (Christns) ideo et testes constituit et sensu fidei et gratia verbi instruit (cfr. Act 2, 17-18; Apoc 19, 10), ut virtus Evangelii in vita quotidiana, familiari et sociali eluceat » (12). Quin etiam laici propter peculiarem suam vocationem singulari obstringuntur munere interpretandi, luce Christi affulgente, huius mundi historiam, quatenns vocantur ad illnminanda et onlinanda secundum consilium Dei Creatoris et Redemptoris ea quae sunt temporalia.

The "supernatural sense of faith"[13] however does not consist solely or necessarily in the consensus of the faithful. Following Christ, the Church seeks the truth, which is not always the same as the majority opinion. She listens to conscience and not to power, and in this way she defends the poor and the downtrodden. The Church values sociological and statistical research, when it proves helpful in understanding the historical context in which pastoral action has to be developed and when it leads to a better understanding of the truth. Such research alone, however, is not to be considered in itself an expression of the sense of faith.

Verumtamen « supernaturalis sensus fidei » (13) non solum nec necessario in consensione fidelium est positus. Ecclesia enim Christum sequendo veritatem exquirit, quae non semper cum opinione maioris hominum congruit partis. Ea conscientiae praebet aures, non potestatibus, et hac in re pauperes et despectos defenclit. Ecclesia potest quidem magni aestimare investigationes sociologicas et rationalis doctrinae proprias, si utiles sunt ad perspiciendas historicas rerum temporumque condiciones, in quibus actio pastoralis debet impleri, et ut veritatem melius cognoscat; tales vero investigationes solae non haberi possunt ilico significationes sensus fidei nuntiae.

Because it is the task of the apostolic ministry to ensure that the Church remains in the truth of Christ and to lead her ever more deeply into that truth, the Pastors must promote the sense of the faith in all the faithful, examine and authoritatively judge the genuineness of its expressions, and educate the faithful in an ever more mature evangelical discernment.[14]

Quoniam munus est ministerii apostolici curare ut Ecclesia in veritate Christi persistat et ut in eam usque altius penetret, Pastores sensum fidei in cunctis fidelibus debent promovere, cum auctoritate expendere et iudicare germanam indolem modorum, quibus ille exprimitur, credentes ad maturiorem usque intellectum veritatis evangelicae adducere (14).

Christian spouses and parents can and should offer their unique and irreplaceable contribution to the elaboration of an authentic evangelical discernment in the various situations and cultures in which men and women live their marriage and their family life. They are qualified for this role by their charism or specific gift, the gift of the sacrament of matrimony.[15]

Coniuges vero ac parentes christi ani queunt ac debent ipsi operam, pro qua nihil substitui potest, conferre ut germanum eiusmodi iudicium evangelicum fiat in variis condicionibus et cultus humani formis, in quibus vir et mulier vitam coniugalem et familiarem degunt. Ad hoc officium implendum eos habiles reddit ipsorum charisma seu donum proprium, id est donum sacramenti matrimonii (15).

The Situation of the Family in the World Today

 

6. The situation in which the family finds itself presents positive and negative aspects: the first are a sign of the salvation of Christ operating in the world; the second, a sign of the refusal that man gives to the love of God.

6. Condicio, in qua familia versatur, prae se fert facies positivas et negativas: quarum alterae signum sunt salutis Christi, qui in mundo operatur; alterae signum recusationis hominis, qui amori Dei obnititur.

On the one hand, in fact, there is a more lively awareness of personal freedom and greater attention to the quality of interpersonal relationships in marriage, to promoting the dignity of women, to responsible procreation, to the education of children. There is also an awareness of the need for the development of interfamily relationships, for reciprocal spiritual and material assistance, the rediscovery of the ecclesial mission proper to the family and its responsibility for the building of a more just society. On the other hand, however, signs are not lacking of a disturbing degradation of some fundamental values: a mistaken theoretical and practical concept of the independence of the spouses in relation to each other; serious misconceptions regarding the relationship of authority between parents and children; the concrete difficulties that the family itself experiences in the transmission of values; the growing number of divorces; the scourge of abortion; the ever more frequent recourse to sterilization; the appearance of a truly contraceptive mentality.

Ex una enim parte conscientia habetur aerior libertatis personae et animus attentior ad qualitatem rationum in matrimonio inter personas intercedentium, ad promotionem dignitatis mulieris, ad procreationem responsabilem, ad educationem liberorum; est praeterea conscientia necessitatis eo pertinentis ut rationes inter familias foveantur ad mutuum praebendum auxilium spirit ale et materiale, detegitur rursus ecclesialis missio familiae propria necnon officium societatem iustiorem efficiendi. Ex altera tamen parte non desunt indicia deformationis quorundam bonorum fundamentalium, quae anxietatis est causa: agitur enim de errata notione theoretica et practica, ex qua uterque coniux est suae prorsus potestatis; de gravi ambiguitate quoad rationes auctoritatis inter parentes et filios; de difficultatibus, in re positis, quas familia saepe experitur in bonis animi transmittendis; de augescente numero divortiorum; de malo abortus; de usu in dies crebriore sterilizationis, quae dicitur; de inducto, qui vere proprieque dicitur, mentis habitu conceptioni adversante.

At the root of these negative phenomena there frequently lies a corruption of the idea and the experience of freedom, conceived not as a capacity for realizing the truth of God's plan for marriage and the family, but as an autonomous power of self-affirmation, often against others, for one's own selfish well-being.

Horum malorum fons est saepe corrupta notio et experientia libertatis, quae habetur non capacitas efficiendi veritatem consilii Dei de matrimonio et familia, sed vis quaedam nulli obnoxia valendi haud raro contra alios ad propria commoda, sui amoris causa, tuenda.

Worthy of our attention also is the fact that, in the countries of the so-called Third World, families often lack both the means necessary for survival, such as food, work, housing and medicine, and the most elementary freedoms. In the richer countries, on the contrary, excessive prosperity and the consumer mentality, paradoxically joined to a certain anguish and uncertainty about the future, deprive married couples of the generosity and courage needed for raising up new human life: thus life is often perceived not as a blessing, but as a danger from which to defend oneself.

Est etiam prae nobis ferenelum in regionibus Tertii, qui dicitur, Mundi familiis saepe deesse sive primaria subsidia ad superstitem vitam degendam, veluti cibum, opus, habitationem, medicinas, sive potissimas formas libertatis. In regionibus autem lucupletioribus nimia prosperitas et mentis habitus in consumenda bona proclivis, coniunctus — quod mirum est — cum anxietate quadam et incertitudine quod ad futurum atiinet tempus, coniugibus magnanimitatem et fidentiam auferunt novas vitas human as procreandi: quo fit ut vita saepe aestimetur non benedictio sed periculum avertendum.

The historical situation in which the family lives therefore appears as an interplay of light and darkness.

Historica ergo condicio, in qua familia elegit, eiusmodi est ut lux ac tenebrae inter se commisceantur.

This shows that history is not simply a fixed progression towards what is better, but rather an event of freedom, and even a struggle between freedoms that are in mutual conflict, that is, according to the well-known expression of St. Augustine, a conflict between two loves: the love of God to the point of disregarding self, and the love of self to the point of disregarding God.[16]

Hoc ipsum ostendit historiam non esse simpliciter progressionem necessariam ad meliora, sed eventum libertatis, quin immo luctationem inter libertates, quae inter se opponantur, id est, secundum notam sancti Augustini sententiam, conflictationem inter duos amores: amorem videlicet Dei, qui usque ad contemptum sui pervenit, et amorem sui ipsius, qui ad contemptum Dei progreditur (16).

It follows that only an education for love rooted in faith can lead to the capacity of interpreting "the signs of the times," which are the historical expression of this twofold love.

Inde consequitur ut solum institutio ad amorem, in fide innixa, efficere possit ut capacitas interpretandi « signa temporum » obtineatur, quae sunt significationes historicae utriusque amons.

The Influence of Circumstances on the Consciences of the Faithful

 

7. Living in such a world, under the pressures coming above all from the mass media, the faithful do not always remain immune from the obscuring of certain fundamental values, nor set themselves up as the critical conscience of family culture and as active agents in the building of an authentic family humanism.

7. Christifideles, in eiusmodi mundo vitam agentes, et sollicitationibus obnoxii, potissimum per instrumenta communicationis socialis illatis, non semper intacti manserunt nec manent ab obscuratione bonorum primariorum neque conscientia critica expendere valuerunt nec valent animorum culturam familiarem neque quasi subieeta, quae german am humanitatis familiaris ra tionem com parent, ipsi efficere.

Among the more troubling signs of this phenomenon, the Synod Fathers stressed the following, in particular: the spread of divorce and of recourse to a new union, even on the part of the faithful; the acceptance of purely civil marriage in contradiction to the vocation of the baptized to "be married in the Lord", the celebration of the marriage sacrament without living faith, but for other motives; the rejection of the moral norms that guide and promote the human and Christian exercise of sexuality in marriage.

Inter indicia huius rei maxim am sollicitudinem ingerentia Synodi Patres in lumine posuerunt: praesertim increbrenscentem propagationem divortii et novam societatem vitae ab ipsis fidelibus initam; matrimonium mere civile acceptum, quod vocationi baptizatorum adversatur, eo pertinenti ut « nuptias in Domino ineant »; celebrationem matrimonii sacramentalis sine fide viva sed aliis causis moventibus; recusationem normarum moralium, quae sexualitatis exercitationem humanam et christianam in matrimonio regunt.

Our Age Needs Wisdom

 

8. The whole Church is obliged to a deep reflection and commitment, so that the new culture now emerging may be evangelized in depth, true values acknowledged, the rights of men and women defended, and justice promoted in the very structures of society. In this way the "new humanism" will not distract people from their relationship with God, but will lead them to it more fully.

8. Haque universae Ecclesiae munus imponitur quam diligentissime res ponderandi et officia circa eas suscipiendi, ut nova animorum cultura exsurgens penitus evangelizetur, ut veri nominis bona praestantia agnoscantur, ut iura viri et mulieris in tuto collocentur, ut iustitia in ipsis societatis structuris promoveatur. Hoc modo « nova humanitatis ratio » homines non amovebit a necessitudine cum Deo, sed eos plenius eodem conducet.

Science and its technical applications offer new and immense possibilities in the construction of such a humanism. Still, as a consequence of political choices that decide the direction of research and its applications, science is often used against its original purpose, which is the advancement of the human person.

In huiusmodi humanitatis ratione efficienda scientia eiusque applicationes technicae novas immensasque exhibent facultates. Verumtamen scientia saepe contra significationem suam primigeniam, id est contra promotionem personae humanae, saepe usurpatur propter assumptas in re politica partes, quibus eadem scientia quoad investigationem et applicationes modo decretorio dirigitur.

It becomes necessary, therefore, on the part of all, to recover an awareness of the primacy of moral values, which are the values of the human person as such. The great task that has to be faced today for the renewal of society is that of recapturing the ultimate meaning of life and its fundamental values. Only an awareness of the primacy of these values enables man to use the immense possibilities given him by science in such a way as to bring about the true advancement of the human person in his or her whole truth, in his or her freedom and dignity. Science is called to ally itself with wisdom.

Oportet ergo omnes iterum conscii fiant primatus bonorum moralium, quippe quae sint praestantia bona personae humanae ut talis. Magnum officium, quo aetate nostra opus est ad societatem hominum renovandam, eo pertinet ut significatio ultima vitae eiusque bonorum primariorum mente denuo comprehendatur. Solum si conscientia primatus huiusmodi bonorum viget, fit ut usus immensarum facultatum, quae a scientia fluentia praesto sunt homini, reapse ad promotionem, tamquam ad finem, personae humanae in tota eius veritate, in eius libertate ac dignitate adducatur. Opus autem est ut scientia societur sapientiae.

The following words of the Second Vatican Council can therefore be applied to the problems of the family: "Our era needs such wisdom more than bygone ages if the discoveries made by man are to be further humanized. For the future of the world stands in peril unless wiser people are forthcoming.[17]

Haec igitur verba Concilii Vaticani Secundi etiam ad quaestiones de familia possunt adhiberi: « Aetas ... nostra, magis quam saecula anteacta, tali sapientia indiget ut humaniora fiant quaecumque nova ab homine deteguntur. Periclitatur enim sors futura mundi nisi sapientiores suscitentur homines » (17).

The education of the moral conscience, which makes every human being capable of judging and of discerning the proper ways to achieve self-realization according to his or her original truth, thus becomes a pressing requirement that cannot be renounced.

Formatio igitur conscientiae moralis, qua omnis homo capax reddatur ad modos consentaneos dispiciendos ut secundum veritatem suam primigeniam is evadat qualis sit oporteat, postulatum efficitur praecipuum, quod dimitti non licet.

Modern culture must be led to a more profoundly restored covenant with divine Wisdom. Every man is given a share of such Wisdom through the creating action of God. And it is only in faithfulness to this covenant that the families of today will be in a position to influence positively the building of a more just and fraternal world.

Ipsa societas cum Sapientia divina in cultu humano temporum nostrorum est impensius restituenda. Cuius quidem Sapientiae homo particeps fit per Dei actionem creatricem. Atque tantum fidelitate erga hanc societatem familiae, quae nunc sunt, fructuose vim exercere poterunt ad mundum iustiorem magisque fraternum aedificandum.

Gradualness and Conversion

 

9. To the injustice originating from sin-which has profoundly penetrated the structures of today's world-and often hindering the family's full realization of itself and of its fundamental rights, we must all set ourselves in opposition through a conversion of mind and heart, following Christ Crucified by denying our own selfishness: such a conversion cannot fail to have a beneficial and renewing influence even on the structures of society.

9. Iniustitiae proficiscenti ex peccato, quod etiam in mundi hodierni compagem alte invasit quodque familiam saepius impedit ne in se ipsa suisque iuribus primariis plene perficiatur, omnes resistere mentis animique conversione debemus, Christum crucifixum in amoris proprii negatione sectantes: huiusmodi vero conversio non poterit quin beneficam ac renovantem vim societatis quoque afferat structuris.

What is needed is a continuous, permanent conversion which, while requiring an interior detachment from every evil and an adherence to good in its fullness, is brought about concretely in steps which lead us ever forward.

Postulatur quidem continua ac perennis conversio, quae, tametsi flagitat ut homo intus divellatur ab omni malo addicaturque bono secundum eius plenitudinem, tamen reapse efficitur, quibusdam quasi graclibus, qui ulterius semper perducunt.

Thus a dynamic process develops, one which advances gradually with the progressive integration of the gifts of God and the demands of His definitive and absolute love in the entire personal and social life of man. Therefore an educational growth process is necessary, in order that individual believers, families and peoples, even civilization itself, by beginning from what they have already received of the mystery of Christ, may patiently be led forward, arriving at a richer understanding and a fuller integration of this mystery in their lives.

Ita sane processus fit dynamicus, qui pedetemptim protenditur dona Dei necnon postulata eius amoris supremi et absoluti in totam vitam personalem et socialem hominis progressione quadam inserendo. Hac de causa via paedagogica est necessaria ducens ad incrementum, ut singuli fideles et familiae et populi, quin immo ipse cultus humanus, ab iis quae de Christi mysterio iam acceperint, profecti, ad alia patienter ferantur et uberiorem cognitionem plenioremque exsecutionem consequantur huiusce mysterii vitae suae adiunctam.

Inculturation  
10. In conformity with her constant tradition, the Church receives from the various cultures everything that is able to express better the unsearchable riches of Christ.[18] Only with the help of all the cultures will it be possible for these riches to be manifested ever more clearly, and for the Church to progress towards a daily more complete and profound awareness of the truth, which has already been given to her in its entirety by the Lord.

10. Congruit enim constanti Ecclesiae traditioni ut ex populorum cultus hum ani formis ea omnia, quae investigabiles Christi divitias melius significare possint, recipiantur (18). Solum adiuvantibus cunctis cultus humani rationibus, tales divitiae clarius usque elucere poterunt atque Ecclesia ipsa cotidie progredi valebit ad altiorem et perfectiorem veritatis cognitionem, quae ei iam a Domino eius tota est tradita.

Holding fast to the two principles of the compatibility with the Gospel of the various cultures to be taken up, and of communion with the universal Church, there must be further study, particularly by the Episcopal Conferences and the appropriate departments of the Roman Curia, and greater pastoral diligence so that this "inculturation" of the Christian faith may come about ever more extensively, in the context of marriage and the family as well as in other fields.

Duplici defixo principio convenientiae variarum animi culturae formarum cum Evangelio assumptarum et communionis cum Ecclesia universa, procedere in studiis oportebit maxime Conferentias episcopales et Curiae Romanae Dicasteria, ad quae res pertinet, procedere etiam in pastorali industria ut haec fidei christianae quasi cultus hum ani inductio amplius usque eveniat, etiam in ipsa matrimonii familiaeque provincia.

 

It is by means of "inculturation" that one proceeds towards the full restoration of the covenant with the Wisdom of God, which is Christ Himself. The whole Church will be enriched also by the cultures which, though lacking technology, abound in human wisdom and are enlivened by profound moral values.

Per eandem cultus hum ani inductionem progressus fit plenam ad redintegration em foederis cum Dei Sapientia, quae Christus est ipse. Etenim illis etiam animi culturae formis locupletabitur omnis Ecclesia, quae, licet technologia careant, humana tamen sapientia abundant praestantibusque bonis moralibus vivificantur.

 

So that the goal of this journey might be clear and consequently the way plainly indicated, the Synod was right to begin by considering in depth the original design of God for marriage and the family: it "went back to the beginning,+" in deference to the teaching of Christ.[19]

Ut autem itineris illius meta patesceret ac proinde via eo ferens tuto commonstraretur, Synodus merito imprimis funditus ponderavit pristinum Dei consilium super matrimonio et familia: « redeundum videlicet est ad principium » secundum Christi praeceptionem (19).

PART TWO THE PLAN OF GOD (11-16)  

 

 

 

 

PART TWO
THE PLAN of GOD for MARRIAGE and the FAMILY

II

 

 

 

 

 

 

Man, the Image of the God Who Is Love

 

11. God created man in His own image and likeness[20]: calling him to existence through love, He called him at the same time for love.

11. Hominem Deus ad suam condidit imaginem et similitudinem (20): in vitam excitans eum ex amore simul destinavit illum ad amorem.

God is love[21] and in Himself He lives a mystery of personal loving communion. Creating the human race in His own image and continually keeping it in being, God inscribed in the humanity of man and woman the vocation, and thus the capacity and responsibility, of love and communion.[22] Love is therefore the fundamental and innate vocation of every human being.

Deus est amor (21) in seque vivit ipse ex mysterio personalis amoris communionis. Ad suam imaginem creans ac perpetuo in vita conservans humanam naturam viri ac mulieris, Deus indidit ei vocationem ac propterea potestatem et officium, cum conscientia coniunctum, amoris atque communionis (22). Quocirca amor est princeps et naturalis cuiusque hominis vocatio.

As an incarnate spirit, that is a soul which expresses itself in a body and a body informed by an immortal spirit, man is called to love in his unified totality. Love includes the human body, and the body is made a sharer in spiritual love.

Uti spiritus incarnatus, anima nempe, quae in corpore manifestatur, et corpus immortali spiritu informatum, homo ad amandum vocatur in hac una sui summa. Corpus etiam humanum amplectitur amor redditurque id particeps spiritalis amoris.

Christian revelation recognizes two specific ways of realizing the vocation of the human person in its entirety, to love: marriage and virginity or celibacy. Either one is, in its own proper form, an actuation of the most profound truth of man, of his being "created in the image of God."

Cognoscit revelatio christiana proprios modos duos implendi hanc ad amorem vocationem personae humanae omnibus ex eius partibus: matrimonium ac virginitatem. Utrumque sub forma propria est solida quaedam declaratio veritatis altissimae de homine, veritatis scilicet, ex qua « est ad Dei imaginem ».

Consequently, sexuality, by means of which man and woman give themselves to one another through the acts which are proper and exclusive to spouses, is by no means something purely biological, but concerns the innermost being of the human person as such. It is realized in a truly human way only if it is an integral part of the love by which a man and a woman commit themselves totally to one another until death.

Sexualitas ideo, per quam vir ac femina se dedunt vicissim actibus coniugum propriis sibi ac peculiaribus, mini me quiddam est dumtaxat biologicum, sed tangit personae humanae uttalis veluti nucleum intimum. Sexuali tas modo vere humana expletur tantummodo, si est pars complens amoris, quo vir et femina sese totos mutuo usque ad mortem obstringunt.

The total physical self-giving would be a lie if it were not the sign and fruit of a total personal self-giving, in which the whole person, including the temporal dimension, is present: if the person were to withhold something or reserve the possibility of deciding otherwise in the future, by this very fact he or she would not be giving totally.

Tota physica corporum donatio mendacium esset, nisi signum fructusque esset totius donationis personalis, in qua universa persona, etiam secundum temporalem rationem, praesens adest: si enim aliquid homo sibi retineret vel facultatem aliud postea statuendi, iam idcirco se non totum donaret.

This totality which is required by conjugal love also corresponds to the demands of responsible fertility. This fertility is directed to the generation of a human being, and so by its nature it surpasses the purely biological order and involves a whole series of personal values. For the harmonious growth of these values a persevering and unified contribution by both parents is necessary.

Haec universalitas amore coniugali postulata convenit etiam consciae fecunditatis postulationibus, quae, cum ad hominem generandum dirigatur, superat natura sua ordinem simpliciter biologicum ac complectitur bonorum personalium summam, quae ut convenienter crescat, necessariae sunt continuae concordesque amborum coniugum partes.

The only "place" in which this self-giving in its whole truth is made possible is marriage, the covenant of conjugal love freely and consciously chosen, whereby man and woman accept the intimate community of life and love willed by God Himself[23] which only in this light manifests its true meaning. The institution of marriage is not an undue interference by society or authority, nor the extrinsic imposition of a form. Rather it is an interior requirement of the covenant of conjugal love which is publicly affirmed as unique and exclusive, in order to live in complete fidelity to the plan of God, the Creator. A person's freedom, far from being restricted by this fidelity, is secured against every form of subjectivism or relativism and is made a sharer in creative Wisdom.

Cnicus autem « locus», ubi haec donatio accidere potest ex omni sua veritate, matrimonium est sive amoris coniugalis foedus vel conscia ac lib era electio, qua vir ac mulier in se recipiunt vitae amorisque communitatem intimam, a Deo ipso raestitutam (23), quae hac tantum ratione germanam suam ostendit significationem. Coniugale institutum non est illegitimus quidam interventus societatis vel auctoritatis neque exterior formae impositio, verum interior necessitas ipsius foederis amoris coniugalis, qui palam affirmatur tamquam unicus et peculiaris omnino ut ex fidelitate erga Dei conditoris consilium vivatur. Haec fidelitas tantum abest ut personae libertatem restinguat ut tuto eam clefendat ab omni subiectiva et relativa ratione eamque Sapientiae creatricls reddat participem.

Marriage and Communion Between God and People  
12. The communion of love between God and people, a fundamental part of the Revelation and faith experience of Israel, finds a meaningful expression in the marriage covenant which is established between a man and a woman.

12. Amoris inter Deum homines que communio, qui principaliter invenitur in Revelatione atque fidei Israelis experientia, significantius exprimitur coniugali pacto, quod inter virum initur ac feminam.

For this reason the central word of Revelation, "God loves His people," is likewise proclaimed through the living and concrete word whereby a man and a woman express their conjugal love. Their bond of love becomes the image and the symbol of the covenant which unites God and His people.[24] And the same sin which can harm the conjugal covenant becomes an image of the infidelity of the people to their God: idolatry is prostitution,[25] infidelity is adultery, disobedience to the law is abandonment of the spousal love of the Lord. But the infidelity of Israel does not destroy the eternal fidelity of the Lord, and therefore the ever faithful love of God is put forward as the model of the of faithful love which should exist between spouses.[26]

Quapropter primarium Revelationis verbum « Deus suum populum amat » enuntiatur etiam verbis vivis et concretis, quibus vir et mulier inter se coniugalem permutant amorem. Vinculum eorum amoris imago fit et signum foederis, quod Deum eiusque populum coniungit (24). Ipsum, contra, peccatum, quod coniuga]e potest laedere pactum, imago fit populi infidelitatis erga Deum eius: idolorum cultus meretricium est (25), sicut infidelitas est adulterium, inoboedientia legis est destitutio sponsalis Domini amoris. At Israelis infidelitas haud delet aeternam Domini fidelitatem ideoque fidelis semper Dei amor proponitur ut exemplum necessitudinum fidi amoris, quae inter coniuges intercedere debent (26).

Jesus Christ, Bridegroom of the Church, and the Sacrament of Matrimony  
13. The communion between God and His people finds its definitive fulfillment in Jesus Christ, the Bridegroom who loves and gives Himself as the Savior of humanity, uniting it to Himself as His body.

13. Dei hominumque communio perficitur postremum in Christo Iesu, Sponso, qui amat seque donat ut humani generis Salvatorem, cum illud corpori suo adnectit.

He reveals the original truth of marriage, the truth of the "beginning,"[27] and, freeing man from his hardness of heart, He makes man capable of realizing this truth in its entirety.

Primigenam matrimonii veritatem Ipse patefacit, veritatem « principii » (27)et hominem a cordis duritia liberando idoneum efficit ut eam veritatem integre exsequatur.

This revelation reaches its definitive fullness in the gift of love which the Word of God makes to humanity in assuming a human nature, and in the sacrifice which Jesus Christ makes of Himself on the Cross for His bride, the Church. In this sacrifice there is entirely revealed that plan which God has imprinted on the humanity of man and woman since their creation[28]; the marriage of baptized persons thus becomes a real symbol of that new and eternal covenant sanctioned in the blood of Christ. The Spirit which the Lord pours forth gives a new heart, and renders man and woman capable of loving one another as Christ has loved us. Conjugal love reaches that fullness to which it is interiorly ordained, conjugal charity, which is the proper and specific way in which the spouses participate in and are called to live the very charity of Christ who gave Himself on the Cross.

Revelatio haec ad ultimam suam adducitur plenitudinem tum in amoris dona, quod hominibus defert Verbum Dei sumpta natura humana, tum in sacrificio sui ipsius, quod Iesus Christus in Cruce pro Sponsa sua Ecclesia offert. Eo in sacrificio plane reseratur consilium illud, quod Deus humana impressit in viri ac mulieris natura iam incle ab eorum creatione (28);  baptizatorum itaque matrimonium efficitur solidum signum novi aeternique Foederis, Christi sanguine firmati. Spiritus autem, quem Dominus effundit, cor novum largitur aptosque facit virum ac mulierem ad se amandos, quemadmodum nos Christus amavit. Coniugalis amor illam attingit plenitudinem, ad quam intrinsecus ordinatur, caritatem scilicet coniugalem, qui peculiaris propriusque est modus, quo coniuges participant ipsam Christi caritatem, qui se clonat in Cruce, et vocantur ut vivant ex ea.

In a deservedly famous page, Tertullian has well expressed the greatness of this conjugal life in Christ and its beauty: "How can I ever express the happiness of the marriage that is joined together by the Church strengthened by an offering, sealed by a blessing, announced by angels and ratified by the Father? ...How wonderful the bond between two believers with a single hope, a single desire, a single observance, a single service! They are both brethren and both fellow-servants; there is no separation between them in spirit or flesh; in fact they are truly two in one flesh and where the flesh is one, one is the spirit."[29]

Verbis merito celebribus Tertullianus luculenter testatus est huius vitae coniugalis in Christo excelsitatem eiusque venustatem: « Un de sufficiamus ad enarrandum felicitatem eius matrimonii, quod Ecclesia conciliat, et confirmat oblatio, et obsignat benedictio, angeli renuntiant, Pater rato habet? ... Quale iugum fidelium duorum unius spei, unius disciplinae, eiusdem servitutis! ambo fratres, ambo conservi, nulla spiritus carnisve discretio. At quin vere duo in carne una; ubi caro una, unus et spiritus » (29).

Receiving and meditating faithfully on the word of God, the Church has solemnly taught and continues to teach that the marriage of the baptized is one of the seven sacraments of the New Covenant.[30]

Ecclesia verbum Dei amplexata fideliterque meditata docuit sollemni modo et docet baptizatorum matrimonium unum esse septem sacramentorum Novi Testamenti (30).

Indeed, by means of baptism, man and woman are definitively placed within the new and eternal covenant, in the spousal covenant of Christ with the Church. And it is because of this indestructible insertion that the intimate community of conjugal life and love, founded by the Creator,[31] is elevated and assumed into the spousal charity of Christ, sustained and enriched by His redeeming power.

Nam per baptismum vir et femina semel et in perpetuum inseruntur in Novum Aeternumque Foedus, in sponsale Foedus Christi cum Ecclesia; et ob hanc indelebilem insertionem extollitur intima vitae amorisque coniugalis communitas condita a Creatore (31) assumiturque in sponsalem Christi caritatem, firmatam ac ditatam redemptrice Ipsius virtute.

By virtue of the sacramentality of their marriage, spouses are bound to one another in the most profoundly indissoluble manner. Their belonging to each other is the real representation, by means of the sacramental sign, of the very relationship of Christ with the Church.

Propter sacramental em matrimonii sui indolem coniuges inter se vinciuntur maxime indissolubili ratione. Quoniam mutuo ad se pertinent, iam revera per signum sacramentale commonstrant ipsam Christi coniunctionem cum Ecclesia.

Spouses are therefore the permanent reminder to the Church of what happened on the Cross; they are for one another and for the children witnesses to the salvation in which the sacrament makes them sharers. Of this salvation event marriage, like every sacrament, is a memorial, actuation and prophecy: "As a memorial, the sacrament gives them the grace and duty of commemorating the great works of God and of bearing witness to them before their children. As actuation, it gives them the grace and duty of putting into practice in the present, towards each other and their children, the demands of a love which forgives and redeems. As prophecy, it gives them the grace and duty of living and bearing witness to the hope of the future encounter with Christ."[32]

Coniuges igitur sunt pro Ecclesia recordatio perpetua illius rei, quae in Cruce evenit; sibi vicissim et filiis sunt testes salutis, cuius eos efficit consortes sacramentum. Illius salutiferi eventus matrimonium, sicut quodvis sacramentum, est memoriale et exsecutio et vaticinium: « hoc in memoriali sacramentum illis gratiam tribuit et officium memoriae agendae magnorum Dei operum ac de illis testimonii reddendi coram filiis; uti salutis exsecutio tribuit iis gratiam et officium implendi iam nunc inter se et erga filios postulata amoris ignoscentis redimentisque; uti vaticinium gratiam tribuit iis et officium vivendi e spe futurae congressionis cum Christo eamque testandi » (32).

Like each of the seven sacraments, so also marriage is a real symbol of the event of salvation, but in its own way. "The spouses participate in it as spouses, together, as a couple, so that the first and immediate effect of marriage (res et sacramentum) is not supernatural grace itself, but the Christian conjugal bond, a typically Christian communion of two persons because it represents the mystery of Christ's incarnation and the mystery of His covenant. The content of participation in Christ's life is also specific: conjugal love involves a totality, in which all the elements of the person enter- appeal of the body and instinct, power of feeling and affectivity, aspiration of the spirit and of will. It aims at a deeply personal unity, the unity that, beyond union in one flesh, leads to forming one heart and soul; it demands indissolubility and faithfulness in definitive mutual giving; and it is open to fertility (cf Humanae vitae, 9). In a word it is a question of the normal characteristics of all natural conjugal love, but with a new significance which not only purifies and strengthens them, but raises them to the extent of making them the expression of specifically Christian values." [33]

Quemadmodum singula septem sacramenta, matrimonium verum est signum salutis eventus, tamen proprio modo. « Coniuges id participant, quatenus sunt mariti, quatenus duo, quatenus par efficiunt, adeo ut primus proximusque matrimonii effectus (res et sacramentum) non ipsa sit gratia supernaturalis, sed coniugale vinculum christianum, communio duorum proprie christiana, quandoquidem mysterium refert Incarnationis Christi eiusque mysterium Foederis. Elementa autem participationis vitae Christi sunt etiam peculiaria: coniugalis amor secum infert universaJitatem, in quam ingrediuntur omnes partes ipsius personae — postulationes corporis et instinctus, vires sensuum et af£eetuum, desideria spiritus et voluntatis —; spectat ille ad unitatem quam maxime personalem, quae videlicet ultra communionem in una carne sola nihil aliud efficit nisi cor unum et animam unam; poscit vero indissolubilitatem ac fidelitatem extremae illius donationis mutuae et patet fecunditati (cfr. Humanae vitae, 9). Paucis verbis de communibus agitur proprietatibus naturalis cuiuslibet amoris coniugalis, atqui nova cum significatione, quae non tantum purificat eas et confirmat, sed etiam tantopere extollit ut fiant declara tio bonorum proprie chris tianorum » (33).

Children, the Precious Gift of Marriage

 

14. According to the plan of God, marriage is the foundation of the wider community of the family, since the very institution of marriage and conjugal love are ordained to the procreation and education of children, in whom they find their crowning.[34]

14. Secundum Dei propositum est matrimonium fundamentum maioris communitatis familiae, quoniam ipsum matrimonii institutum atque coniugalis amor destinantur ad prolis procreationem et educationem, in quibus consummantur (34).

In its most profound reality, love is essentially a gift; and conjugal love, while leading the spouses to the reciprocal "knowledge" which makes them "one flesh,"[35] does not end with the couple, because it makes them capable of the greatest possible gift, the gift by which they become cooperators with God for giving life to a new human person. Thus the couple, while giving themselves to one another, give not just themselves but also the reality of children, who are a living reflection of their love, a permanent sign of conjugal unity and a living and inseparable synthesis of their being a father and a mother.

In intima veritate sua est amor essentialiter donum, neque coniugalis amor, dum maritos adducit in « cognitionem », quae facit ut sint « in carnem unam » (35) expletur omnino intra ipsum par coniugum, cum eos idoneos reddat maximae, quae fieri potest, donationi, qua Dei fiunt cooperatores in tradendo vitae dona novo alicui homini. Ita profeeto coniuges, inter se dediti, ultra se donant filium ipsum, sui viventem amoris imaginem, perpetuum unitatis coniugalis signum necnon comprehensionem vivam et indissolubilem sui status, ex quo sunt pater et mater.

When they become parents, spouses receive from God the gift of a new responsibility. Their parental love is called to become for the children the visible sign of the very love of God, "from whom every family in heaven and on earth is named."[36]

Cum fiunt parentes, coniuges a Deo recipiunt novi cuiusdam officii cum conscientia coniuncti donum. Nam eorum am or parentalis oportet filiis fiat signum aspectabile ipsius Dei amoris, « ex quo omnis paternitas in caelis et in terra nominatur » (36).

It must not be forgotten however that, even when procreation is not possible, conjugal life does not for this reason lose its value. Physical sterility in fact can be for spouses the occasion for other important services to the life of the human person, for example, adoption, various forms of educational work, and assistance to other families and to poor or handicapped children.

Verumtamen haud oblivisci licet, etiam cum procreatio evenire non possit, non eam ob causam sua praestantia destitui vitam coniugalem. Corporis enim sterilitas occasio coniugibus esse potest aliorum magni momenti ministeriorum personae humanae praestandorum, cuius generis sunt adoptio variaeque rationes educandi operum, auxilia aliis familiis vel infantibus pauperibus impeditisve praebenda.

The Family, a Communion of Persons

 

15. In matrimony and in the family a complex of interpersonal relationships is set up-married life, fatherhood and motherhood, filiation and fraternity-through which each human person is introduced into the "human family" and into the "family of God," which is the Church.

15. In matrimonio ac familia quasi contextus efficitur necessitudinum inter personas — maritale commercium, paternitas et maternitas, filiatio, fraternitas — per quas omnis homo inducitur « in familiam humanam » atque in « familiam Dei », quae est Ecclesia.

Christian marriage and the Christian family build up the Church: for in the family the human person is not only brought into being and progressively introduced by means of education into the human community, but by means of the rebirth of baptism and education in the faith the child is also introduced into God's family, which is the Church.

Matrimonium et familia christiana Ecclesiam aedificant: nam in familia persona humana non modo gignitur paulatimque per institutionem ducitur in hominum communitatem, sed etiam per baptismi regenerationem et institutionem in fide introducitur in Dei quoque familiam, quae est Ecclesia.

The human family, disunited by sin, is reconstituted in its unity by the redemptive power of the death and Resurrection of Christ.[37] Christian marriage, by participating in the salvific efficacy of this event, constitutes the natural setting in which the human person is introduced into the great family of the Church.

Humana familia, peccato disiuncta in unitate sua, restauratur redimente virtute mortis resurrectionisque Christi (37). Christianum conubium, salvificae illius eventus efficaciae particeps, constituit veluti locum naturalem, ubi persona humana in magnam Ecclesiae inseritur familiam.

The commandment to grow and multiply, given to man and woman in the beginning, in this way reaches its whole truth and full realization.

Praeceptum, viro ac feminae initio datum ut crescerent et multiplicarentur, integram hoc modo consequitur veritatem suam plenamque suam exsecutionem.

The Church thus finds in the family, born from the sacrament, the cradle and the setting in which she can enter the human generations, and where these in their turn can enter the Church.

Sic in familia, e sacramento coorta, reperit Ecclesia incunabula sua locumque, ubi potest ea propriam insertionem efficere in hominum generationes et hae vicissim in Ecclesiam.

Marriage and Virginity or Celibacy

 

 

 

 Marriage and Virginity or Celibacy
     
[cf. Francis, Laet.Am. 158-162]

 

 

 

16. Virginity or celibacy for the sake of the Kingdom of God not only does not contradict the dignity of marriage but presupposes it and confirms it. Marriage and virginity or celibacy are two ways of expressing and living the one mystery of the covenant of God with His people. When marriage is not esteemed, neither can consecrated virginity or celibacy exist; when human sexuality is not regarded as a great value given by the Creator, the renunciation of it for the sake of the Kingdom of Heaven loses its meaning.

16. Virginitas et caelibatus propter Regnum Dei non solum non adversantur matrimonii dignitati, sed eam prius poscunt atque confirmant. Matrimonium ac virginitas duae rationes sunt exprimendi unicum mysterium Foederis Dei cum Populo Eius ex eoque vivendi. Quoties magni non aestimatur matrimonium, ne virginitas quidem Deo consecrata exsistere potest; quoties sexualitas humana non iudicatur bonum praestans a Creatore concessum, renuntiatio eius propter Regnum caelorum vim omnem amittit.

Rightly indeed does St. John Chrysostom say: "Whoever denigrates marriage also diminishes the glory of virginity. Whoever praises it makes virginity more admirable and resplendent. What appears good only in comparison with evil would not be particularly good. It is something better than what is admitted to be good that is the most excellent good."[38]

Aequissime quidem loquitur Sanctus Ioannes Chrysostomus: « Qui matrimonium damnat, is virginitatis etiam gloriam carpit; qui laudat, is virginitatem admirabiliorem augustioremque reddit. Nam quod deterioris comparatione bonum videtur, id haud sane admodum bonum est; quod autem omnium sententia bonis melius, id excellens bonum est » (38).

In virginity or celibacy, the human being is awaiting, also in a bodily way, the eschatological marriage of Christ with the Church, giving himself or herself completely to the Church in the hope that Christ may give Himself to the Church in the full truth of eternal life. The celibate person thus anticipates in his or her flesh the new world of the future resurrection.[39]

In ipsa virginitate homo exspectat, etiam corpore, nuptias eschatologicas Christi cum Ecclesia, dum se totum Ecclesiae tradit sperans Christum quoque se Ecclesiae daturum in plena vitae aeternae veritate. Persona virgo ita in carne sua novum resurrectionis futurae mundum antecapit (39).

By virtue of this witness, virginity or celibacy keeps alive in the Church a consciousness of the mystery of marriage and defends it from any reduction and impoverishment.

Vi huius matrimonii testificationis virginitas vivam in Ecclesia servat conscientiam mysterii matrimonii illudque tuetur adversus omnem imminutionem et extenuationem.

Virginity or celibacy, by liberating the human heart in a unique way,[40] "so as to make it burn with greater love for God and all humanity,"[41] bears witness that the Kingdom of God and His justice is that pearl of great price which is preferred to every other value no matter how great, and hence must be sought as the only definitive value. It is for this reason that the Church, throughout her history, has always defended the superiority of this charism to that of marriage, by reason of the wholly singular link which it has with the Kingdom of God.[42]

Hominis corde singulariter ita liberato (40), « ut magis accendatur caritate erga Deum et homines universos » (41), virginitas testatur Dei Regnum eiusque iustitiam esse illam magni pretii margaritam, quae omni alii anteponenda sit bono quantumvis magno quaeque immo conquirenda sit ut unicum bonum certum ac perenne. Rac de causa Ecclesia progrediente toto rerum suarum cursu semper defendit huius doni praestantiam prae gratia matrimonii, propter ipsum singulare omnino vinculum, quod habet cum Dei Regno (42).

In spite of having renounced physical fecundity, the celibate person becomes spiritually fruitful, the father and mother of many, cooperating in the realization of the family according to God's plan.

Virgo, quamvis fecunditati corporis renuntiaverit, persona spiritaliter redditur fecunda, multorum pater ac mater, et sic operam confert ad perficiendam familiam secundum Dei consilium.

Christian couples therefore have the right to expect from celibate persons a good example and a witness of fidelity to their vocation until death. Just as fidelity at times becomes difficult for married people and requires sacrifice, mortification and self-denial, the same can happen to celibate persons, and their fidelity, even in the trials that may occur, should strengthen the fidelity of married couples.[43]

Christianis itaque coniugibus ius est a personis virginibus bonum exemplum exspectandi necnon testimonium fidelitatis erga earum vocationem usque ad mortem. Quemadmodum coniugibus nonnumquam difficilis accidit fidelitas ac se devovendi studium deposcit et mortificationem et sui abnegationem, sic pariter personis virginibus potest evenire. Earum enim fidelitas, etiam in temptatione, si qua fuerit, debet illorum coniugum fidelitatem sustentare (43).

These reflections on virginity or celibacy can enlighten and help those who, for reasons independent of their own will, have been unable to marry and have then accepted their situation in a spirit of service.

Hae considerationes de virginitate illuminare valent et adiuvare eos qui ob causas a sua voluntate alienas contrahere matrimonium non potuerunt ac cleinde statum suum in serviendi spiritu acceperunt.

 

 

PART Three THE ROLE OF THE CHRISTIAN FAMILY (17-77)

 

 

 

 

 

PART THREE
THE ROLE of the CHRISTIAN FAMILY

III

 

 

 

 

 

 

Family, Become What You Are

 

17. The family finds in the plan of God the Creator and Redeemer not only its identity, what it is, but also its mission, what it can and should do. The role that God calls the family to perform in history derives from what the family is; its role represents the dynamic and existential development of what it is. Each family finds within itself a summons that cannot be ignored, and that specifies both its dignity and its responsibility: family, become what you are.

17. Secundum Dei Creatoris et Redemptoris propositum familia non solum suam agnoscit « identitatem», id videlicet quod ipsa « est », sed etiam suam « missionem », id quod ipsa valet ac debet « agere ». Munera, quae familiae ex Dei voluntate sunt implenda in cursu rerum humanarum, ex ipsa eius oriuntur natura eiusque ostendumt progressionem dynamicam atque exsistentialem. Quaevis familia comperit invenitque in se ipsa vocationem, quae numquam potest auferri quaque pariter eius definitur dignitas et officium: familia, id « evade», quod « es » !

Accordingly, the family must go back to the "beginning" of God's creative act, if it is to attain self-knowledge and self-realization in accordance with the inner truth not only of what it is but also of what it does in history. And since in God's plan it has been established as an "intimate community of life and love,"[44] the family has the mission to become more and more what it is, that is to say, a community of life and love, in an effort that will find fulfillment, as will everything created and redeemed, in the Kingdom of God. Looking at it in such a way as to reach its very roots, we must say that the essence and role of the family are in the final analysis specified by love. Hence the family has the mission to guard, reveal and communicate love, and this is a living reflection of and a real sharing in God's love for humanity and the love of Christ the Lord for the Church His bride.

Familia tunc necesse est se revocet ad « principium » actionis creatricis Dei, si vult se agnoscere et ad effectum adduci iuxta interiorem veritatem non tantum exsistentiae suae, verum etiam agendi rationis suae historicae. Quoniam ex Dei consilio constituitur tamquam « intima communitas vitae et amoris » (44), munus est familiae magis magisque fieri id quod est, scilicet communitas vitae et amoris, in quadam contentione, quae, sicut omnia, quae sunt creata et redempta, in Regno Dei perficietur. Insuper in quodam veluti prospectu, qui ad ipsas rei radices pertingit, dicendum est essentiam et munera familiae amore ad extremum definiri. Hanc ob causam familia accipit missionem custodiendi, declarandi et communicandi amorem tamquam vivam quasi repercussion em veramque participationem amoris Dei cum humane genere et amoris Christi Domini cum Ecclesia eius sponsa.

Every particular task of the family is an expressive and concrete actuation of that fundamental mission. We must therefore go deeper into the unique riches of the family's mission and probe its contents, which are both manifold and unified.

Omne peculiare familiae munus est ostensio certaque ac definita exsecutio huiusmodi primariae missionis. Oportet ergo praestantes divitias missionis familiae altius perspicere eiusque multiplicia et unitate insignia argumenta investigare.

Thus, with love as its point of departure and making constant reference to it, the recent Synod emphasized four general tasks for the family:

Hac ex parte exordium sumens ab amore ad eumque continenter respiciens, quattuor generalia munera familiae recens Synodus in lumine posuit; quae sunt:

1) forming a community of persons;

personarum communitatis constitutio;

2) serving life;

vitae servitium;

3) participating in the development of society;

progressionis societatis participatio;

4) sharing in the life and mission of the Church.

vitae et missionis Ecclesiae participatio. #13;

I - FORMING A COMMUNITY OF PERSONS

 

Love as the Principle and Power of Communion

 

18. The family, which is founded and given life by love, is a community of persons: of husband and wife, of parents and children, of relatives. Its first task is to live with fidelity the reality of communion in a constant effort to develop an authentic community of persons.

18. Familia, amore condita et vivificata, est communitas personarum: viri et mulieris matrimonio iunctorum, parentum filiorumque, propinquorum. Eius imprimis est e communionis veritate vivere, iugiter annitendo ut germana personarum communitas foveatur.

The inner principle of that task, its permanent power and its final goal is love: without love the family is not a community of persons and, in the same way, without love the family cannot live, grow and perfect itself as a community of persons. What I wrote in the Encyclical Redemptor hominis applies primarily and especially within the family as such: "Man cannot live without love. He remains a being that is incomprehensible for himself, his life is senseless, if love is not revealed to him, if he does not encounter love, if he does not experience it and make it his own, if he does not participate intimately in it."[45]

Interius principium, vis permanens et finis ultimus huiusce muneris est amor: quemadmodum sine amore familia non est communitas personarum, ita sine amore familia non potest vive’re, crescere ac perfici uti personarum communitas. Quod scripsimus in Litteris Encyclicis, a verbis Redemptor hominis incipientibus, modo naturali singularique ad familiam uti talem applicatur: « Homo sine amore vivere nequit. Sibimet manet quiddam, quod incomprehensibile est, eiusque vita sensu privatur, nisi am or ei praebetur, nisi invenit amorem, nisi amorem experitur suumque efficit, nisi penitus amorem participat » (45).

The love between husband and wife and, in a derivatory and broader way, the love between members of the same family-between parents and children, brothers and sisters and relatives and members of the household-is given life and sustenance by an unceasing inner dynamism leading the family to ever deeper and more intense communion, which is the foundation and soul of the community of marriage and the family.

Amor inter virum et mulierem in matrimonio et, ratione inde manante et amplificata, am or inter ipsius familiae participes — inter parentes ac filios, inter fratres et sorores, inter propinquos et familiares — animatur atque impellitur intimo perennique vigore dynamico, qui familiam perducit ad communionem in dies arctiorem impensioremque, quae est fundamentum et vis communitatis coniugalis et familiaris.

The Indivisible Unity of Conjugal Communion

 

19. The first communion is the one which is established and which develops between husband and wife: by virtue of the covenant of married life, the man and woman "are no longer two but one flesh"[46] and they are called to grow continually in their communion through day-to-day fidelity to their marriage promise of total mutual self-giving.

19. Prima communio ea est quae inter coniuges instituitur atque progressione quadam fovetur: vi foederis coniugalis amoris, vir et mulier « iam non sunt duo sed una caro » (46) et adiguntur ad crescendum continenter in communione sua per cotidianam fidelitatem erga matrimoniale promissum mutuae plenaeque donationis.

This conjugal communion sinks its roots in the natural complementarity that exists between man and woman, and is nurtured through the personal willingness of the spouses to share their entire life-project, what they have and what they are: for this reason such communion is the fruit and the sign of a profoundly human need. But in the Lord Christ God takes up this human need, confirms it, purifies it and elevates it, leading it to perfection through the sacrament of matrimony: the Holy Spirit who is poured out in the sacramental celebration offers Christian couples the gift of a new communion of love that is the living and real image of that unique unity which makes of the Church the indivisible Mystical Body of the Lord Jesus.

Haec coniugalis communio in completiva ratione naturali radicitus insidet, quae inter virum et mulierem viget atque ipsorum coniugum alitur proposito totum participandi de vita consilium, id videlicet quod habent et quod sunt: haec igitur communio fructus est et signum postulationis penitus humanae. Sed in Christo Domino Deus hanc humanam suscipit postulationem, eam confirmat, purificat, effert, eam perficit matrimonii sacramento: Spiritus Sanctus in sacramentalem celebrationem effusus christianis coniugibus largitur donum novae communionis, amoris, quae viva realisque est imago illius eximiae unitatis, quae efficit Ecclesiam indivisibile Corpus mysticum Domini Iesu.

The gift of the Spirit is a commandment of life for Christian spouses and at the same time a stimulating impulse so that every day they may progress towards an ever richer union with each other on all levels-of the body, of the character, of the heart, of the intelligence and will, of the soul[47]-revealing in this way to the Church and to the world the new communion of love, given by the grace of Christ.

Donum Spiritus coniugibus christianis praeceptum est vitae simulque sollicitans impulsus ut ad uberiorem usque unitatem inter se cotidie progrediantur in omnibus gradibus — corporum, indolis, cordium, mentium et voluntatum, animorum (47) — tali modo significantes Ecclesiae et mundo novam amoris communionem, Christi gratia donatam.

Such a communion is radically contradicted by polygamy: this, in fact, directly negates the plan of God which was revealed from the beginning, because it is contrary to the equal personal dignity of men and women who in matrimony give themselves with a love that is total and therefore unique and exclusive. As the Second Vatican Council writes: "Firmly established by the Lord, the unity of marriage will radiate from the equal personal dignity of husband and wife, a dignity acknowledged by mutual and total love."[48]

Huiusmodi communioni funditus polygamia adversatur: haec enim directe recusat Dei propositum, sicut ipsis initiis revelatur, quoniam pari personalique dignitati viri et mulieris repugnat, qui in matrimonio alter alteri se dant amore integro ideoque ex se unico et exclusorio. Haec sunt apud Concilium Vaticanum Secundum: « Aequali etiam dignitate personali cum mulieris tum viri agnoscenda in mutua atque plena dilectione, unitas matrimonii a Domino confirmata luculenter apparet » (48).

An Indissoluble Communion

 

20. Conjugal communion is characterized not only by its unity but also by its indissolubility: "As a mutual gift of two persons, this intimate union, as well as the good of children, imposes total fidelity on the spouses and argues for an unbreakable oneness between them."[49]

20. Coniugalis communio non solum unitate sua est insignis, sed etiam indissolubilitate: « Quae intima unio, utpote mutua duarum personarum donatio, sicut et bonum liberorum, plenam coniugum fidem exigunt atque indissolubilem eorum unitatem urgent » (49).

It is a fundamental duty of the Church to reaffirm strongly, as the Synod Fathers did, the doctrine of the indissolubility of marriage. To all those who, in our times, consider it too difficult, or indeed impossible, to be bound to one person for the whole of life, and to those caught up in a culture that rejects the indissolubility of marriage and openly mocks the commitment of spouses to fidelity, it is necessary to reconfirm the good news of the definitive nature of that conjugal love that has in Christ its foundation and strength.[50]

Ecclesiae munus est doctrinam de indissolubilitate matrimonii graviter denuo confirmare — quemadmodum Patres Synodi fecerunt — iis qui hisce temporibus difficile esse arbitrantur aut nullo prorsus pacto fieri posse ut in totius vitae cursum se cum una tantum persona coniungant, et iis qui hum ani cultus forma rapiuntur, quae indissolubilitatem matrimonii respuit et coniugum officium fidelitatem servandi aperte deridet; oportet laetum iterum nuntium definitivae naturae illius coniugalis amoris extolli, qui in Christo Domino ut in fund amen to innititur atque ab eo firmatur (50).

Being rooted in the personal and total self-giving of the couple, and being required by the good of the children, the indissolubility of marriage finds its ultimate truth in the plan that God has manifested in His revelation: He wills and He communicates the indissolubility of marriage as a fruit, a sign and a requirement of the absolutely faithful love that God has for man and that the Lord Jesus has for the Church.

Indissolubilitas matrimonii, in personali plenaque donatione coniugum radicitus insidens atque ipso bono filiorum postulata, postremam nanciscitur veritatem suam in consilio, quod Deus in Revelatione sua patefecit: Ipse enim vult datque indissolubilitatem matrimonii tamquam fructum, signum et postulationem fidelissimi omnino amoris, quo Deus hominem prosequitur et quo Christus Dominus in suam vitaliter fertur Ecclesiam.

Christ renews the first plan that the Creator inscribed in the hearts of man and woman, and in the celebration of the sacrament of matrimony offers a "new heart": thus the couples are not only able to overcome "hardness of heart,"[51] but also and above all they are able to share the full and definitive love of Christ, the new and eternal Covenant made flesh. Just as the Lord Jesus is the "faithful witness,"[52] the "yes" of the promises of God[53] and thus the supreme realization of the unconditional faithfulness with which God loves His people, so Christian couples are called to participate truly in the irrevocable indissolubility that binds Christ to the Church His bride, loved by Him to the end.[54]

Christus pristinum renovat consilium, a Creatore viri et mulier is cordibus inditum, et in celebratione sacramenti matrimonii dat « cor novum »: ita coniuges non solum valent vincere « duritiam cordis » (51), sed etiam ac quidem potissimum participare valent plenum ac terminalem amorem Christi, qui est novum aeternumque Foedus caro factum. Quemadmodum Dominus Iesus est « testis fidelis » (52), est « Amen » Dei promissionum (53) ideo que exsecutio suprema summae fidelitatis, qua Deus suum populum diligit, eodem modo christiani coniuges vocantur ut reapse consortes sint irrevocabilis indissolubilitatis, qua Christus coniungitur Ecclesiae, sponsae suae, a Se dilectae usque in finem (54).

The gift of the sacrament is at the same time a vocation and commandment for the Christian spouses, that they may remain faithful to each other forever, beyond every trial and difficulty, in generous obedience to the holy will of the Lord: "What therefore God has joined together, let not man put asunder."[55]

Sacramenti donum est vocatio simul et praeceptum christianis coniugibus ut iugiter inter se servent fidelitatem, tametsi quibusvis probationibus ac difficultatibus premuntur, sanctae Domini voluntati magnanimiter obsecuti: « Quod ergo Deus coniunxit, homo non separet » (55).

To bear witness to the inestimable value of the indissolubility and fidelity of marriage is one of the most precious and most urgent tasks of Christian couples in our time. So, with all my Brothers who participated in the Synod of Bishops, I praise and encourage those numerous couples who, though encountering no small difficulty, preserve and develop the value of indissolubility: thus, in a humble and courageous manner, they perform the role committed to them of being in the world a "sign"-a small and precious sign, sometimes also subjected to temptation, but always renewed-of the unfailing fidelity with which God and Jesus Christ love each and every human being. But it is also proper to recognize the value of the witness of those spouses who, even when abandoned by their partner, with the strength of faith and of Christian hope have not entered a new union: these spouses too give an authentic witness to fidelity, of which the world today has a great need. For this reason they must be encouraged and helped by the pastors and the faithful of the Church.

Inaestimabile testificari momentum indissolubilitatis et fidelitatis matrimonialis est ex praestantissimis maximeque urgentibus officiis munus christianorum coniugum nostrae aetatatis. Quare una cum omnibus Fratribus, qui Synodo interfuerunt, laudamus confirmamusque eos plurimos coniuges, qui, licet in haud leves incurrant difficultates, indissolubilitatis bonum tuentur et excolunt: ita profecto humiliter audenterque creditum sibi implent munus, ex quo in mundo sint oportet « signum », parvum quidem sed praestans signum, interdum etiam temptationi obnoxium, sed semper renovatum indeficientis fidelitatis, qua Deus et Iesus Christus omnes homines et unumquemque nostrum diligunt. Sed est etiam agnoscenda vis testimonii coniugum illorum, qui, quamvis essent ab altero conubii comparticipe derelicti, christianae fidei et spei virtute novam convivendi societatem non inierunt: hi quoque coniuges sincerum perhibent testimonium fidelitatis, quo mundus hodie magnopere indiget. Qua de causa confirmandi sunt iidem ac iuvandi pastoribus fidelibusque Ecclesiae.

The Broader Communion of the Family

 

21. Conjugal communion constitutes the foundation on which is built the broader communion of the family, of parents and children, of brothers and sisters with each other, of relatives and other members of the household.

21. Communio coniugum est fundamentum, in quo et amplior constituitur totius domus communio, parentum scilicet et filiorum, fratrum sororumque inter se, cognatorum aliorumque familiarium.

This communion is rooted in the natural bonds of flesh and blood, and grows to its specifically human perfection with the establishment and maturing of the still deeper and richer bonds of the spirit: the love that animates the interpersonal relationships of the different members of the family constitutes the interior strength that shapes and animates the family communion and community.

Huiusmodi communio in naturalibus carnis et sanguinis vinculis est insita, atque, spiritus nexus etiam interiores et uberiores instituendo atque ad maturationem adducendo, provehitur et propie humano modo perficitur: amor, qui inter varia familiae membra, uti inter personas, mutuas alit rationes intercedentes, ipse est vis intima domesticam communionem et societatem efficiens atque vivificans.

The Christian family is also called to experience a new and original communion which confirms and perfects natural and human communion. In fact the grace of Jesus Christ, "the first-born among many brethren "[56] is by its nature and interior dynamism "a grace of brotherhood," as St. Thomas Aquinas calls it.[57] The Holy Spirit, who is poured forth in the celebration of the sacraments, is the living source and inexhaustible sustenance of the supernatural communion that gathers believers and links them with Christ and with each other in the unity of the Church of God. The Christian family constitutes a specific revelation and realization of ecclesial communion, and for this reason too it can and should be called "the domestic Church."[58]

Vocatur deinde christiana familia ad novum singulareque communionis genus experiendum, quod naturalem et humanam communionem confirmat et perficit. Re quidem vera gratia Iesu Christi, qui est « primogenitus in multis fratribus (56), suapte natura atque dynamica virtute est « fraterna gratia », uti a Sancto Thoma Aquinate appellatur (57). Spiritus Sanctus, effusus in sacramentorum celebratione, vivus est fons perenneque alimentum supernae communionis, quae credentes congregat et cum Christo devincit necnon inter se in unitate Ecclesiae Dei. Communionis ecclesialis ostensionem et effectionem christiana familia exhibet, quae hac quoque de causa « Ecclesia domestica » (58) appellari potest ac debet.

All members of the family, each according to his or her own gift, have the grace and responsibility of building, day by day, the communion of persons, making the family "a school of deeper humanity"[59]: this happens where there is care and love for the little ones, the sick, the aged; where there is mutual service every day; when there is a sharing of goods, of joys and of sorrows.

Omnibus familiae membris, cui que pro eius munere, gratia praebetur atque officium imponitur personarum communion em in dies aedificandi, ita ut familia « schola quaedam uberioris humanitatis » (59) evadat: quod fit tum studio et amore in parvulos et aegrotos ac senes, tum mutuo ministerio cotidie praestando, tum communicatione bonorum, gaudiorum et aerumnarum.

A fundamental opportunity for building such a communion is constituted by the educational exchange between parents and children,[60] in which each gives and receives. By means of love, respect and obedience towards their parents, children offer their specific and irreplaceable contribution to the construction of an authentically human and Christian family.[61] They will be aided in this if parents exercise their unrenounceable authority as a true and proper "ministry," that is, as a service to the human and Christian well-being of their children, and in particular as a service aimed at helping them acquire a truly responsible freedom, and if parents maintain a living awareness of the "gift" they continually receive from their children.

Ad huiusmodi communionem constituendam primariam habet vim mutuum inter parentes ac filios commercium educationis (60), in quo unusquisque dat et accipit. Amore et observantia et oboedientia in parentes filii operam ad aedificandam familiam vere sincereque humanam et christianam conferunt, peculiarem omnino ac talem, pro qua nihil substitui possit (61). Quod expeditius facient, si parentes fungentur auctoritate sua, cui eos renuntiare non licet, uti vero proprioque « ministerio », id est servitio ad humanum christianumque filiorum bonum spectante eoque potissimum ut ii assequantur libertatem cum officio in se recepto vere coniunctam, simulque si parentes non cessabunt « doni » admodum conscii esse, quod a filiis continenter derivant.

Family communion can only be preserved and perfected through a great spirit of sacrifice. It requires, in fact, a ready and generous openness of each and all to understanding, to forbearance, to pardon, to reconciliation. There is no family that does not know how selfishness, discord, tension and conflict violently attack and at times mortally wound its own communion: hence there arise the many and varied forms of division in family life. But, at the same time, every family is called by the God of peace to have the joyous and renewing experience of "reconciliation," that is, communion reestablished, unity restored. In particular, participation in the sacrament of Reconciliation and in the banquet of the one Body of Christ offers to the Christian family the grace and the responsibility of overcoming every division and of moving towards the fullness of communion willed by God, responding in this way to the ardent desire of the Lord: "that they may be one."[62]

Familiaris communio servari perficique nequit nisi impenso studio sese abnegandi atque devovendi. Ea enim ab omnibus et singulis poscit promptam et magnanimam voluntatem proclivem ad indulgentiam, tolerantiam, veniam, concordiam, reconciliationem. Nulla familia ignorat quomodo caecus sui amor, dissensio, contentiones, conflictationes pro priam communionem petant violenter letaliterque feriant interdum: inde multiplices variaeque oriuntur in familiari convictu disciclii rationes. Simul vero a Deo, pacis auctore, omnis familia evocatur ad « reconciliationem » laeta renovanteque experientia instaurandam tuendamque refectam videlicet communion em et unitatem redintegratam. Imprimis participatio sacramentorum Reconciliationis et convivii unius Corporis Christi christianae familiae graham tributi eamque officio obstringit vincendi omnem discordiam et contendendi ad plenam communionis veritatem postulatam a Deo; quod faciendo illa Domino satisfaciet vehementissime optanti « ut omnes unum sint » (62).

The Rights and Role of Women

 

22. In that it is, and ought always to become, a communion and community of persons, the family finds in love the source and the constant impetus for welcoming, respecting and promoting each one of its members in his or her lofty dignity as a person, that is, as a living image of God. As the Synod Fathers rightly stated, the moral criterion for the authenticity of conjugal and family relationships consists in fostering the dignity and vocation of the individual persons, who achieve their fullness by sincere self-giving.[63]

22. Familia, quatenus hominum communio communitasque est et perpetuo fieri debet, amore uti causa continuoque impulsu movetur ut singula sua accipiat, colat, provehat membra, utpote excelsa personarum dignitate insignita, id est quasi imagines Dei viventes. Quemadmodum Synodi Patres merito affirmarunt, morale criterium germanarum rationum coniugalium et familiarium in singularum personarum dignitate et vocatione promovendis consistit, quae plene inveniri non possunt nisi per sincerum sui ipsarum donum (63).

In this perspective the Synod devoted special attention to women, to their rights and role within the family and society. In the same perspective are also to be considered men as husbands and fathers, and likewise children and the elderly.

Hac in re Synodus peculiari ratione interesse censuit ut in mulierem singulare studium impendatur in eiusque iura ac munera tam in familia quam in societate. Eadem ex parte sive vir uti maritus et pater, sive infantes puerique atque senes sunt considerandi.

Above all it is important to underline the equal dignity and responsibility of women with men. This equality is realized in a unique manner in that reciprocal self-giving by each one to the other and by both to the children which is proper to marriage and the family. What human reason intuitively perceives and acknowledges is fully revealed by the word of God: the history of salvation, in fact, is a continuous and luminous testimony of the dignity of women.

Ad mulierem quod attinet, declarandum est imprimis eam eadem ut virum dignitate frui et officio devinciri: huiusmodi aequalitas singulari ratione efficitur donatione, qua alter se alteri tradit, et amborum donatione filios respiciente, quarum utraque est matrimonii propria atque familiae. Quod humana quoque mens perspicit et agnoscit, id plene Dei verbo revelatur, nam historia salutis constans clarumque est mulieris dignitatis testimonium.

In creating the human race "male and female,"[64] God gives man and woman an equal personal dignity, endowing them with the inalienable rights and responsibilities proper to the human person. God then manifests the dignity of women in the highest form possible, by assuming human flesh from the Virgin Mary, whom the Church honors as the Mother of God, calling her the new Eve and presenting her as the model of redeemed woman. The sensitive respect of Jesus towards the women that He called to His following and His friendship, His appearing on Easter morning to a woman before the other disciples, the mission entrusted to women to carry the good news of the Resurrection to the apostles-these are all signs that confirm the special esteem of the Lord Jesus for women. The Apostle Paul will say: "In Christ Jesus you are all children of God through faith.... There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free, there is neither male nor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus."[65]

Deus, homines creans « masculum et feminam » (64), pari donavit personali dignitate virum et mulierem, augens eos iuribus, quae abalienari non possunt, officiisque humanae propriis personae. Deus deinde quam praeclarissime mulieris dignitatem ostendit, humanam Ipse carnem assumens ex Maria Virgine, quam ut Dei Matrem Ecclesia veneratur ac nomine novae Evae ut redemptae mulieris exemplum proponit. Integerrima Iesu observantia erga mulieres, quas vocavit ad se sequendum suaque fruendum amicitia, eius apparitio illo Resurrectionis die mane mulieri concessa, antequam ipse a mortuis suscitatus ceteris discipulis sese ostenderet, mandatum mulieribus datum ut ad discipulos laetum Resurrectionis nuntium afferrent, haec omnia sunt signa, quae Domini Iesu egregiam de mulieribus opinionem confirmant. Ait Paulus Apostolus: « Omnes enim filii Dei estis per fidem in Christo Iesu ...; non est Iudaeus neque Graecus, non est servus neque liber, non est masculus et femina: omnes enim vos unus estis in Christo Iesu » (65).

Women and Society

 

23. Without intending to deal with all the various aspects of the vast and complex theme of the relationships between women and society, and limiting these remarks to a few essential points, one cannot but observe that in the specific area of family life a widespread social and cultural tradition has considered women's role to be exclusively that of wife and mother, without adequate access to public functions which have generally been reserved for men.

23. Tametsi hic multiplex et implicata quaestio de rationibus inter mulierem et societatem intercedentibus non pertractatur sermoque nunc nonnisi potissimis quibusdam circumscribitur rebus notatione dignis, fieri tamen non potest quin animadvertatur in ambitu magis proprie familiari amplam lateque manantem traditionem socialem et cultural em effecisse ut mulier ad solum sponsae ac matris munus destinaretur, neque congruenter ad publica admitteretur munera, viris plerumque reservata.

There is no doubt that the equal dignity and responsibility of men and women fully justifies women's access to public functions. On the other hand the true advancement of women requires that clear recognition be given to the value of their maternal and family role, by comparison with all other public roles and all other professions. Furthermore, these roles and professions should be harmoniously combined, if we wish the evolution of society and culture to be truly and fully human.

Sine dubio par viri et mulieris dignitas et officium aditum mulieris ad offici a publica plane comprobant. Porro vera mulieris provectio etiam postulat ut eius muneris materni ac familiaris momentum dilucide agnoscatur respectu ceterorum officiorum publicorum ceterarumque vitae professionum. De reliquo talia munera ac professiones, si eo contenditur ut progressio socialis et culturalis vere pleneque sit humana, debent inter se compleri.

This will come about more easily if, in accordance with the wishes expressed by the Synod, a renewed "theology of work" can shed light upon and study in depth the meaning of work in the Christian life and determine the fundamental bond between work and the family, and therefore the original and irreplaceable meaning of work in the home and in rearing children.[66] Therefore the Church can and should help modern society by tirelessly insisting that the work of women in the home be recognized and respected by all in its irreplaceable value. This is of particular importance in education: for possible discrimination between the different types of work and professions is eliminated at its very root once it is clear that all people, in every area, are working with equal rights and equal responsibilities. The image of God in man and in woman will thus be seen with added luster.

Id facilius fiet, si, ut Synodus exoptavit, renovata « theologia laboris » pervestigatam illustrabit notionem laboris in vita christiana atque si primarium definiet vinculum, quo inter se labor ac familia colligantur, ipsamque inde atque nativam ac pernecessariam signification em tum laboris domestici tum ad filiorum educationem pertinentis (66). Ecclesia igitur societati aetatis nostrae auxiliari potest ac debet maxima industria petendo ut ab omnibus domesticus mulieris labor rite agnoscatur eique secundum aestimationem ipsius propriam, pro qua nequit aliud substitui, iustus honor tribuatur. Hoc maximi et singularis est ponderis in arte educandi exercenda: etenim radix ipsa et fons cuiuslibet discriminis inter varia opera vitaeque professiones tollitur simul atque patet, omni in regione, cunctos eodem. iure eodemque officio in laborem insistere. Ita et in viro et in muliere splendidior imago et similitudo Dei fulgebit.

While it must be recognized that women have the same right as men to perform various public functions, society must be structured in such a way that wives and mothers are not in practice compelled to work outside the home, and that their families can live and prosper in a dignified way even when they themselves devote their full time to their own family.

Si necesse est et mulieribus, aeque ac viris, agnoscatur ius accedendi ad varia munera publica, tamen societas tali ratione oportet ordinetur ut uxores matresque re non cogantur opus foris facere, necnon ut earum familiae possint digne vivere ac prosperari, etiam cum illae omnes curas in propriam familiam intendunt.

Furthermore, the mentality which honors women more for their work outside the home than for their work within the family must be overcome. This requires that men should truly esteem and love women with total respect for their personal dignity, and that society should create and develop conditions favoring work in the home.

Mentis praeterea habitus est evincendus, secundum quem censetur honor mulieris magis ex opere foris facto oriri quam ex domestico. Hoc vero postulat tum ut viri mulierem reapse vereantur ac diligant necnon propriam eius dignitatem ut personae omni cum observantia personae colant, tum ut societas condiciones comparet foveatque ad opus domesticum accommodatas.

With due respect to the different vocations of men and women, the Church must in her own life promote as far as possible their equality of rights and dignity: and this for the good of all, the family, the Church and society.

Ecclesia, diversam hominis ac mulieris vocationem, ut par est, observans, debet etiam, quantum fieri potest, in ipsa vita et aequalia utriusque iura ac dignitatem provehere: hoc quidem in commune omnium bonum, id est familiae, societatis et Ecclesiae.

But clearly all of this does not mean for women a renunciation of their femininity or an imitation of the male role, but the fullness of true feminine humanity which should be expressed in their activity, whether in the family or outside of it, without disregarding the differences of customs and cultures in this sphere.

Liquet tamen cuncta haec eo spectare non ut mulier femineam suam indolem dimittat aut virile imitetur ingenium, sed ut muliebris verae humanitatis plenitudo declaretur, quae nempe ostendi debet in rebus agendis, tam domi quam foris, ceterum haud neglecta hac in re varietate morum formarumque cultus humani.

Offenses Against Women's Dignity

 

24. Unfortunately the Christian message about the dignity of women is contradicted by that persistent mentality which considers the human being not as a person but as a thing, as an object of trade, at the service of selfish interest and mere pleasure: the first victims of this mentality are women.

24. Dissentit, pro dolor, a christiano de dignitate mulieris nuntio pertinax ille habitus mentis, unde homo non persona sed res existimatur, quasi obiectum emptioni et venditioni obnoxium commodisque suis et soli voluptati deserviens: mulier prima quidem ob huiusmodi habitum mentis conflictatur.

This mentality produces very bitter fruits, such as contempt for men and for women, slavery, oppression of the weak, pornography, prostitution-especially in an organized form-and all those various forms of discrimination that exist in the fields of education, employment, wages, etc.

Quae quidem opinatio in mente inhaerens etiam amarissimos fert fructus, cuius modi sunt: despectio viri et mulieris, servitus, oppressio infirmorum, turpia scripta imaginesque, meretricium — et vel magis cum consiliis initis disponitur — variaque ea omnia discrimina, quae in regione educationis, vitae professionum, mercedis pro opere solvendae aliarumque rerum conspiciuntur.

Besides, many forms of degrading discrimination still persist today in a great part of our society that affect and seriously harm particular categories of women, as for example childless wives, widows, separated or divorced women, and unmarried mothers.

Praeterea, adhuc in praesens, in magna nostrae societatis parte multae supersunt affiigentis discriminis formae, quibus peculiares nonnulli mulierum ordines graviter laeduntur, veluti mulieres nuptae filiis carentes, viduae, a maritis disiunctae, uxores divortio digressae, matres innuptae.

The Synod Fathers deplored these and other forms of discrimination as strongly as possible. I therefore ask that vigorous and incisive pastoral action be taken by all to overcome them definitively so that the image of God that shines in all human beings without exception may be fully respected.

De his aliisque discriminibus Synodi Patres sunt conquesti omnibus viribus; petimus ergo ut omnes pastoralem operam peculiarem explicent validiorem atque efficaciorem adeo ut funditus memorata discrimina de media tollantur et sic ad plenam perveniatur existimationem imaginis Dei, quae in omnibus refulget hominibus, nullo excepto

Men as Husbands and Fathers

 

25. Within the conjugal and family communion-community, the man is called upon to live his gift and role as husband and father.

25. Inter hanc autem communionem communitatemque familiarem et coniugalem vir invitatur ut donum suum et munus mariti ac patris vivendo perficiat.

In his wife he sees the fulfillment of God's intention: "It is not good that the man should be alone, I will make him a helper fit for him,"[67] and he makes his own the cry of Adam, the first husband: "This at last is bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh."[68]

In uxore quidem consilium Dei videt impleri: « Non est bonum esse hominem solum; faciam ei adiutorium simile sui » (67), Adamique. primi mariti, suas facit voces: « Haec nunc os ex ossibus meis et caro de carne meal » (68).

Authentic conjugal love presupposes and requires that a man have a profound respect for the equal dignity of his wife: "You are not her master," writes St. Ambrose, "but her husband; she was not given to you to be your slave, but your wife.... Reciprocate her attentiveness to you and be grateful to her for her love."[69] With his wife a man should live "a very special form of personal friendship."[70] As for the Christian, he is called upon to develop a new attitude of love, manifesting towards his wife a charity that is both gentle and strong like that which Christ has for the Church."[71]

Verus amor coniugalis pro concesso snmit ac poscit ut vir altam colat observantiam aeqnalis dignitatis mulieris: « Non es dominus », ita scribit Sanctus Ambrosius, « sed maritus: non ancillam sortitus es, sed uxorem ... Redde studio vicem, redde amori gratiam » (69). Cum nxore sna virum oportet vivere in « peculiari ... personalis amicitiae forma » (70). Porro christianus adigitur ut novi amoris affectum foveat, erga propriam uxorem ostendens caritatem simul suavem simul fortem, quam Christus in Ecclesiam habet (71).

Love for his wife as mother of their children and love for the children themselves are for the man the natural way of understanding and fulfilling his own fatherhood. Above all where social and cultural conditions so easily encourage a father to be less concerned with his family or at any rate less involved in the work of education, efforts must be made to restore socially the conviction that the place and task of the father in and for the family is of unique and irreplaceable importance.[72] As experience teaches, the absence of a father causes psychological and moral imbalance and notable difficulties in family relationships, as does, in contrary circumstances, the oppressive presence of a father, especially where there still prevails the phenomenon of "machismo," or a wrong superiority of male prerogatives which humiliates women and inhibits the development of healthy family relationships.

Amor autem in uxorem iam matrem factam et amor pariter adversus filios vira via sunt natnralis ad intellegendam atque exsequendam paternitatem suam. Ibi maxime, ubi condiciones societatis et animi culturae facile patrem impellunt ut a familia aliquatenus secedat vel saltem ut rarius adsit in ipso educationis opere, enitendum est ut societati rursus persuadeatur officium patris munusque in ac pro familia esse unius ac pernecessarii momenti (72). Docente quidem experientia ipsa, patris absentia infert perturbationes psychologicas et morales necnon difficultates graviores in ipsas necessitudines familiares; ita quoque ex contrario opprimens patris praesentia, ibi potissimum ubi etiamnunc viget nimius virorum dominatus (qui Hispanice « machismo » appellatur) seu principatus, cum pravo usu coniunctus, masculinarum proprietatum, quae feminam deiciunt impediuntque quominus sanae familiares necessitudinis rationes progrediantur.

In revealing and in reliving on earth the very fatherhood of God,[73] a man is called upon to ensure the harmonious and united development of all the members of the family: he will perform this task by exercising generous responsibility for the life conceived under the heart of the mother, by a more solicitous commitment to education, a task he shares with his wife,[74] by work which is never a cause of division in the family but promotes its unity and stability, and by means of the witness he gives of an adult Christian life which effectively introduces the children into the living experience of Christ and the Church.

Patefaciens ergo et iterum in terris ipsam Dei paternitatem vivendo exprimens (73), homo incitatur ut in tuto collocet progressionem concordem omnium familiae membrorum: quod opus explebit per magnanimam conscientiam officio rum erga vitam sub matris corde conceptam, per accuratiorem industriam institutoriam cum uxore propria communicatam (74), per laborem, qui familiam numquam dispergat, verum in soliditate stabilitateque provehat, per testimonium vitae christianae ad maturitatem adductae, quae filios efficacius inducat vivam in Christi et Ecclesiae experientiam.

The Rights of Children

 

26. In the family, which is a community of persons, special attention must be devoted to the children by developing a profound esteem for their personal dignity, and a great respect and generous concern for their rights. This is true for every child, but it becomes all the more urgent the smaller the child is and the more it is in need of everything, when it is sick, suffering or handicapped.

26. In familia, personarum videlicet communitate, peculiaris cura summe impendatur infanti necesse est, dum maxima fovetur aestimatio eius dignitatis personalis dumque magna excolitur observatio ac generosa voluntas eius iura tuendi. Hoc de omni dicendum est infante; sed tanto quidem plus urget quanto minor est natus magisque rerum eget vel aegrotat, patitur vel praepeditur.

By fostering and exercising a tender and strong concern for every child that comes into this world, the Church fulfills a fundamental mission: for she is called upon to reveal and put forward anew in history the example and the commandment of Christ the Lord, who placed the child at the heart of the Kingdom of God: "Let the children come to me, and do not hinder them; for to such belongs the kingdom of heaven."[75]

Ecclesia, quae flagitat exercetque curam et teneram et strenuam cuiusque infantis, in lucem editi, principale quoddam officium suum adimplet; etenim destinatur illa ad demonstrandum iterandumque in historia exemplum et mandatum Christi Domini, qui parvulum statuere voluit in Regni Dei veluti centro: « Sinite pueros venire ad me ... ; talium estenim regnum Dei» (75).

I repeat once again what I said to the General Assembly of the United Nations on October 2, 1979: "I wish to express the joy that we all find in children, the springtime of life, the anticipation of the future history of each of our present earthly homelands. No country on earth, no political system can think of its own future otherwise than through the image of these new generations that will receive from their parents the manifold heritage of values, duties and aspirations of the nation to which they belong and of the whole human family. Concern for the child, even before birth, from the first moment of conception and then throughout the years of infancy and youth, is the primary and fundamental test of the relationship of one human being to another. And so, what better wish can I express for every nation and for the whole of mankind, and for all the children of the world than a better future in which respect for human rights will become a complete reality throughout the third millennium, which is drawing near?"[76]

Ea denuo repetimus, quae in sessione universali Coniunctarum Nationum Coetus die II mensis Octobris anno MCMLXXIX protulimus: « Declarare cupio ... laetitiam, quam nostrum cuique afferunt infantes — vitae ver atque historiae futurae anticipatio omnium nunc exstantium patriarum terrestrium. Nulla enim mundi natio nullaque constitutio politica aliter cogitare potest venturam suam aetatem nisi mente contemplando has generationes novas, quae a parentibus suis accipient multiplex patrimonium praestantium bonorum, officiorum, optatorum ipsius Civitatis, ad quam pertinent, et universae hominum familiae. Sollicitudo igitur de infante etiam priusquam nascatur, a primo conceptionis momento ac deinde per annos infantiae et adulescentiae est primaria comprobatio necessitudinis inter homines. Quid propterea exoptari potest potius omni nationi cunctoque hominum generi et omnibus mundi infantibus quam melius illud tempus futurum, quo iurium hominis observatio fiat plena rei veritas, ratione habita tertii millennii, quod appropinquat? » (76).

Acceptance, love, esteem, many-sided and united material, emotional, educational and spiritual concern for every child that comes into this world should always constitute a distinctive, essential characteristic of all Christians, in particular of the Christian family: thus children, while they are able to grow "in wisdom and in stature, and in favor with God and man,"[77] offer their own precious contribution to building up the family community and even to the sanctification of their parents.[78]

Susceptio, amor, aestimatio, curatio multiplex atque unitate insignis — materialis, ex animi affectu manans, institutoria, spiritalis — uniuscuiusque parvuli, qui primam aspicit lucem, debent insigne quoddam proprium neque abdicandum efficere christianorum maximeque familiarum christianarum; ita infantes, dum crescere poterunt « sapientia et aetate et gratia apud Deum et homines » (77), suas magni pretii partes afferent ad ipsam farniliarem communitatem aedificandam necnon ad ipsos paren tes sanctificandos (78).  

The Elderly in the Family

 

27. There are cultures which manifest a unique veneration and great love for the elderly: far from being outcasts from the family or merely tolerated as a useless burden, they continue to be present and to take an active and responsible part in family life, though having to respect the autonomy of the new family; above all they carry out the important mission of being a witness to the past and a source of wisdom for the young and for the future.

27. Sunt cultus hum ani formae, in quibus singularis veneratio grandisque caritas seni praestatur: tantnm ibi abest ut senex exturbetur de familia aut ut toleretur tamquam inutile pondus, ut ipse familiari vitae inhaereat in eaque pergat actuosam et consciam partem sustinere — quamvis novae familiae observare deb eat autonomiam, quam dicunt — sed imprimis excellens compleat munus testificandi de tempore praeterito et inspirandi sapientiam iuvenibus necnon hominibus venturis.

Other cultures, however, especially in the wake of disordered industrial and urban development, have both in the past and in the present set the elderly aside in unacceptable ways. This causes acute suffering to them and spiritually impoverishes many families.

Aliae ex contrario cultus humani formae praesertim ob confusam progressionem machinalis industriae et urbium densati incolatus perduxerunt atque etiamnunc senes perducunt ad intolerandas exclusionis formas, quae simul pariunt iis ipsis acerbos dolores, simul inferunt tot familiis spiritalem quandam egestatem.

The pastoral activity of the Church must help everyone to discover and to make good use of the role of the elderly within the civil and ecclesial community, in particular within the family. In fact, "the life of the aging helps to clarify a scale of human values; it shows the continuity of generations and marvelously demonstrates the interdependence of God's people. The elderly often have the charism to bridge generation gaps before they are made: how many children have found understanding and love in the eyes and words and caresses of the aging! And how many old people have willingly subscribed to the inspired word that the 'crown of the aged is their children's children' (Prv. 17:6)!"[79]

Pastoralis Ecclesiae actio necesse est omnes incitet ad aperienda atque comprobanda senum officia in communitate civili et ecclesiali, potissimum vera ipsa in familia. Re quidem vera « senum vita nos adiuvat ut ordinem illustremus bonorum humanorum; ad declarandum generationum cursum ac mirabiliter demonstrat mutuam populi Dei obnoxietatem. Senibus insuper datum est charisma, quo veluti repagula inter aetates transgrediantur, antequam ea fieri contingat. Quot infantes lenitatem amoremque reppererunt in oculis, verbis, blanditiis senum! Quot homines etiam seniores libenter consenserunt vocibus Sacrorum Bibliorum divinitus dictatis: ”Corona senum filii filiorum 1” (Prv. 17, 6) » (79).

II - SERVING LIFE

 

1. The Transmission of Life

 

Cooperators in the Love of God the Creator

 

28. With the creation of man and woman in His own image and likeness, God crowns and brings to perfection the work of His hands: He calls them to a special sharing in His love and in His power as Creator and Father, through their free and responsible cooperation in transmitting the gift of human life: "God blessed them, and God said to them, 'Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth and subdue it.'"[80]

28. Viro et muliere ad imaginem eius ac similitudinem factis Deus absolvit et perficit manuum suarum opus: eos dein vocat peculiarem ad sui amoris communicationem necnon suae potentiae ut Creatoris et Patris per liberam et consciam ipsorum adiutricem operam in vitae humanae dona transmittendo: « Benedixitque illis Deus et ait illis Deus: ”Crescite et multiplicamini et replete terram et subicite eam” » (80).

Thus the fundamental task of the family is to serve life, to actualize in history the original blessing of the Creator-that of transmitting by procreation the divine image from person to person.[81]

Princeps ergo familiae officium est vitae ipsius ministerium, progredientibus aetatibus pristinae Creatoris benedictionis impletio, dum per generationem divina imago homini ab homine traditur (81). 

Fecundity is the fruit and the sign of conjugal love, the living testimony of the full reciprocal selfgiving of the spouses: "While not making the other purposes of matrimony of less account, the true practice of conjugal love, and the whole meaning of the family life which results from it, have this aim: that the couple be ready with stout hearts to cooperate with the love of the Creator and the Savior, who through them will enlarge and enrich His own family day by day."[82]

Fecunditas est fructus signumque amoris coniugalis, viva testificatio coniuges mutuo sese ac plene tradidisse: « verus amoris coniugalis cultus totaque vitae familiaris ratio inde oriens, non posthabitis ceteris matrimonii finibus, eo tendunt ut coniuges forti animo dispositi sint ad cooperanclum cum amore Creatoris atque Salvatoris, qui per eos Suam familiam in dies dilatat et ditat » (82).

However, the fruitfulness of conjugal love is not restricted solely to the procreation of children, even understood in its specifically human dimension: it is enlarged and enriched by all those fruits of moral, spiritual and supernatural life which the father and mother are called to hand on to their children, and through the children to the Church and to the world.

Amoris autem coniugalis fecunditas non sola circmnscribitur filiorum procreatione, licet haec intellegatur modo suo proprie humano: nam dilatatur ac ditatur illis omnibus vitae moralis, spiritalis, supernaturalis fructibus, quos pater et mater invitantur ut liberis suis impertiant ac per eos Ecclesiae et mundo.

The Church's Teaching and Norm, Always Old Yet Always New

 

29. Precisely because the love of husband and wife is a unique participation in the mystery of life and of the love of God Himself, the Church knows that she has received the special mission of guarding and protecting the lofty dignity of marriage and the most serious responsibility of the transmission of human life.

29. Idcirco omnino quod coniugum amor participatio singularis est vitae mysterii atque ipsius Dei amoris, se scit Ecclesia peculiare recepisse officium custodiendae et tuendae excelsae dignitatis matrimonii necnon gravissimum munus vitae humanae tradendae.

Thus, in continuity with the living tradition of the ecclesial community throughout history, the recent Second Vatican Council and the magisterium of my predecessor Paul VI, expressed above all in the Encyclical Humanae vitae, have handed on to our times a truly prophetic proclamation, which reaffirms and reproposes with clarity the Church's teaching and norm, always old yet always new, regarding marriage and regarding the transmission of human life.

Ideo traditionem vivam ecclesialis communitatis per historiae aetates persecutum, tum recens Concilium Vaticanum Secundum tum Decessoris nostri Pauli VI magisterium, enuntiatum maxime in Encyclicis Litteris Humanae vitae, aperuerunt nostris temporibus propheticum vere nuntium, qui affirmat rursus et inculcat lucllienter Ecclesiae doctrinam ac Donnam semper antiquas semperque novas de matrimonio humanaeque vitae transmissione.

For this reason the Synod Fathers made the following declaration at their last assembly: "This Sacred Synod, gathered together with the Successor of Peter in the unity of faith, firmly holds what has been set forth in the Second Vatican Council (cf. Gaudium et spes, 50) and afterwards in the Encyclical Humanae vitae, particularly that love between husband and wife must be fully human, exclusive and open to new life (Humanae vitae, 11; cf. 9, 12)."[83]

Hac de causa Synodi Patres in ultimo Coetu haec ipsa verba sunt elocuti: « Haec Sacra Synodus in unitate fidei cum Successore Petri congregata firmiter tenet quae in Concilio Vaticano II (cfr. Gaudium et spes, 50) et postea in Encyclica Humanae vitaeproponuntur et in specie quod amor coniugalis debet esse plene humanus, exclusivus et apertus ad novam vi tam » (83).

The Church Stands for Life

 

30. The teaching of the Church in our day is placed in a social and cultural context which renders it more difficult to understand and yet more urgent and irreplaceable for promoting the true good of men and women.

30. Ecclesiae doctrina hodie socialibus culturalibusque adiunctis inseritur, quae eam simul reddunt intellectu difficiliorem, simul urgentiorem et necessariam ad verum viri mulierisque bonum provehendum.

Scientific and technical progress, which contemporary man is continually expanding in his dominion over nature, not only offers the hope of creating a new and better humanity, but also causes ever greater anxiety regarding the future. Some ask themselves if it is a good thing to be alive or if it would be better never to have been born; they doubt therefore if it is right to bring others into life when perhaps they will curse their existence in a cruel world with unforeseeable terrors. Others consider themselves to be the only ones for whom the advantages of technology are intended and they exclude others by imposing on them contraceptives or even worse means. Still others, imprisoned in a consumer mentality and whose sole concern is to bring about a continual growth of material goods, finish by ceasing to understand, and thus by refusing, the spiritual riches of a new human life. The ultimate reason for these mentalities is the absence in people's hearts of God, whose love alone is stronger than all the world's fears and can conquer them.

Etenim progressus disciplinarum naturalium et technicae artis, quas huius temp oris homo continenter auget sua in naturam dominatione, non modo spem nutriunt constituendi melioris hum ani generis, sed angorem etiam maiorem gignunt futuro de tempore. Quidam se interrogant sitne omnino vivere bonum an melius ne natum esse quidem; quocirca dubitant aliosne liceat ad vitam vocari, qui forsitan maledicturi sint vitae suae in mundo crudeli, cuius ne praevidere quidem valeant terrores. Sunt deinde qui arbitrentur sibi solis destinari technicae artis commoda alios vera in de excludunt, quibus atocia vel methodi etiam peiores imponuntur. Alii demum, mentis habitu res consumendi cupido irretiti ac de bonis materialibus perpetuo augendis tantum solliciti, iam non percipiunt ac proinde reiciunt spiritales divitias novae vitae humanae. Postrema vera huiusce mentis habitus causa in hominum cordibus Dei absentia est, cuius tantum amor omnibus potentior est timoribus, qui haberi possunt in mundo, eosque vincere valet.

Thus an anti-life mentality is born, as can be seen in many current issues: one thinks, for example, of a certain panic deriving from the studies of ecologists and futurologists on population growth, which sometimes exaggerate the danger of demographic increase to the quality of life.

Sic habitus animi vitae adversus (anti-life mentality Anglice vocatur) exortus est, sicut pluribus in hodiernis quaestionibus elucet: exemplo sit quaedam tumultuosa trepidatio proficiscens ex oecologorum ac futurologorum studiis de demographia, qui periculum auctus natorum imminens qualitati vitae inter dum exaggerant.

But the Church firmly believes that human life, even if weak and suffering, is always a splendid gift of God's goodness. Against the pessimism and selfishness which cast a shadow over the world, the Church stands for life: in each human life she sees the splendor of that "Yes," that "Amen," who is Christ Himself.[84] To the "No" which assails and afflicts the world, she replies with this living "Yes," thus defending the human person and the world from all who plot against and harm life.

Verumtamen firmiter Ecclesia credit vitam hominis, quantumvis debilem ac dolentem, magnificum esse semper donum Dei bonitatis. Adversus omnem atram futurorum visionem caecumque sui amorem, terras obscurantia, Ecclesia a vitae parte consistit atque in vita unaquaque detegit claritatem illius « Amen », quod ipse est Christus (84). Ad negationem, quae incedit affiigitque mundum, obicit Ecclesia hanc viventem affirmationem et sic hominem ac mundum ab iis defendit, qui vitae insidiantur eamque extenuant.

The Church is called upon to manifest anew to everyone, with clear and stronger conviction, her will to promote human life by every means and to defend it against all attacks, in whatever condition or state of development it is found.

Ecclesia destinatur ad omnibus iterum significandam — clariore quidem et firmiore persuasione — voluntatem suam promovendi omnibus viribus ac tuendi contra insidias cunctas vitam humanam, quacumque in condicione aut gradu progressionis reperitur .

Thus the Church condemns as a grave offense against human dignity and justice all those activities of governments or other public authorities which attempt to limit in any way the freedom of couples in deciding about children. Consequently, any violence applied by such authorities in favor of contraception or, still worse, of sterilization and procured abortion, must be altogether condemned and forcefully rejected. Likewise to be denounced as gravely unjust are cases where, in international relations, economic help given for the advancement of peoples is made conditional on programs of contraception, sterilization and procured abortion.[85]

Idcirco Ecclesia damnat velut gravem dignitatis humanae iustitiaeque offensionem illa opera omnia regiminum vel aliarum auetoritatum publicarum, quae eo spectant ut quovis modo libertatem coniugum circumscribant decernendi de filiis. Proinde quaelibet vis talibus a magistratibus illata pro conceptionis impedimento, immo etiam pro ipsa sterilizatione, quae dicitur, et abortu procurato, prorsus damnanda est et vehementer repellenda. Pariter tamquam aliquid graviter iniustum exsecrari oportet, quod in rationibus publicis inter nationes intercedentibus subsidia oeconomica adiuvandis populis concessa temperantur secundum consilia adversus conceptionem et sterilizationi necnon abortui procurato faventia » (85).

That God's Design May Be Ever More Completely Fulfilled

 

31. The Church is certainly aware of the many complex problems which couples in many countries face today in their task of transmitting life in a responsible way. She also recognizes the serious problem of population growth in the form it has taken in many parts of the world and its moral implications.

31. Sibi certe conscia Ecclesia est etiam multiplicium ac perplexorum problematum, quae multis hodie in nationibus afficillnt coniuges ipso in eorum munere vitae transmittendae secundum propriam officii conscientiam; pariter agnoscit gravem quaestionem incrementi demographici, ut variis in partibus orbis terrarum exhibetur, additis iis quae quoad rem moralem inde inferuntur.

However, she holds that consideration in depth of all the aspects of these problems offers a new and stronger confirmation of the importance of the authentic teaching on birth regulation reproposed in the Second Vatican Council and in the Encyclical Humanae vitae.

Ea tamen arbitratur, si omnes rei facies altius perspiciantur, nova et firmiore ratione confirmari momentum germanae doctrinae Ecclesiae, a Concilio Vaticano Secundo atque in Litteris Encyclicis Humanae vitae rursus propositae.

For this reason, together with the Synod Fathers I feel it is my duty to extend a pressing invitation to theologians, asking them to unite their efforts in order to collaborate with the hierarchical Magisterium and to commit themselves to the task of illustrating ever more clearly the biblical foundations, the ethical grounds and the personalistic reasons behind this doctrine. Thus it will be possible, in the context of an organic exposition, to render the teaching of the Church on this fundamental question truly accessible to all people of good will, fostering a daily more enlightened and profound understanding of it: in this way God's plan will be ever more completely fulfilled for the salvation of humanity and for the glory of the Creator.

Hanc ob rem, una cum Patribus Synodi, impellimur ut theologos instanter moneamus ut, vires suas coniungant ad operam adiutricem praebendam Magisterio hierarchico, studeant melius usque collustrare fundamenta biblica rationesque ethicas et causas ad personam humanam respicientes earundem doctrinarum. Ita quid em in tra compagem dispositae concinnaeque explanationis fieri poterit ut Ecclesiae doctrina hac de principali re pateat vere cunctis bonae voluntatis hominibus eiusque intellectus in dies lucidior et altior reddatur: hoc sane pacto consilium Dei etiam plenius usque impleri poterit in hominis salutem gloriamque Creatoris.

A united effort by theologians in this regard, inspired by a convinced adherence to the Magisterium, which is the one authentic guide for the People of God, is particularly urgent for reasons that include the close link between Catholic teaching on this matter and the view of the human person that the Church proposes: doubt or error in the field of marriage or the family involves obscuring to a serious extent the integral truth about the human person, in a cultural situation that is already so often confused and contradictory. In fulfillment of their specific role, theologians are called upon to provide enlightenment and a deeper understanding, and their contribution is of incomparable value and represents a unique and highly meritorious service to the family and humanity.

Ad haec quod attinet, concors theologorum officium, manans ex obsequio, in animis insidente, erga Magisterium, quod solum ac quidem authentice viam Populo Dei commonstrat, peculiariter urgetur etiam propter arctum nexum, quo doctrina catholica hac de re et iudicium de homine, ab Ecclesia propositum, inter se colligantur: dubitationes vel errores in provincia matrimonii vel familiae gravem secum ferunt obscurationem integrae veritatis de homine ac quidem in cultus humani statu iam tantopere confuso et secum repugnante. Opera, ad rem illustrandam altiusque percipiendam pertinens, quam theologi, speciale munus suum implentes, conferant oportet, est pretii incomparabilis estque singulare ministerium, meritis uberrimum, pro familia et hominum genere.

In an Integral Vision of the Human Person and of His or Her Vocation

 

32. In the context of a culture which seriously distorts or entirely misinterprets the true meaning of human sexuality, because it separates it from its essential reference to the person, the Church more urgently feels how irreplaceable is her mission of presenting sexuality as a value and task of the whole person, created male and female in the image of God.

32. In adiunctis cultus humani, qui graviter deformat, quin immo eiiam aberrat a vera significatione sexualitatis humanae, quoniam eam ab essen tiali coniunctione sua cum persona ipsa divellit, Ecclesia sentit magis urgere nee substitui posse officium suum exhibendi sexualitatem velut bonum opusque totius personae, quae ut mas ac femina ad imaginem creata est Dei.

In this perspective the Second Vatican Council clearly affirmed that "when there is a question of harmonizing conjugal love with the responsible transmission of life, the moral aspect of any procedure does not depend solely on sincere intentions or on an evaluation of motives. It must be determined by objective standards. These, based on the nature of the human person and his or her acts, preserve the full sense of mutual self-giving and human procreation in the context of true love. Such a goal cannot be achieved unless the virtue of conjugal chastity is sincerely practiced."[86]

His de rebus Concilium Vaticanum Secundum manifesto edixit: « moralis ... indoles rationis agendi, ubi de componendo amore coniugali cum responsabili vitae transmissione agitur, non a sola sincera intentione et aestimatione motivorum pendet, sed obiectivis criteriis, ex personae eiusdemque actuum natura desumptis, determinari debet, quae integrum sensum mutuae donationis ac humanae procreationis in contextu veri amoris observant; quod fieri nequit nisi virtus castitatis coniugalis sincero animo colatur » (86).

It is precisely by moving from "an integral vision of man and of his vocation, not only his natural and earthly, but also his supernatural and eternal vocation,"[87] that Paul VI affirmed that the teaching of the Church "is founded upon the inseparable connection, willed by God and unable to be broken by man on his own initiative, between the two meanings of the conjugal act: the unitive meaning and the procreative meaning."[88] And he concluded by re-emphasizing that there must be excluded as intrinsically immoral "every action which, either in anticipation of the conjugal act, or in its accomplishment, or in the development of its natural consequences, proposes, whether as an end or as a means, to render procreation impossible."[89]

Admonens quidem Paulus VI, Pontifex Maximus, « ut totum hominem totumque, ad quod is vocatus est, munus complectatur, quod non tantum ad naturalia et terrena sed etiam ad supernaturalla et aeterna pertinet » (87), hoc affirmavit super Ecclesiae doctrina: « in nexu indissolubili nititur, a Deo statuto, quem homini sua sponte infringere non licet, inter significationem unitatis et significationem procreationis, quae ambae in actu coniugali insunt » (88). Et concludens id denique inculcavit: tamquam suapte natura in horrestus « quivis respuendus est actus qui, cum coniugale commercium vel praevidetur vel efficitur vel ad suos naturales exitus ducit, ld tamquam finem obtinendum aut viam adhibendam intendat, ut procreatio impediatur » (89).

When couples, by means of recourse to contraception, separate these two meanings that God the Creator has inscribed in the being of man and woman and in the dynamism of their sexual communion, they act as "arbiters" of the divine plan and they "manipulate" and degrade human sexuality-and with it themselves and their married partner-by altering its value of "total" self-giving. Thus the innate language that expresses the total reciprocal self-giving of husband and wife is overlaid, through contraception, by an objectively contradictory language, namely, that of not giving oneself totally to the other. This leads not only to a positive refusal to be open to life but also to a falsification of the inner truth of conjugal love, which is called upon to give itself in personal totality.

Quotiens vero coniuges, methodis contra conceptionem utentes, disiungnnL ambas illas signlficationes, quas Creator Deus in naturam ipsam inseruit viri ac mulieris atqne in dynamicam actionem eorum communionis sexualis, sese gerunt tamquam « arbitri » divini consilii et « detorquent» deiciuntque sexualitatem humanam et cum ea propriam personam atque personam coniugis, immutato momento donationis « totalis ». Sic naturali verbo, quod reciprocam plenamque coniugum donation em declarat, conceptuum impeditio verbum opponit obiectivae contradictionis, videlicet nullius plenae sui donationis alteri factae: hinc procedit non sola recusatio certa ac definita mentis ad vitam apertae, verum simulatio etiam interioris veritatis ipsius amoris coniugalis, qui secundum totam personam dirigitur ad sese donandum.

When, instead, by means of recourse to periods of infertility, the couple respect the inseparable connection between the unitive and procreative meanings of human sexuality, they are acting as "ministers" of God's plan and they "benefit from" their sexuality according to the original dynamism of "total" selfgiving, without manipulation or alteration.[90]

Cum coniuges, contra, per usum temporum infecundorum observant nexum indissolubilem significationum unitatis ac procreationis, quae in sexualitate humana insunt, sese gerunt tamquam « ministros » divini consilii et « utuntur » sexualitate secundum pristinam virtutem dynamicam « totalis» donationis sine fallaciis aut mutationibus (90).

In the light of the experience of many couples and of the data provided by the different human sciences, theological reflection is able to perceive and is called to study further the difference, both anthropological and moral, between contraception and recourse to the rhythm of the cycle: it is a difference which is much wider and deeper than is usually thought, one which involves in the final analysis two irreconcilable concepts of the human person and of human sexuality. The choice of the natural rhythms involves accepting the cycle of the person, that is the woman, and thereby accepting dialogue, reciprocal respect, shared responsibility and self- control. To accept the cycle and to enter into dialogue means to recognize both the spiritual and corporal character of conjugal communion and to live personal love with its requirement of fidelity. In this context the couple comes to experience how conjugal communion is enriched with those values of tenderness and affection which constitute the inner soul of human sexuality, in its physical dimension also. In this way sexuality is respected and promoted in its truly and fully human dimension, and is never "used" as an "object" that, by breaking the personal unity of soul and body, strikes at God's creation itself at the level of the deepest interaction of nature and person.

Praelucente experientia tot coniugum ac suppetentibus variarum scientiarum humanarum indiciis, theologica consideratio percipere potest atque altius perspicere debet discrimen anthropologicum simulque morale, quod inter conceptuum impeditionem et observation em intervallorum temporis intercedit: de differentia enim agitur longe ampliore ac profundiore quam plerumque cogitatur, quae tandem aliquando implicat duas personae ac sexualitatis species, quae inter se nequeunt conciliari. Usus cyclorum naturalium secum infert etiam acceptionem temporum ipsius personae, id est mulieris, pariterque acceptionem dialogi, mutuae observantiae, communis officii, dominatus sui ipsius. Sed agnoscere tempus et colloquium idem valet ac cognoscere indolem simul spiritalem et corpoream communionis coniugalis; significat quoque vivendo personalem amorem servare secundum eius postulatum fidelitatis. Itaque coniuges experiuntur communionem coniugalem locupletari bonis illis teneritatis affectionisque, quibus intima anima constat sexualitatis humanae etiam quod ad eius ration em attinet corpoream. Hoc modo sexualitas observatur et adiuvatur secundum naturam suam vere pleneque humanam, neque umquam « usurpatur » velut « obiectum», quod, dissuens animae corporisque coniunctionem, tangit ipsam Dei creaturam in nexu omnino intimo naturae ac personae.

  The Church as Teacher and Mother for Couples in Difficulty

 

33. In the field of conjugal morality the Church is Teacher and Mother and acts as such.

33. In provincia aequaliter doctrinae moralis coniugalis Ecclesia adest atque agit ut Magistra et Mater.

As Teacher, she never tires of proclaiming the moral norm that must guide the responsible transmission of life. The Church is in no way the author or the arbiter of this norm. In obedience to the truth which is Christ, whose image is reflected in the nature and dignity of the human person, the Church interprets the moral norm and proposes it to all people of good will, without concealing its demands of radicalness and perfection.

Uti Magistra numquam pronuntiare desistit moralem regulam, quae responsabilem moderari debet vitae transmissionem; cuius autem normae Ecclesia profecto nec auctor est nec arbitra. Christi obtemperans veritati, cuius imago in personae humanae dignitate indoleque refertur, Ecclesia interpretatur normam moralem, quam universis bonae voluntatis hominibus proponit, non tacens officium a mediis consiliis funditus abhorrens atque perfeetionem postulari.

As Mother, the Church is close to the many married couples who find themselves in difficulty over this important point of the moral life: she knows well their situation, which is often very arduous and at times truly tormented by difficulties of every kind, not only individual difficulties but social ones as well; she knows that many couples encounter difficulties not only in the concrete fulfillment of the moral norm but even in understanding its inherent values. [cited by Pope Francis in Amoris Laetitia 331]

Uti Mater Ecclesia praesens adstat multis coniugibus, qui ob grave hoc argumentum vitae moralis in difficultate versantur: exploratam habet eo rum condicionem, saepe quidem valde asperam et interdum reapse cruciatam omne genus difficultatibus non solum singularibus verum etiam socialibus; novit Ecclesia tot coniuges offendere obices non modo in concreta exsecutione at in ipsa etiam comprehensione bonorum, quae eadem continentur norma morali.

But it is one and the same Church that is both Teacher and Mother. And so the Church never ceases to exhort and encourage all to resolve whatever conjugal difficulties may arise without ever falsifying or compromising the truth: she is convinced that there can be no true contradiction between the divine law on transmitting life and that on fostering authentic married love.[91] Accordingly, the concrete pedagogy of the Church must always remain linked with her doctrine and never be separated from it. With the same conviction as my predecessor, I therefore repeat: "To diminish in no way the saving teaching of Christ constitutes an eminent form of charity for souls."[92]

Eadem vero et unica Ecclesia simul magistra est et mater. Quam ob rem numquam desinit invitare et incitare ut difficultates coniugales fortasse oborientes ita dissolvantur ne veritas ipsa umquam adulteretur aut in discrimen adducatur: sibi enim persuasum habet veram non posse repugnantiam esse inter legem clivinam vitae transmittendae atque legem de fovendo amore germano coniugali (91). Idcirco paedagogia Ecclesiae concreta semper cohaereat oportet neque umquam eam ab eius doctrina licet disiungi. Repetimus igitur eadem cum mentis persuasione, qua Decessor Noster ductus haec vera edixit: « Nihil de salutari Christi doctrina demittere praecellens quoddam caritatis erga animos genus est » (92).

On the other hand, authentic ecclesial pedagogy displays its realism and wisdom only by making a tenacious and courageous effort to create and uphold all the human conditions-psychological, moral and spiritual-indispensable for understanding and living the moral value and norm.

Altera vero ex parte vera paedogagia ecclesialis demonstrat suam cum rebus congruentiam sapientiamque dumtaxat officium fovendo tenax ac magnanimum illas condiciones omnes humanas inducendi ac fulciendi — psychologicas, morales, spiritales — quae pernecessariae sunt ad intellegendum morale bonum ac normam et ad inde vivendum.

There is no doubt that these conditions must include persistence and patience, humility and strength of mind, filial trust in God and in His grace, and frequent recourse to prayer and to the sacraments of the Eucharist and of Reconciliation.[93] Thus strengthened, Christian husbands and wives will be able to keep alive their awareness of the unique influence that the grace of the sacrament of marriage has on every aspect of married life, including therefore their sexuality: the gift of the Spirit, accepted and responded to by husband and wife, helps them to live their human sexuality in accordance with God's plan and as a sign of the unitive and fruitful love of Christ for His Church.

Nihil est dubii quin has inter condiciones annumerari debeat constantia et patientia, humilitas ac fortitudo animi, filiorum fiducia in Deum eiusque gratiam, frequens precationis usus necnon sacramentorum Eucharistiae et Reconciliationis (93). Sic roborati valebunt coniuges christiani vivam servare conscientiam singularis illius efficacitatis, quae e sacramenti matrimonii gratia ad omnes manat coniugalis vitae partes ac proinde etiam ad sexualitatem eorum: Spiritus donum receptum a coniugibus et observatum adiuvat eos ut sexualitate humana utantur secundum Dei consilium et tamquam signo amoris coagmentantis ac fecundi, quo Christus in Ecclesiam fertur.

But the necessary conditions alone in the knowledge of the bodily aspect and the body's rhythms of fertility. Accordingly, every effort must be made to render such knowledge accessible to all married people and also to young adults before marriage, through clear, timely and serious instruction and education given by married couples, doctors and experts. Knowledge must then lead to education in selfcontrol: hence the absolute necessity for the virtue of chastity and for permanent education in it. In the Christian view, chastily by no means signifies rejection of human sexuality or lack of esteem for it: rather it signifies spiritual energy capable of defending love from the perils of selfishness and aggressiveness, and able to advance it towards its full realization.

Sed necessarias condiciones ingreditur etiam cognitio corporeae naturae huiusque statorum temporum fertilitatis. Hac ex parte efficiendum est ut similis cognitio aperiatur coniugibus universis et ante omnes iuvenibus per institutionem educationemque dilucidam, tempestivam, seriam, adiunvantibus binis coniugibus, medicis, peritis. Deinde cognitio haec perducere debet ad educationem respicientem sui moderationem: hinc urget necessitas virtu tis castitatis atque constantis institutionis in ea. Secundum christianum modum de re iudicandi castitas minime significat recusationem aut contemptionem sexualitatis humanae: significat potius spiritale robur, quod tueri valeat amorem a periculis effrenati studii sui ipsiuus et cupiditatis aggrediendi quodque eundem amorem provehat ad plenam eius exsecutionem.

With deeply wise and loving intuition, Paul VI was only voicing the experience of many married couples when he wrote in his Encyclical: "To dominate instinct by means of one's reason and free will undoubtedly requires ascetical practices, so that the affective manifestations of conjugal life may observe the correct order, in particular with regard to the observance of periodic continence. Yet this discipline which is proper to the purity of married couples, far from harming conjugal love, rather confers on it a higher human value. It demands continual effort, yet, thanks to its beneficent influence, husband and wife fully develop their personalities, being enriched with spiritual values. Such discipline bestows upon family life fruits of serenity and peace, and facilitates the solution of other problems; it favors attention for one's partner, helps both parties to drive out selfishness, the enemy of true love, and deepens their sense of responsibility. By its means, parents acquire the capacity of having a deeper and more efficacious influence in the education of their offspring. [94]

Paulus VI alte intuens cum sapientia et amore nihil fecit aliud nisi loqui passus est tot coniuges, cum in Encyclicis Litteris suis scriberet: « Nihil profecto est dubii, quin naturae impetibus, rationis liberaeque voluntatis ope, imperare asceseos sit opus, ut nempe amoris significationes, coniugalis vitae propriae, cum recto ordine congruant; quod praesertim ad usum continentiae, certis temp oris intervallis servandae, requiritur. Verum huiusmodi disciplina, un de coniugum castimonia elucet, ad eo eorum amori non obest, ut maiore eundem humanitatis sensu perfundat. Quodsi huiusmodi disciplina assiduam virium intentionem exigit, salutari tamen eius virtute coniuges seipsos plene excolunt spiritualibusque bonis ditantur: ea enim domestico convictui amplos tranquillitatis ac pacis fructus affert, atque solvendis alius generis difficultatibus prodest; ea alterius coniugis curam et observantiam erga alterum fovet; coniuges in immoelico sui amore depellendo, qui germanae repugnat caritati, adiuvat; eosclemque ad conscientiam munerum exsequendorum erigit. Ea denique parentibus intimam et efficaciorem auctoritatem ad liberos educandos confert » (94).

The Moral Progress of Married People

 

34. It is always very important to have a right notion of the moral order, its values and its norms; and the importance is all the greater when the difficulties in the way of respecting them become more numerous and serious.

34. Magni semper interest rectam habere notion em ordinis moralis, eius bonorum atque normarum: vel pluris hoc interest quo plures gravioresque fiunt difficultates ea observandi.

Since the moral order reveals and sets forth the plan of God the Creator, for this very reason it cannot be something that harms man, something impersonal. On the contrary, by responding to the deepest demands of the human being created by God, it places itself at the service of that person's full humanity with the delicate and binding love whereby God Himself inspires, sustains and guides every creature towards its happiness.

Quandoquidem Dei Creatoris propositum recludit et exponit, idcirco potissimum orelo moralis non potest homini esse aliquid, quod eum offendat eiusque abiciat personam; ex contrario, cum or do moralis respondet postulatis intimis hominis a Deo creati, tum plenae humanitati illius inservit suavi et vinciente amore, quo ipse Deus movet, sustinet, ducit ad felicitatem eius omnem creaturam.

Law of Gradualness  
  THE LAW of GRADUALNESS  
But man, who has been called to live God's wise and loving design in a responsible manner, is an historical being who day by day builds himself up through his many free decisions; and so he knows, loves and accomplishes moral good by stages of growth.

Homo tamen, qui vocatur ut e sapienti amanteque Dei consilio more conscio vivat, est animans historicus, qui de die in diem quasi exstruitur pluribus cum suis optionibus: ergo cognoscit, diligit, perficit morale bonum secundum incrementi eius gradus.

Married people too are called upon to progress unceasingly in their moral life, with the support of a sincere and active desire to gain ever better knowledge of the values enshrined in and fostered by the law of God. They must also be supported by an upright and generous willingness to embody these values in their concrete decisions. They cannot however look on the law as merely an ideal to be achieved in the future: they must consider it as a command of Christ the Lord to overcome difficulties with constancy. Coniuges quoque intra moralem suam vitam destinantur ad iter perpetuum, suffulti sincera actuosaque voluntate melius usque cognoscendi bona, quae custodit lex divina ac promovet, necnon voluntate recta ac magnanima quasi concorporandi illa bona concretis in suis optionibus. Nihilominus legem respicere illos non licet tantummodo ut meram quandam optimae formae effigiem consequendam futuro aliquo tempore, sed eam considerent oportet ut Christi Domini praeceptum, facientes ut studiose difficultates supervadant. «
"And so what is known as 'the law of gradualness' or step-by-step advance cannot be identified with 'gradualness of the law,' as if there were different degrees or forms of precept in God's law for different individuals and situations. In God's plan, all husbands and wives are called in marriage to holiness, and this lofty vocation is fulfilled to the extent that the human person is able to respond to God's command with serene confidence in God's grace and in his or her own will."[95] On the same lines, it is part of the Church's pedagogy that husbands and wives should first of all recognize clearly the teaching of Humanae vitae as indicating the norm for the exercise of their sexuality, and that they should endeavor to establish the conditions necessary for observing that norm.

 Etenim sic dicta ”ex gradualitatis” seu gradualis profectus idem esse non potest ac ”gradualitas legis”, quasi varii sint gradus seu praecepti formae pro variis hominibus et condicionibus in lege divina. Omnes coniuges in matrimonio ad sanctitatem secundum Dei cons ilium vocantur; atque huius vocationis praestantia ad effectum deducitur, quatenus persona human a praecepto Dei valet respondere, sereno animo gratiae divinae ac propriae voluntati confisa » (95). Eodem pacto interest Ecclesiae paedagogiae ut coniuges imprimis clare agnoscant doctrinam Litterarum Humanae vitae inscriptarum, perinde ac regulam sua sexualitate utendi utque ex animo studeant condiciones necessarias comparare ad eandem hanc norm am servandam.

As the Synod noted, this pedagogy embraces the whole of married life. Accordingly, the function of transmitting life must be integrated into the overall mission of Christian life as a whole, which without the Cross cannot reach the Resurrection. In such a context it is understandable that sacrifice cannot be removed from family life, but must in fact be wholeheartedly accepted if the love between husband and wife is to be deepened and become a source of intimate joy.

Omnem coniugalem vitam haec amplectitur paedagogia, ut Synodus animadvertit. Quapropter vitae tradendae munus ingredi debet universale munus omnis vitae christianae, quae sine cruce nequit ad resurrectionem pervenire. Aequabiliter intellegitur auferri a vita familiari se abnegandi devovendique studium non posse, quin immo complectendum illud ex animo esse ut coniugalis amor altius inhaerescat intimaeque fiat fans laetitiae.

This shared progress demands reflection, instruction and suitable education on the part of the priests, religious and lay people engaged in family pastoral work: they will all be able to assist married people in their human and spiritual progress, a progress that demands awareness of sin, a sincere commitment to observe the moral law, and the ministry of reconciliation. It must also be kept in mind that conjugal intimacy involves the wills of two persons, who are however called to harmonize their mentality and behavior: this requires much patience, understanding and time. Uniquely important in this field is unity of moral and pastoral judgment by priests, a unity that must be carefully sought and ensured, in order that the faithful may not have to suffer anxiety of conscience.[96]

Commune hoc iter effiagitat ponderationem, nuntiorum communicationem, educationem aptam sacerdotum et religiosorum et laicorum in pastorali opera pro familia versantium: ii omnes auxilio esse poterunt. coniugibus in itinere eorum humane et spiritali, quod prae se fert conscientiam peccati ac sincerum officium servandi legem moralem necnon reconciliationis ministerium. Agnosci etiam debet in intima coniugum necessitudine voluntates duorum hominum implicari, vocatorum tamen ad mentium morumque convenientiam: poscere vero id permultum patientiae, lenitudinis ac temporis. Peculiaris omnino ponderis hac in re est unanimis iudiciorum moralium et pastoralium consensus in sacerdotibus: haec congruentia accurate conquiratur et custodiatur necesse est ne fideles pati cogantur conscientiae angores (96).

It will be easier for married people to make progress if, with respect for the Church's teaching and with trust in the grace of Christ, and with the help and support of the pastors of souls and the entire ecclesial community, they are able to discover and experience the liberating and inspiring value of the authentic love that is offered by the Gospel and set before us by the Lord's commandment. Instilling Conviction and Offering Practical Help

Coniugum ergo iter expedietur, si, doctrinam Ecclesiae magni existimantes magnopereque Christi gratiae fidentes tum etiam adiuvantibus eos et comitantibus animarum pastoribus cunctaque ecclesiali communitate, detexerint illi et experti fuerint vim liberantem et promoventem veri amoris, quem Evangelium praebet ac Domini proponit mandatum.

35. With regard to the question of lawful birth regulation, the ecclesial community at the present time must take on the task of instilling conviction and offering practical help to those who wish to live out their parenthood in a truly responsible way.

35. Quod pertinet ad difficultatem honestae natalium temperationis, communitas ecclesialis hoc ipso tempore recipere in sese debet officium excitandi firm as persuasiones atque adiumenta concreta iis subministrandi quotquot in vita colere exoptant paternitatem ac maternitatem vere responsabili modo.

In this matter, while the Church notes with satisfaction the results achieved by scientific research aimed at a more precise knowledge of the rhythms of women's fertility, and while it encourages a more decisive and wide-ranging extension of that research, it cannot fail to call with renewed vigor on the responsibility of all-doctors, experts, marriage counselors, teachers and married couples-who can actually help married people to live their love with respect for the structure and finalities of the conjugal act which expresses that love. This implies a broader, more decisive and more systematic effort to make the natural methods of regulating fertility known, respected and applied.[97]

Hac in re, dum gaudet Ecclesia de progressibus investigationum scientificarum iam factis ad subtiliorem cognitionem temporum fertilitatis muliebris atque propugnat constantiorem quidem latioremque exercitationem huiusmodi studiorum, non tamen potest renovata vehementia non fiagitare officium omnium eorum — medicorum, peritorum, consultorum coniugalium, educatorum necnon maritorum ipsorum — qui reapse subvenire coniugibus valent ut amorem suum in vita foveant, simul observantes structuram ac fines actus coniugalis, qui illum declarat. Porro hoc significat quoddam officium, amplius, magis decretorium aptiusque ordinatum ut methodi naturales temperandae fecunditatis cognoscantur, existimentur, applicentur (97).

A very valuable witness can and should be given by those husbands and wives who through the joint exercise of periodic continence have reached a more mature personal responsibility with regard to love and life. As Paul VI wrote: "To them the Lord entrusts the task of making visible to people the holiness and sweetness of the law which unites the mutual love of husband and wife with their cooperation with the love of God, the author of human life."[98]

Magni pretii testificatio potest debetque a coniugibus illis reddi, qui e communi consilio servandae statutis temporibus continentiae adepti sunt maturius quod clam iudicium suum de amore et vita. Quemadmodum Paulus VI scripsit, « munus Dominus iisdem committit, ut hominibus patefaciant illius legis sanctitatem itemque suavitatem, qua mutuus eorum amor cum adiutrice opera ab ipsis data amori Dei, humanae vitae auctoris, arte coniungitur » (98).

2. Education

 

The Right and Duty of Parents Regarding Education

 

36. The task of giving education is rooted in the primary vocation of married couples to participate in God's creative activity: by begetting in love and for love a new person who has within himself or herself the vocation to growth and development, parents by that very fact take on the task of helping that person effectively to live a fully human life. As the Second Vatican Council recalled, "since parents have conferred life on their children, they have a most solemn obligation to educate their offspring. Hence, parents must be acknowledged as the first and foremost educators of their children. Their role as educators is so decisive that scarcely anything can compensate for their failure in it. For it devolves on parents to create a family atmosphere so animated with love and reverence for God and others that a well-rounded personal and social development will be fostered among the children. Hence, the family is the first school of those social virtues which every society needs."[99].

36. Educationis opus immittit veluti radices in primigeniam coniugum vocationem, nempe ad communicandam creatricem Dei operam: in amore ex amoreque novum gignentes hominem, qui in se quoque habet vocationem ad incrementum et progressum, parentes in se recipiunt munus efficienter eum adiuvandi ad vitam usquequaque humanam ducendam. Sicut Concilium Vaticanum Secundum commonuit, « parentes, cum vitam filiis contulerint, prolem educandi gravissima obligatione tenentur et ideo primi et praecipui eorum educatores agnoscendi sunt. Quod munus educationis tanti ponderis est ut, ubi desit, aegre suppleri possit. Parentum enim est talem familiae ambitum amore, pietate erga Deum et homines animatum creare qui integrae filiorum educationi personali et sociali faveat. Familia proinde est prima schola virtutum socialium quibus indigent o mn es societates » (99).

The right and duty of parents to give education is essential, since it is connected with the transmission of human life; it is original and primary with regard to the educational role of others, on account of the uniqueness of the loving relationship between parents and children; and it is irreplaceable and inalienable, and therefore incapable of being entirely delegated to others or usurped by others.

Coniugum ius officiumque instituendi definitur essentiale, quoniam cum vitae humanae transmissione cohaeret, nativum ac primarium, quatenus respicit aliorum educandorum opus atque unica est amoris coniunctio inter parentes et filios; nec permutandum nec alienandum, quod propterea neque aliis totum delegari licet neque ab aliis usurpari.

In addition to these characteristics, it cannot be forgotten that the most basic element, so basic that it qualifies the educational role of parents, is parental love, which finds fulfillment in the task of education as it completes and perfects its service of life: as well as being a source, the parents' love is also the animating principle and therefore the norm inspiring and guiding all concrete educational activity, enriching it with the values of kindness, constancy, goodness, service, disinterestedness and self-sacrifice that are the most precious fruit of love.

Has praeter qualitates mini me est obliviscendum principalem maxime partem, utpote quae educandi munus parentum circumscribat, paternum esse maternumque amorem, qui opere institutorio consummetur, implente perficienteque vitae ministerium: parentum amor e fonte fit anima ideoque norma, quae movet ac dirigit omnem concretam educationis navitatem, quam illis bonis locupletat lenitatis, constantiae, bonitatis, servitii, neglectionis commodorum suorum, se abnegandi devovendique studii, quae sunt amoris pretiosissimi fructus.

Educating in the Essential Values of Human Life

 

37. Even amid the difficulties of the work of education, difficulties which are often greater today, parents must trustingly and courageously train their children in the essential values of human life. Children must grow up with a correct attitude of freedom with regard to material goods, by adopting a simple and austere life style and being fully convinced that "man is more precious for what he is than for what he has."[100]

37. Quamvis operis institutorii difficultates saepius hodie aggravatae obstent, parentes cum fiducia fortitudineque filios insiituere debent ad necessaria bona vitae humanae. Crescant filii necesse est, aequa fruentes libertate in opum terrenarum usu, atque suscipiant simplex et austerum vivendi genus persuasum hoc habentes: « Magis valet homo propter id quod est quam propter id quod habet » (100).

In a society shaken and split by tensions and conflicts caused by the violent clash of various kinds of individualism and selfishness, children must be enriched not only with a sense of true justice, which alone leads to respect for the personal dignity of each individual, but also and more powerfully by a sense of true love, understood as sincere solicitude and disinterested service with regard to others, especially the poorest and those in most need. The family is the first and fundamental school of social living: as a community of love, it finds in self-giving the law that guides it and makes it grow. The self- giving that inspires the love of husband and wife for each other is the model and norm for the self-giving that must be practiced in the relationships between brothers and sisters and the different generations living together in the family. And the communion and sharing that are part of everyday life in the home at times of joy and at times of difficulty are the most concrete and effective pedagogy for the active, responsible and fruitful inclusion of the children in the wider horizon of society.

Porro in societate conturbata ac dissipata contentionibus conflictationibusque ob acre certamen diversa inter studia hominum seorsum sibi solis consulentium nimioque sui amore ductorum, augeri debent filii non tantum verae iustitiae sensu, quae una homines ad cuiusque dignitatis personalis observantiam permovet, verum etiam, immo et magis veri sensu amoris, qui est sin cera cura ac ministerium, cum sui commodi neglectione coniunctum, erga alios, potissimum pauperrimos egentissimosque. Est quid em familia schola prima ac princeps virtutum socialium: tamquam amoris communitas reperit illa in dona sui ipsius legem, quae ducit eam facitque ut crescat. Donatio sui, quae coniugum amorem inter se inspirat, proponitur tamquam exemplar ac norma donationis sui, quae effici debet in rationibus inter fratres ac sorores intercedentibus necnon inter variae aetatis homines, qui in familia simul vivunt. Atque communio ac participatio peracta cotidie in familia laetitiae difficultatisque temporibus solidissimam sane et efficacissimam paedagogiam constituit, qua filii actuoso, conscio, fructuoso modo inserantur in vastiorem orbem societatis.

Education in love as self-giving is also the indispensable premise for parents called to give their children a clear and delicate sex education. Faced with a culture that largely reduces human sexuality to the level of something common place, since it interprets and lives it in a reductive and impoverished way by linking it solely with the body and with selfish pleasure, the educational service of parents must aim firmly at a training in the area of sex that is truly and fully personal: for sexuality is an enrichment of the whole person-body, emotions and soul-and it manifests its inmost meaning in leading the person to the gift of self in love.

Institutio ad amorem ut sui ipsius donum est etiam pernecessaria condicio parentibus vocatis ut filiis tradant claram prudentemque educationem sexualem. Adversus cultus humani rationem, quae maxima ex parte sexualitatem humanam reddit « vulgarem », quandoquidem accipit eam et exsequitur anguste misereque iungens eam corpori soli et nonnisi voluptati singulorum sibi solis consulentium, educandi ministerium parentum firmiter anniti debet ad culturam sexualem, quam dicunt quaeque vere ac plene sit personalis: sexualitas enim est totius personae thesaurus — corpus, sensus et anima — suamque demonstrat intimam significationem, dum provehit hominem ad sui donum in amore.

Sex education, which is a basic right and duty of parents, must always be carried out under their attentive guidance, whether at home or in educational centers chosen and controlled by them. In this regard, the Church reaffirms the law of subsidiarity, which the school is bound to observe when it cooperates in sex education, by entering into the same spirit that animates the parents.

Sexualis institutio, primarium videlicet ius et officium ipsorum parentum, impleatur semper oportet sollicita sub eorum moderatione tum domi tum in educationis sedibus, electis inspectisque ab ipsis. Hac in re Ecclesia rursus inculcat legem subsidiariae rationis, quae scholae est observanda, quotiens adiutricem praestat educationis sexualis operam, eundem animum induendo, quo parentes ducuntur.

In this context education for chastity is absolutely essential, for it is a virtue that develops a person's authentic maturity and makes him or her capable of respecting and fostering the "nuptial meaning" of the body. Indeed Christian parents, discerning the signs of God's call, will devote special attention and care to education in virginity or celibacy as the supreme form of that self-giving that constitutes the very meaning of human sexuality.

Hac in re praetermitti omnino non licet educationem ad castitatem uti virtutem, quae germanam personae maturitatem provehit illamque aptam facit ut revereatur et promoveat « significationem sponsalem » corporis. Quin immo christiani parentes, signa Dei vocationis discernentes, peculiarem diligentiam curamque impendant institutioni ad virginitatem sicut supremam formam illius donationis sui, quae sensum ipsum efficit sexualitatis humanae.

In view of the close links between the sexual dimension of the person and his or her ethical values, education must bring the children to a knowledge of and respect for the moral norms as the necessary and highly valuable guarantee for responsible personal growth in human sexuality.

Propter arcta vincula, quae inter rationem sexualem personae intercedunt et eius ethica bona, opus educandi filios eo ducere debet ut percipiant et aestiment normas morales tamquam necessarium ac pretiosum praesidium responsabilis incrementi personalis in iis quae ad sexualitatem pertinent humanam.

For this reason the Church is firmly opposed to an often widespread form of imparting sex information dissociated from moral principles. That would merely be an introduction to the experience of pleasure and a stimulus leading to the loss of serenity-while still in the years of innocence-by opening the way to vice.

Hac de causa constanter Ecclesia adversatur cuidam formae institutionis sexualis, a moralibus praeceptis segregatae ac tam saepe divulgatae, quae aliud nihil est quam praeparatio ad voluptatem experiendam necnon incitamentum, quod — iam ipsis innocentiae annis — causa est cur et serenitas pereat et vitiis pateat via.

The Mission To Educate and the Sacrament of Marriage

 

38. For Christian parents the mission to educate, a mission rooted, as we have said, in their participation in God's creating activity, has a new specific source in the sacrament of marriage, which consecrates them for the strictly Christian education of their children: that is to say, it calls upon them to share in the very authority and love of God the Father and Christ the Shepherd, and in the motherly love of the Church, and it enriches them with wisdom, counsel, fortitude and all the other gifts of the Holy Spirit in order to help the children in their growth as human beings and as Christians.

38. Parentum christianum munus institutorium, inhaerens — sicut supra est dictum — in eorum communicatione operae Dei creatricis, novum habet propriumque fontem in matrimonii sacramento, quod eos dicat educationi singulariter christianae filiorum, vocat eos scilicet ad ipsam participandam auctoritatem et ipsum am or em Dei Patris et Christi Pastoris necnon maternum Ecclesiae amorem, ditat eos sapientia, consilio, fortitudine omnique alio Spiritus Sancti dono, un de liberi adiuventur in humana sua et christiana maturatione.

The sacrament of marriage gives to the educational role the dignity and vocation of being really and truly a "ministry" of the Church at the service of the building up of her members. So great and splendid is the educational ministry of Christian parents that Saint Thomas has no hesitation in comparing it with the ministry of priests: "Some only propagate and guard spiritual life by a spiritual ministry: this is the role of the sacrament of Orders; others do this for both corporal and spiritual life, and this is brought about by the sacrament of marriage, by which a man and a woman join in order to beget offspring and bring them up to worship God."[101]

Ex matrimonii sacramento officium educationis dignitatem haurit ac vocationem ut verum sit ac proprium « ministerium » Ecclesiae, quod prosit sodalium eius perfectioni. Talis est excelsitas splendorque ministerii institutorii parentum christianorum ut nihil dubitet Sanctus Thomas id comparare cum sacerdotum ministerio: « sunt enim, inquit, quidam propagatores et conservatores spiritualis vitae secundum spirituale ministerium tantum, ad quod pertinet ordinis sacramentum; et secundum corporalem et spiritualem simul, quod fit per sacramentum matrimonii, quo vir et mulier conveniunt ad prolem generandam et educandam ad cultum divinum » (101).

A vivid and attentive awareness of the mission that they have received with the sacrament of marriage will help Christian parents to place themselves at the service of their children's education with great serenity and trustfulness, and also with a sense of responsibility before God, who calls them and gives them the mission of building up the Church in their children. Thus in the case of baptized people, the family, called together by word and sacrament as the Church of the home, is both teacher and mother, the same as the worldwide Church.

Viva vigilque conscientia missionis, acceptae cum matrimonii sacramento, adiuvabit christianos parentes ut magna cum tranquillitate ac fiducia sese cledant ministerio liberorum educandorum eodemque tempore cum officii sui conscientia respectu Dei, qui eos vocat et mittit ut in filiis Ecclesiam aeclificent. Ita quidem baptizatorum familia, tamquam Ecclesia domestica congregata verba et sacramento, fit simul, instar Ecclesiae magnae, magistra et mater.

First Experience of the Church

 

39. The mission to educate demands that Christian parents should present to their children all the topics that are necessary for the gradual maturing of their personality from a Christian and ecclesial point of view. They will therefore follow the educational lines mentioned above, taking care to show their children the depths of significance to which the faith and love of Jesus Christ can lead. Furthermore, their awareness that the Lord is entrusting to them the growth of a child of God, a brother or sister of Christ, a temple of the Holy Spirit, a member of the Church, will support Christian parents in their task of strengthening the gift of divine grace in their children's souls.

39. Poscit educandi munus ut christiani parentes filiis ea omnia elementa suppeclitent, quibus opus est ut eorum personae ratione tum christiana tum ecclesiali gradatim maturescant. Revocent igitur educationis elementa superius memorata curentque ut filiis commons trent ad quam altas significationes fides atque caritas Iesu Christi eos perducere possit. Praeterea conscientia Dominum sibi commendavisse incrementum alicuius filii Dei, fratris Christi, templi Spiritus Sancti, Ecclesiae sodalis, sustentabit christianos parentes eorum in officio donum gratiae divinae in filiorum animis confirmandi.

The Second Vatican Council describes the content of Christian education as follows: "Such an education does not merely strive to foster maturity...in the human person. Rather, its principal aims are these: that as baptized persons are gradually introduced into a knowledge of the mystery of salvation, they may daily grow more conscious of the gift of faith which they have received; that they may learn to adore God the Father in spirit and in truth (cf. Jn. 4:23), especially through liturgical worship; that they may be trained to conduct their personal life in true righteousness and holiness, according to their new nature (Eph. 4:22-24), and thus grow to maturity, to the stature of the fullness of Christ (cf. Eph. 4:13), and devote themselves to the upbuilding of the Mystical Body. Moreover, aware of their calling, they should grow accustomed to giving witness to the hope that is in them (cf. 1 Pt. 3:15), and to promoting the Christian transformation of the world."[102]

Hisce verbis describit Concilimu Vaticanum Secundum educationis christianae argumentum: « Non solum maturitatem humanae personae ... prosequitur, sed eo principaliter spectat ut baptizati dum in cognitionem mysterii salutis gradatim introducuntur, accepti fidei doni in dies magis conscii fiant; Deum Patrem in spiritu et veri tate adorare (cf. 10 4, 23) praeprimis in actione liturgica adcliscant, ad propriam vitam secundum novum hominem in iustitia et sanctitate veritatis (Eph 4, 22-24) gerendam conformentur; ita quid em occurrant in virum perfectum, in aetatem plenitudinis Christi (cf. Eph 4, 13) et augmento corporis mystici operam praestent. !idem insuper suae vocationis conscii tum spei quae in eis est (cf. 1 Pet 3, 15), testimonium exhibere tum Christianam mundi conformationem adiuvare consuescant » (102).

The Synod too, taking up and developing the indications of the Council, presented the educational mission of the Christian family as a true ministry through which the Gospel is transmitted and radiated, so that family life itself becomes an itinerary of faith and in some way a Christian initiation and a school of following Christ. Within a family that is aware of this gift, as Paul VI wrote, "all the members evangelize and are evangelized."[103]

Synodus quoque, doctrinae Concilii rationes suscipiens et amplificans, perhibuit missionem institutoriam christianae familiae verum ministerium, quo sic Evangelium traditur ac diffunditur ut ipsa familiaris vita fiat iter fidei et aliquo modo christiana initiatio necnon schola Christi sequelae. Quemadmodum Paulus VI scripsit, « apud familiam huius muneris consciam, omnia eiusdem familiae membra evangelizant atque evangelizantur » (103).

By virtue of their ministry of educating, parents are, through the witness of their lives, the first heralds of the Gospel for their children. Furthermore, by praying with their children, by reading the word of God with them and by introducing them deeply through Christian initiation into the Body of Christ-both the Eucharistic and the ecclesial Body-they become fully parents, in that they are begetters not only of bodily life but also of the life that through the Spirit's renewal flows from the Cross and Resurrection of Christ.

Propter hoc educationis ministerium parentes ex ipsa vitae testificatione primi sunt Evangelii praecones apud liberos. Preces fundentes insuper cum filiis atque cum iis vacantes legendo verbo Dei et insinuantes eos in Christi intimum Corpus, eucharisticum et ecclesiale, per initiationem christianam, fiunt illi plane parentes, id est non vitae carnalis tantum generatores verum etiam illius, quae per Spiritus renovationem profluit ex Christi Cruce ac resurrectione.

In order that Christian parents may worthily carry out their ministry of educating, the Synod Fathers expressed the hope that a suitable catechism for families would be prepared, one that would be clear, brief and easily assimilated by all. The Episcopal Conferences were warmly invited to contribute to producing this catechism.

Ut suo valerent parentes christiani educationis digne munere perfungi, Synodi Patres exoptaverunt ut idoneus concinnaretur liber catechismi ad usum familiae, perspicuus, brevis atque eiusmodi ut ab omnibus facile animo posset comprehendi. Episcopales Conferentiae vebementer sunt rogatae ut in hunc comparandum catechismum stucliose incumberent.

Relations with Other Educating Agents

 

40. The family is the primary but not the only and exclusive educating community. Man's community aspect itself-both civil and ecclesial-demands and leads to a broader and more articulated activity resulting from well-ordered collaboration between the various agents of education. All these agents are necessary, even though each can and should play its part in accordance with the special competence and contribution proper to itself.[104]

40. Prima quidem est familia, sed non unica vel exclusoria commllnitas institutoria: ipsa communitaria, civilis atque ecclesialis qualitas hominis exigit amplius ordinatiusque opus — ad idemque conducit — quod effectlls sit bene dispositae adiutricis operae varii generis educatorum. Hi omnes sunt necessarii, licet unusquisque eorum valeat et debeat agere secundum suam potestatem propriamque iuvandi facultatem (104).

The educational role of the Christian family therefore has a very important place in organic pastoral work. This involves a new form of cooperation between parents and Christian communities, and between the various educational groups and pastors. In this sense, the renewal of the Catholic school must give special attention both to the parents of the pupils and to the formation of a perfect educating community.

Institutorium familiae christianae officium obtinet idcirco momentum valde praestans in ordinato apostolatu pastorali: id quod novam secum fert cooperationis formam tum inter parentes christianasque communitates tum etiam divers os inter coetus educationi deditos et ipsos pastores. Renovatio proinde scholae catholicae peculiarem curam intendere debet tam in alumnorum parentes quam in constitutionem excellentis communitatis institutoriae.

The right of parents to choose an education in conformity with their religious faith must be absolutely guaranteed.

Omnino collocandum est in tuto parentum ius eligendi educationem suae fidei religiosae convenientem.

The State and the Church have the obligation to give families all possible aid to enable them to perform their educational role properly. Therefore both the Church and the State must create and foster the institutions and activities that families justly demand, and the aid must be in proportion to the families' needs. However, those in society who are in charge of schools must never forget that the parents have been appointed by God Himself as the first and principal educators of their children and that their right is completely inalienable.

Civitas autem et Ecclesia familiis concedant necesse est omnia adiumenta, quae tribui possunt ut congruenter sua educandi munia factitent. Quamobrem simul Ecclesia simul Civitas inducere ac provehere debent illa instituta et actionis formas, quae familiae legitime postulant: et adiumenta congruant oportet familiarum insufficientiae. Omnes ideo, qui in societate scholis praesunt, ne obliviscantur umquam parentes a Deo constitutos esse primos ac principes filiorum educatores neque eorum ius omnino posse abalienari.

But corresponding to their right, parents have a serious duty to commit themselves totally to a cordial and active relationship with the teachers and the school authorities.

Sed veluti complementum ad hoc ius accedit grave quidem parentum officium pro viribus usquequaque procurandi affec tionis effectionisque necessitudinem cum magistris scholarum atque praefectis.

If ideologies opposed to the Christian faith are taught in the schools, the family must join with other families, if possible through family associations, and with all its strength and with wisdom help the young not to depart from the faith. In this case the family needs special assistance from pastors of souls, who must never forget that parents have the inviolable right to entrust their children to the ecclesial community.

Si vero in scholis doctrinae christianae fidei adversantes traduntur, familia ipsa una cum aliis familiis, si fieri potest per familiarum consociationes, omnibus viribus atque sapienter adulescentes necesse est adiuvet ne a fide recedant. Quo in casu familia specialium indiget auxiliorum animarum pastoribus praebendorum, quos oblivisci dedecet parentibus inviolabile esse ius proprios liberos ecclesiali communitati concredendi.

Manifold Service to Life

 

41. Fruitful married love expresses itself in serving life in many ways. Of these ways, begetting and educating children are the most immediate, specific and irreplaceable. In fact, every act of true love towards a human being bears witness to and perfects the spiritual fecundity of the family, since it is an act of obedience to the deep inner dynamism of love as self-giving to others.

41. Coniugalis amor fecundus variis rationibus ministerii vitae ostenditur, in quibus generatio et educatio sunt proximae maximeque propriae et tales ut pro iis nihil substitui possit. Revera quilibet actus veri amoris in hominem testatur et plet spiritalem familiae fecunditatem, quoniam interiori cuidam dynamicae virtuti obtemperat amoris tamquam sui ipsius donationis aliis factae.

For everyone this perspective is full of value and commitment, and it can be an inspiration in particular for couples who experience physical sterility.

Secundum has ipsas rationes, pro omnibus plenas momenti officiique, movebuntur praesertim coniuges illi qui corporis experiuntur sterilitatem.

Christian families, recognizing with faith all human beings as children of the same heavenly Father, will respond generously to the children of other families, giving them support and love not as outsiders but as members of the one family of God's children. Christian parents will thus be able to spread their love beyond the bonds of flesh and blood, nourishing the links that are rooted in the spirit and that develop through concrete service to the children of other families, who are often without even the barest necessities.

Christianae familiae, quae omnes homines ex fide agnoscunt filios communis Patris caelorum, liberaliter occurrant aliarum familiarum liberis, quos sustineant et diligant non ut alienos, verum sodales unius familiae Dei filiorum. Hoc pacto poterunt christiani parentes amorem suum dilatare ultra carnis et sanguinis vincula coniunctionibus fovendis, quae in animo inhaerent quaeque explicantur in concreto ministerio erga aliarum familiarum filios, saepius etiam rerum maxime necessariarum egentes.

Christian families will be able to show greater readiness to adopt and foster children who have lost their parents or have been abandoned by them. Rediscovering the warmth of affection of a family, these children will be able to experience God's loving and provident fatherhood witnessed to by Christian parents, and they will thus be able to grow up with serenity and confidence in life. At the same time the whole family will be enriched with the spiritual values of a wider fraternity.

Vivendo exhibebunt christianae familiae paratiores animos ad adoptandos suscipiendosque filios parentibus orbatos vel ab iis derelictos: dum enim illi liberi, reperientes iterum fervorem et affectum familiae, possunt experiri amantem providentemque Dei paternitatem, a parentibus christianis ostensam, et sic etiam cum tranquillitate ac fiducia vitae adulescere, tota simul familia spiritalibus bonis amplioris cuiusdam fraternitatis ditescet.

Family fecundity must have an unceasing "creativity," a marvelous fruit of the Spirit of God, who opens the eyes of the heart to discover the new needs and sufferings of our society and gives courage for accepting them and responding to them. A vast field of activity. lies open to families: today, even more preoccupying than child abandonment is the phenomenon of social and cultural exclusion, which seriously affects the elderly, the sick, the disabled, drug addicts, ex-prisoners, etc.

Familiarum fecunditas habere debet perpetuam suam « vim creatricem », fructum scilicet mirabilem Dei Spiritus, qui veluti cordium aperit oculos ut novas societatis nostrae necessitates acerbitatesque cernant et qui animos confirmet ut hae accipiantur iisdemque respondeatur. Ad haec quod attinet, familiis campus patet amplissimus, in quem industria earum excurrat: etenim multo magis quam filiorum desertio sollicitat hodie ipsa socialis et culturalis segregatio, quae aspere senes affiigit et aegros, impeditos et medicamentis toxicis assuetos, quondam vinculis detentos et alios huiusmodi.

This broadens enormously the horizons of the parenthood of Christian families: these and many other urgent needs of our time are a challenge to their spiritually fruitful love. With families and through them, the Lord Jesus continues to "have compassion" on the multitudes.

Hac ratione fines paternitatis ac maternitatis familiarum christianarum in immensum ampliantur: provocatur enim spiritaliter fecundus illarum amor his aliisque tot nostri temporis necessitatibus. Cum familiis autem ac per eas Dominus Iesus super turbas pergit misereri.

III - PARTICIPATING IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIETY  
The Family as the First and Vital Cell of Society

 

42. "Since the Creator of all things has established the conjugal partnership as the beginning and basis of human society," the family is "the first and vital cell of society."[105]

42. « Cum Conditor omnium constituerit coniugale consortium exordium et fundamentum societatis humanae ... familia ipsa ... prima et vitalis cellula societatis » est facta (105).

The family has vital and organic links with society, since it is its foundation and nourishes it continually through its role of service to life: it is from the family that citizens come to birth and it is within the family that they find the first school of the social virtues that are the animating principle of the existence and development of society itself.

Familia cum societate ratione vitali et ordinata quasi vinculis coniungitur, quoniam eius fundamentum efficit atque perenne alimentum per suum ipsius munus vitae inserviendi: nam ex familia cives nascuntur et in familia primam scholam illarum virtutum socialium inveniunt, quae animant societatis ipsius vitam ac progressionem.

Thus, far from being closed in on itself, the family is by nature and vocation open to other families and to society, and undertakes its social role.

Ita ex natura vocationeque sua tan tum abest ut familia in se concludatur ut aliis etiam familiis et societati aperiatur, proprio sociali officio suscepto.

Family Life as an Experience of Communion and Sharing

 

43. The very experience of communion and sharing that should characterize the family's daily life represents its first and fundamental contribution to society.

43. Experimentum ipsum communionis et participationis, quod cotidianam familiae vitam debet signare, prim as eius primariasque continet partes in societatis utilitatem obeundas.

The relationships between the members of the family community are inspired and guided by the law of "free giving." By respecting and fostering personal dignity in each and every one as the only basis for value, this free giving takes the form of heartfelt acceptance, encounter and dialogue, disinterested availability, generous service and deep solidarity.

Necessitudines inter familiaris communitatis membra permoventur et diriguntur norma « rerum gratuitarum », quae observans fovensque in omnibus et singulis dignitatem personalem tamquam unicum praestantiae titulum, fit liberalis hospitalitas, congressio et collocutio, affectio animi proprio studio carentis. magnanimum servitium, arcta animorum coniunctio.

Thus the fostering of authentic and mature communion between persons within the family is the first and irreplaceable school of social life, and example and stimulus for the broader community relationships marked by respect, justice, dialogue and love.

Provectio verae maturaeque communionis personarum in familia ita fit illa prima et essentialis socialis consortionis schola, exemplum et incitamentum ad peramplos communitatis usus, signo observantiae, iustitiae, dialogi et amoris praelucente.

The family is thus, as the Synod Fathers recalled, the place of origin and the most effective means for humanizing and personalizing society: it makes an original contribution in depth to building up the world, by making possible a life that is properly speaking human, in particular by guarding and transmitting virtues and "values." As the Second Vatican Council states, in the family "the various generations come together and help one another to grow wiser and to harmonize personal rights with the other requirements of social living."[106]

Unde, quemadmodum Patres Synodi animadverterunt, familia efficitur locus nativus et efficacissimum instrumentum ad societatem humaniorem redden dam eique quasi personae notam imprimendam: singulari penetranteque modo confert ad mundum aedificanclum, id agens ut vita proprie humana degi possit, nominatim vero ut virtutes ac « praestantia bona » custodiantur atque transmittantur. In familia, ut Concilium Vaticanum Secundum scripsit, « diversae generationes conveniunt ac sese mutuo adiuvant ad pleniorem sapientiam acquirendam atque iura personarum cum aliis vitae socialis exigentiis componenda » (106).

Consequently, faced with a society that is running the risk of becoming more and more depersonalized and standardized and therefore inhuman and dehumanizing, with the negative results of many forms of escapism-such as alcoholism, drugs and even terrorism-the family possesses and continues still to release formidable energies capable of taking man out of his anonymity, keeping him conscious of his personal dignity, enriching him with deep humanity and actively placing him, in his uniqueness and unrepeatability, within the fabric of society.

Consequenter respectu societatis, quae periculum est ne magis usque perdat notam personalem fiatque turba conglobata ac proinde ab humanitate aliena hominesque eadem exuens propter nocentes effectus tot formarum « effugii » — quales exempli causa sunt vinolentia, medicamentorum obstupefacientium consuetudo atque ipse terroris inferendi usus — familia possidet effunditque etiam hodie vires ingentes, quae hominem ex ignoti veluti nominis obscuritate eripere possint, eum semper praestare dignitatis suae personalis conscium, permagna locupletare humanitate actuoseque ipsum secundum unicam eius neque iterabilem naturam et indolem in societatis quasi texturam inserere.

The Social and Political Role

 

44. The social role of the family certainly cannot stop short at procreation and education, even if this constitutes its primary and irreplaceable form of expression.

44. Minime vero sociale familiae munus circumscribi licet opere procreandi et educandi, quamvis eo prim am suam et necessariam formam sese exhibendi ostendat .

Families therefore, either singly or in association, can and should devote themselves to manifold social service activities, especially in favor of the poor, or at any rate for the benefit of all people and situations that cannot be reached by the public authorities' welfare organization.

Tam singulae quam consociatae familiae idcirco valent, immo debent multiplicibus vacare inceptis ministerii socialis, praesertim pro pauperibus et quoquo modo pro cunctis hominibus illis et casibus, ad quos pertingere non possunt providentiae praesidiique instituta auctoritatum publicarum.

The social contribution of the family has an original character of its own, one that should be given greater recognition and more decisive encouragement, especially as the children grow up, and actually involving all its members as much as possible.[107]

Opera a familia societati collata habet vim suam singularem, quae necesse est melius cognoscatur firmiusque provehatur, maxime crescentibus paulatim filiis; ad illam vero operam dandam, quantum fieri potest, omnia familiae membra inducantur (107). 

In particular, note must be taken of the ever greater importance in our society of hospitality in all its forms, from opening the door of one's home and still more of one's heart to the pleas of one's brothers and sisters, to concrete efforts to ensure that every family has its own home, as the natural environment that preserves it and makes it grow. In a special way the Christian family is called upon to listen to the Apostle's recommendation: "Practice hospitality,"[108] and therefore, imitating Christ's example and sharing in His love, to welcome the brother or sister in need: "Whoever gives to one of these little ones even a cup of cold water because he is a disciple, truly, I say to you, he shall not lose his reward."[109]

Extolli nominatim par est augescens usque momentum hospitalitatis in societate nostra secundum omnes eius formas: a reseranda domus propriae multoque magis animi proprii ianua fratribus poscentibus usque ad solidum recipiendum officium praestandi omni familiae domicilium suum velut naturalem locum, ubi servatur ea et prosperatur. Familia christiana imprimis vocatur ut Apostoli excipiat monitoria verba: (estote) « hospitalitatem sectantes » (108), ac proinde ut, exemplum Christi imitans caritatemque participans, indigentem fratrem reapse amplectatur: « quicumque potum dederit uni ex minimis istis calicem aquae frigidae tantum in nomine discipuli, amen dico vobis: non perdet mercedem suam » (109).

The social role of families is called upon to find expression also in the form of political intervention: families should be the first to take steps to see that the laws and institutions of the State not only do not offend but support and positively defend the rights and duties of the family. Along these lines, families should grow in awareness of being "protagonists" of what is known as "family politics" and assume responsibility for transforming society; otherwise families will be the first victims of the evils that they have done no more than note with indifference. The Second Vatican Council's appeal to go beyond an individualistic ethic therefore also holds good for the family as such."[110]

Sociale familiae munus etiam ratione politici interventus est procurandum: familias nempe eniti oportet imprimis ut leges institutionesque Civitatis non modo non laedant, verum fulciant ac defendant firmo modo iura familiae necnon officia. Ita profecto familiae magis consciae debent fieri se « primas partes agere » in « re politica familiari », quae vocatur, in seque recipere officium transformandae societatis: alioquin erunt familiae illorum malorum veluti victimae primae, quae indifferenti animo solum aspicere voluerunt. Concilii Vaticani Secundi monitio ut ethica singulorum separatim hominum superetur, etiam ad familiam pertinet uti talem.

Society at the Service of the Family

 

45. Just as the intimate connection between the family and society demands that the family be open to and participate in society and its development, so also it requires that society should never fail in its fundamental task of respecting and fostering the family.

45. Quemadmodum arctus nexus familiam inter et societatem postulat ut pateat familia communicetque societatem ipsam et eius progressionem, pari modo flagitat ne societas principale suum deserat officium observandae adiuvandaeque ipsius familiae.

The family and society have complementary functions in defending and fostering the good of each and every human being. But society-more specifically the State-must recognize that "the family is a society in its own original right"[111] and so society is under a grave obligation in its relations with the family to adhere to the principle of subsidiarity.

Munia familiae ac societatis certo inter se complent in tutando provehendoque omnium hominum et cuiusque hominis commodo, sed societati et magis proprie Civitati agnoscenda est familia ut « societas proprio ac primordiali iure gaudens » (111); ac proinde suis in rationibus coniunctionis cum familia graviter adiguntur ad parendum principio subsidiariae rationis.

By virtue of this principle, the State cannot and must not take away from families the functions that they can just as well perform on their own or in free associations; instead it must positively favor and encourage as far as possible responsible initiative by families. In the conviction that the good of the family is an indispensable and essential value of the civil community, the public authorities must do everything possible to ensure that families have all those aids- economic, social, educational, political and cultural assistance-that they need in order to face all their responsibilities in a human way.

Hoc ex principio Civitas neque potest neque licet ei illa familiis eripere munera, quae aequaliter exsequi bene valent aut solae aut libere consociatae, verum oportet ut quam maxime foveat et poscat responsabilia familiarum incepta. Persuasum sibi habentes in familia inesse pernecessarium et inalienabile bonum communitatis civilis, publicae auctoritates quantum possunt efficere debent ut familiis praestentur adiumenta illa omnia — oeconomica, socialia, institutoria, politica, culturalia — quorum indigent ut omnibus suis officiis satisfaciant.

The Charter of Family Rights

 

46. The ideal of mutual support and development between the family and society is often very seriously in conflict with the reality of their separation and even opposition.

46. Specimen optimum mutuae sustinendi provehendique operae inter familiam ac societatem saepe pugnat gravissime quidem cum vera quadam earum seiunctione, immo etiam cum ipsarum conflictatione.

In fact, as was repeatedly denounced by the Synod, the situation experienced by many families in various countries is highly problematical, if not entirely negative: institutions and laws unjustly ignore the inviolable rights of the family and of the human person; and society, far from putting itself at the service of the family, attacks it violently in its values and fundamental requirements. Thus the family, which in God's plan is the basic cell of society and a subject of rights and duties before the State or any other community, finds itself the victim of society, of the delays and slowness with which it acts, and even of its blatant injustice.

Re quidem vera, ut Synodus continenter arguit, condicio, quam in plurimis nationibus familiae offendunt, est admodum anceps, quin etiam omnino improbanda: institutiones ac leges iniuste agnoscere omittunt inviolabilia familiae ipsiusque personae humanae iura, ac societas non solum familiae non inservit sed eam violenter etiam oppugn at propriis in bonis ac primariis postulatis. Familia exinde, quae secundum Dei consilium est quasi cellula fundamentalis societatis subiectumque iurium et officiorum, quae Civitati ipsi imprimis et cuilibet alii communitati sunt propria, denique quasi victima efficitur societatis eiusque tarditatis ac lentitudinis in adiuvando et etiam magis manifestarum illius iniustitiarum.

For this reason, the Church openly and strongly defends the rights of the family against the intolerable usurpations of society and the State. In particular, the Synod Fathers mentioned the following rights of the family:

Hac de causa palam fortiterque Ecclesia defendit familiae iura ab intolerabilibus societatis et Civitatis abusibus. Particulatim vero Synodi Patres haec, quae sequuntur, familiae iura, inter alia, memorarunt:

the right to exist and progress as a family, that is to say, the right of every human being, even if he or she is poor, to found a family and to have adequate means to support it;

- « Existendi et progrediendi ut familia, i.e. ius omnis hominis, praesertim etiam pauperum ad familiam condendam et aptis subsidiis sustentandam.

the right to exercise its responsibility regarding the transmission of life and to educate children; family life;

- Exercendi suum munus in vita transmittenda atque filios educandi.

the right to the intimacy of conjugal and family life;

- Intimitatis vitae et coniugalis et familiaris.

the right to the stability of the bond and of the institution of marriage;

- Stabilitatis vinculi atque institutionis matrimonialis.

the right to believe in and profess one's faith and to propagate it;

- Credendi et profitendi propriam fidem, eamque propagandi.

the right to bring up children in accordance with the family's own traditions and religious and cultural values, with the necessary instruments, means and institutions;

- Educandi filios iuxta proprias traditiones et valores religiosos, necnon cnlturales, instrumentis, mediis atque institutionibus necessariis.

the right, especially of the poor and the sick, to obtain physical, social, political and economic security;

- Obtinendi securitatem physicam, socialem, politicam, oeconomicam, praesertim pauperum et infirmorum.

the right to housing suitable for living family life in a proper way;

Ius ad habitationem aptam vitae familiae rite ducendae.

the right to expression and to representation, either directly or through associations, before the economic, social and cultural public authorities and lower authorities;

- Expressionis et repraesentationis coram publicis auctoritatibus oeconomicis, socialibus et culturalibus eisque subiacentibus, sive per se, sive ope consociationum.

the right to form associations with other families and institutions, in order to fulfill the family's role suitably and expeditiously;

- Consociationes creandi cum aliis familiis et institutionibus, ut apte et sollerter suum munus adimpleat. 

the right to protect minors by adequate institutions and legislation from harmful drugs, pornography, alcoholism, etc.;

Protegendi minorennes ope adaequatarum institutionum et legislationum, contra nociva pharmaca, pornographiam, alcoholismum, etc.

the right to wholesome recreation of a kind that also fosters family values;

- Honesti otii quod simul valores familiae foveat.

the right of the elderly to a worthy life and a worthy death;

Ius senum ad dignam vitam et dignam mortem.

the right to emigrate as a family in search of a better life. [112]

Ius emigrandi tamquam familia ad meliorem vitam quaerendam » (112).

Acceding to the Synod's explicit request, the Holy See will give prompt attention to studying these suggestions in depth and to the preparation of a Charter of Rights of the Family, to be presented to the quarters and authorities concerned.

Apostolicae Sedi, expressam petitionem Synodi obsecundanti, erit curae ut easdem propositiones accurate perpendat atque « Chartam familiae iurium » conficiat, officii sedibus et auctoritatibus publicis, quarum res interest, proponendam.

The Christian Family's Grace and Responsibility

 

47. The social role that belongs to every family pertains by a new and original right to the Christian family, which is based on the sacrament of marriage. By taking up the human reality of the love between husband and wife in all its implications, the sacrament gives to Christian couples and parents a power and a commitment to live their vocation as lay people and therefore to "seek the kingdom of God by engaging in temporal affairs and by ordering them according to the plan of God."[113]

47. Sociale munus cuiusque familiae proprium novo sane nativoque nomine ad christianam spectat familiam, matrimonii sacramento innixam. Dum enim veritatem human am coniugalis amoris eaque omnia, quae secum fert, amplectitur, sacramentum coniuges ac parentes christianos idoneos reddit et impellit ut e sua laicorum vocatione vivant et ideo valeant « res temporales gerendo et secundum Deum ordinando, regnum Dei quaerere » (113).

The social and political role is included in the kingly mission of service in which Christian couples share by virtue of the sacrament of marriage, and they receive both a command which they cannot ignore and a grace which sustains and stimulates them.

Sociale et politicum munus pertinet ad missionem regalem illam seu serviendi, quam christiani coniuges ex matrimonii sacramento communicant, simul recipientes mandatum, quod subterfugere non licet, atque gratiam, quae susten tat eos et incitat.

The Christian family is thus called upon to offer everyone a witness of generous and disinterested dedication to social matters, through a "preferential option" for the poor and disadvantaged. Therefore, advancing in its following of the Lord by special love for all the poor, it must have special concern for the hungry, the poor, the old, the sick, drug victims and those who have no family.

Hoc pacta vocatur familia christiana ut omnibus praebeat testimonium magni animi et sui cupiditate vacui, quaestionibus socialibus dicatum per « potiorem electionem » egenorum exclusorumque a societate. Quocirca progrediens in Domini sequela per amorem peculiarem in omnes pauperes, familia singulariter famelicis et miseris prospicere debet, senibus, aegrotantibus, toxicorum medicaminum usui deditis, familia carentibus.

For a New International Order

 

48. In view of the worldwide dimension of various social questions nowadays, the family has seen its role with regard to the development of society extended in a completely new way: it now also involves cooperating for a new international order, since it is only in worldwide solidarity that the enormous and dramatic issues of world justice, the freedom of peoples and the peace of humanity can be dealt with and solved.

48. Perspecta universali magnitudine variarum hodie quaestionum socialium, familia munus suum, ad societatis pertinens progressum, intellegit ratione prorsus nova amplificari: agitur enim etiam adiutrix opera novo ordini inter nationes praestanda, quandoquidem sola in totius mundi solida necessitudine suscipi possunt ac dissolvi ingentes et gravissimae quaestiones iustitiae in orbe terrarum, populorum libertatis, generis hominum pams.

The spiritual communion between Christian families, rooted in a common faith and hope and given life by love, constitutes an inner energy that generates, spreads and develops justice, reconciliation, fraternity and peace among human beings. Insofar as it is a "small- scale Church," the Christian family is called upon, like the "large- scale Church," to be a sign of unity for the world and in this way to exercise its prophetic role by bearing witness to the Kingdom and peace of Christ, towards which the whole world is journeying.

Spiritalis communio familiarum in fide speq ue communi insitarum et caritate vivificatarum quasdam vires efficit internas, quae pariunt, diffundunt, perficiunt iustitiam et reconciliationem, fraternitatem et inter homines pacem. Uti « ecclesiola » familia christiana instar « magnae Ecclesiae » adigitur ut unitatis sit mundo signum et hoc modo sustineat propheticas suas partes testandi Christi Regnum et pacem, ad quae mundus totus contendit.

Christian families can do this through their educational activity-that is to say by presenting to their children a model of life based on the values of truth, freedom, justice and love-both through active and responsible involvement in the authentically human growth of society and its institutions, and by supporting in various ways the associations specifically devoted to international issues.

Hoc autem exsequi poterunt familiae christianae tum per educandi suum opus, praebentes videlicet liberis exemplum vitae in veritatis, libertatis, iustitiae, amoris principiis innixae, tum per actuosum consciumque officium, collocatum in vere humano incremento societatis eiusque institutorum, tum denique per adiumentum variis modis tributum consociationibus, quae nominatim ordinis internationalis quaestionibus student.

IV - SHARING IN THE LIFE AND MISSION OF THE CHURCH

 

The Family, Within the Mystery of the Church

 

49. Among the fundamental tasks of the Christian family is its ecclesial task: the family is placed at the service of the building up of the Kingdom of God in history by participating in the life and mission of the Church.

49. In praecipuis christianae familiae muneribus etiam ecclesiale officium continetur: ipsa videlicet destinatur uti ministra ad Regnum Dei in saeculorum decursu aedificandum per vitae missionisque Ecclesiae participationem.

In order to understand better the foundations, the contents and the characteristics of this participation, we must examine the many profound bonds linking the Church and the Christian family and establishing the family as a "Church in miniature" (Ecclesia domestica),[114] in such a way that in its own way the family is a living image and historical representation of the mystery of the Church.

Quo melius fundamenta, res ipsa, proprietates huius participationis comprehendantur, altius perspici oportet multiplicia et intima vincula Ecclesiam ac familiam christianam in terse colligantia, quae insuper familiam efficiunt velut « Ecclesiam minutam » (Ecclesiam domesticam) (114), aguntque ut haec suo vicissim modo sit imago viva et historica repraesentatio mysterii ipsius Ecclesiae.

It is, above all, the Church as Mother that gives birth to, educates and builds up the Christian family, by putting into effect in its regard the saving mission which she has received from her Lord. By proclaiming the word of God, the Church reveals to the Christian family its true identity, what it is and should be according to the Lord's plan; by celebrating the sacraments, the Church enriches and strengthens the Christian family with the grace of Christ for its sanctification to the glory of the Father; by the continuous proclamation of the new commandment of love, the Church encourages and guides the Christian family to the service of love, so that it may imitate and relive the same self-giving and sacrificial love that the Lord Jesus has for the entire human race.

Ante omnia generat, educat, aedificat christianam familiam Mater Ecclesia implendo ergo eam munus salutiferum, quod a Domino suo recepit. Verbum Dei annuntians, Ecclesia patefacit christianae familiae veram eius identitatem, id nempe quod ea est et esse debet secundum Domini consilium; celebrans sacramenta Ecclesia ditat atque roborat christianam familiam Christi gratia ut in Patris gloriam ea sanctificetur; novum caritatis mandatum rursus pronuntians, Ecclesia concitat et dirigit christianam familiam ad amoris ministerium ut eundem imitetur et in vita renovet amorem donationis ac sacrificii, quo Iesus Christus totum hominum genus prosequitur.

In turn, the Christian family is grafted into the mystery of the Church to such a degree as to become a sharer, in its own way, in the saving mission proper to the Church: by virtue of the sacrament, Christian married couples and parents "in their state and way of life have their own special gift among the People of God."[115] For this reason they not only receive the love of Christ and become a saved community, but they are also called upon to communicate Christ's love to their brethren, thus becoming a saving community. In this way, while the Christian family is a fruit and sign of the supernatural fecundity of the Church, it stands also as a symbol, witness and participant of the Church's motherhood.[116]

Eo usque immittitur vicissim christiana familia in Ecclesiae mysterium ut sua ratione salutis procurandae muneris, Ecclesiae proprii, particeps fiat: sacramenti virtute coniuges parentesque christiani « in suo vitae statu et ordine proprium suum in Populo Dei donum habent » (115). Quamobrem non modo « recipiunt » Christi amorem, cum fiunt communitas « salvata », verum etiam ad eundem Christi amorem fratribus « transmittendum » vocantur, ideoque communitas « salvans » efficiuntur. Eo modo christiana familia — effectus documentumque fecunditatis supernaturalis Ecclesiae — constituitur symbolum, testificatio, communicatio Ecclesiae maternitatis (116).

A Specific and Original Ecclesial Role

 

50. The Christian family is called upon to take part actively and responsibly in the mission of the Church in a way that is original and specific, by placing itself, in what it is and what it does as an "intimate community of life and love," at the service of the Church and of society.

50. Familia christiana adigitur ut proprio singularique modo actuosas et conscias partes sustineat in Ecclesiae missione, eo scilicet quod serviendo Ecclesiae et societati se ipsam dedit in vita et actione sua tamquam intimam vitae amorisque communitatem.

Since the Christian family is a community in which the relationships are renewed by Christ through faith and the sacraments, the family's sharing in the Church's mission should follow a community pattern: the spouses together as a couple, the parents and children as a family, must live their service to the Church and to the world. They must be "of one heart and soul"[117] in faith, through the shared apostolic zeal that animates them, and through their shared commitment to works of service to the ecclesial and civil communities.

Si quidem christiana familia est communitas, cuius vincula a Christo renovantur per fidem et sacramenta, eius participatio muneris Ecclesiae contingere debet ratione communitaria: simul igitur coniuges uti par, necnon parentes ac liberi uti familia, erga Ecclesiam et mundum ministerium suum exsequantur oportet. In fide esse debent « cor unum et anima una » (117) per communem spiritum apostolicum, qui eos incendit, ac per consociatam industriam, quae eos ministerii operibus pro ecclesiali civilique communi tate devincit.

The Christian family also builds up the Kingdom of God in history through the everyday realities that concern and distinguish its state of life. It is thus in the love between husband and wife and between the members of the family-a love lived out in all its extraordinary richness of values and demands: totality, oneness, fidelity and fruitfulness[118] that the Christian family's participation in the prophetic, priestly and kingly mission of Jesus Christ and of His Church finds expression and realization. Therefore, love and life constitute the nucleus of the saving mission of the Christian family in the Church and for the Church.

Praeterea familia christiana in historia Regnum Dei aedificat per easdem illas res cotidianas, quae eius condicionem vitae tangunt et definiunt: itaque in coniugali familiarique amore — qui secundum insignes suas divitias bonorum et postulatorum universitatis, singularitatis, fidelitatis, fecunditatis impletur (118) — proditur ac perficitur familiae christianae participatio officii sacerdotalis, prophetici, regalis ipsius Iesu Christi eiusque Ecclesiae: arnor idcirco ac vita medullam missionis salvificae familiae christianae in Ecclesia et pro Ecclesia efficiunt.

The Second Vatican Council recalls this fact when it writes: "Families will share their spiritual riches generously with other families too. Thus the Christian family, which springs from marriage as a reflection of the loving covenant uniting Christ with the Church, and as a participation in that covenant will manifest to all people the Savior's living presence in the world, and the genuine nature of the Church. This the family will do by the mutual love of the spouses, by their generous fruitfulness, their solidarity and faithfulness, and by the loving way in which all the members of the family work together."[119]

Hoc commonet Vaticanum Concilium Secundum, ubi scribit: « Familia suas divitias spirituales cum aliis quoque familiis generose communicabit. Proinde familia Christiana, cum e matrimonio, quod est imago et participatio foederis dilectionis Christi et Ecclesiae, exoriatur, vivam Salvatoris in mundo praesentiam atque germanam Ecclesiae naturam omnibus patefaciet, tum coniugum amore, generosa fecunditate, unitate atque fidelitate, tum amabili omnium membrorum cooperatione » (119).

Having laid the foundation of the participation of the Christian family in the Church's mission, it is now time to illustrate its substance in reference to Jesus Christ as Prophet, Priest and King- three aspects of a single reality-by presenting the Christian family as 1) a believing and evangelizing community, 2) a community in dialogue with God, and 3) a community at the service of man.

lactis ita fundamentis familiae christianae participationis missionis ecclesialis, iam tempus est illustrare eius elementa in triplici et unica coniunctione cum Iesu Christo Propheta, Sacerdote ac Rege ideoque demonstrare christianam familiam ut 1) communitatem credentem et evangelizantem, 2) communitatem cum Deo colloquentem, 3) communitatem hominibus de servientem.

1. The Christian Family as a Believing and Evangelizing Community

 

Faith as the Discovery and Admiring Awareness of God's Plan for the Family

 

51. As a sharer in the life and mission of the Church, which listens to the word of God with reverence and proclaims it confidently,[120] the Christian family fulfills its prophetic role by welcoming and announcing the word of God: it thus becomes more and more each day a believing and evangelizing community.

51. Consors vitae missionisque Ecclesiae, quae verbum Dei religiose auscultat idque firma fiducia enuntiat (120), christiana familiaphropheticum suum exsequitur munus suscipiendo ac proferendo Dei verbo: ita magis in dies credens et evangelizans communi tas efficitur .

Christian spouses and parents are required to offer "the obedience of faith."[121] They are called upon to welcome the word of the Lord which reveals to them the marvelous news-the Good News-of their conjugal and family life sanctified and made a source of sanctity by Christ Himself. Only in faith can they discover and admire with joyful gratitude the dignity to which God has deigned to raise marriage and the family, making them a sign and meeting place of the loving covenant between God and man, between Jesus Christ and His bride, the Church.

Oboeditio fidei aequaliter poscitur a coniugibus parentibusque christianis (121): vocantur illi ut verbum Domini recipiant, quod ipsis aperit miranclam novitatem — Bonum Nuntium — eorum vitae coniugalis et familiaris, quam Christus sanctam redclidit ac sanctificantem. Etenim in fide dumtaxat reperire possunt et mirari grato animo laetantes ad quam dignitatern Deus matrimonium familiamque provexerit, eam signum et locum foederis amoris inter Deum et homines, inter Iesum Christum sponsamque eius Ecclesiam constituens.

The very preparation for Christian marriage is itself a journey of faith. It is a special opportunity for the engaged to rediscover and deepen the faith received in Baptism and nourished by their Christian upbringing. In this way they come to recognize and freely accept their vocation to follow Christ and to serve the Kingdom of God in the married state.

Iam ipsa matrirnonii christi ani praeparatio quoddam fidei iter censetur: nam praestans offertur occasio ut sponsi iterum detegant altiusque comprehendant fidem baptismo receptam et christiana institutione nutritam. Hoc modo agnoscunt libereque accipiunt vocationem suam ut Christi sequelam et Regni Dei ministerium in conubiali statu viventes exsequantur.

The celebration of the sacrament of marriage is the basic moment of the faith of the couple. This sacrament, in essence, is the proclamation in the Church of the Good News concerning married love. It is the word of God that "reveals" and "fulfills" the wise and loving plan of God for the married couple, giving them a mysterious and real share in the very love with which God Himself loves humanity. Since the sacramental celebration of marriage is itself a proclamation of the word of God, it must also be a "profession of faith" within and with the Church, as a community of believers, on the part of all those who in different ways participate in its celebration.

Praecipuum temporis momentum, quo sponsi fidem suam commonstrent, est matrimonii sacramenti celebratio, quae suapte intima natura est proclamatio in Ecclesia Boni Nuntii de coniugali amore: qui est Dei verbum, quod « revelat » et « perficit » sapiens amansque cons ilium Dei de coniugibus, ad arcanam ac veram participationem ipsius Dei amoris erga homines admissis. Si sacramentalis matrimonii celebratio per se est verbi Dei pronuntiatio, in cunctis, qui vario nomine praecipui aetores sunt et celebrantes, eluceat oportet « professio fidei » in et cum Ecclesia, communitate credentium, prolata.

This profession of faith demands that it be prolonged in the life of the married couple and of the family. God, who called the couple to marriage, continues to call them in marriage.[122] In and through the events, problems, difficulties and circumstances of everyday life, God comes to them, revealing and presenting the concrete "demands" of their sharing in the love of Christ for His Church in the particular family, social and ecclesial situation in which they find themselves.

Haec autem fidei professio produci debet in vitae curriculum coniugum atque familiae: Deus enim, qui sponsos « ad » matrimoni um vocavit, eos « in » matrimonio pergit vocare (122).  In factis et per facta et quaestiones, difficultates et eventus cotidianae vitae Deus venit ad illos, ostendit et proponit concretas « postulationes » eorum participationis Christi amoris erga Ecclesiam pro peculiari condicione — familiari, sociali, ecclesiali — in qua versantur.

The discovery of and obedience to the plan of God on the part of the conjugal and family community must take place in "togetherness," through the human experience of love between husband and wife, between parents and children, lived in the Spirit of Christ.

« Una simul » coniugalis ac familiaris communitas debet invenire consilium Dei eique obtemperare per ipsam experientiam human am amoris, qui in Spiritu Christi inter coniuges, inter parentes ac liberos exercetur.

Thus the little domestic Church, like the greater Church, needs to be constantly and intensely evangelized: hence its duty regarding permanent education in the faith.

Quocirca, ut magna Ecclesia, sic parva etiam Ecclesia domestica necesse est perpetuo seduloque evangelizetur: hinc ipsius officium curandae continuae institutionis in fide.

The Christian Family's Ministry of Evangelization

 

52. To the extent in which the Christian family accepts the Gospel and matures in faith, it becomes an evangelizing community. Let us listen again to Paul VI: "The family, like the Church, ought to be a place where the Gospel is transmitted and from which the Gospel radiates. In a family which is conscious of this mission, all the members evangelize and are evangelized. The parents not only communicate the Gospel to their children, but from their children they can themselves receive the same Gospel as deeply lived by them. And such a family becomes the evangelizer of many other families, and of the neighborhood of which it forms part."[123]

52. Christiana familia quatenus Evangelium amplectitur et ad maturitatem in fide progreditur, eatenus fit evangelizans communitas. Exaudiamus denuo Paulum VI: « Familia, haud secus atque Ecclesia, habenda est campus, quo affertur et unde diffunditur Evangelium. Quamobrem, apud familiam huius muneris consciam, omnia eiusdem familiae membra evangelizant atque evangelizantur. Parentes non tantum communicant cum filiis Evangelium, sed ab ipsis possunt recipere idem Evangelium penitus vita expressum. Eadem familia Evangelii nuntia fit apud alias multas familias, atque circumstantem, cui inseritur, con victum » (123).

As the Synod repeated, taking up the appeal which I launched at Puebla, the future of evangelization depends in great part on the Church of the home.[124] This apostolic mission of the family is rooted in Baptism and receives from the grace of the sacrament of marriage new strength to transmit the faith, to sanctify and transform our present society according to God's plan.

Quemadmodum Synodus iterum edixit, sese revocans ad cohortationem, quam in urbe Puebla enuntiavimus, futurum evangelizandi opus maximam partem ex Ecclesia domestica pendet (124). Hoc apostolicum familiae munus in baptismo est insitum novamque vim ex sacramentali gratia matrimonii accipit ad fidem tradendam, ad sanctificandam et transformandam hanc societatem secundum Dei consilium.

Particularly today, the Christian family has a special vocation to witness to the paschal covenant of Christ by constantly radiating the joy of love and the certainty of the hope for which it must give an account: "The Christian family loudly proclaims both the present virtues of the Kingdom of God and the hope of a blessed life to come."[125]

Est hodie potissimum christianae familiae officium peculiare eo pertinens ut paschalis Christi foederis ipsa testis sit per continuam propagationem laetitiae amoris sicuraeque spei, de qua rationem reddat oportet: « Familia christiana tum praesentes virtutes Regni Dei tum spem vitae beatae alta voce proclamat » (125).

The absolute need for family catechesis emerges with particular force in certain situations that the Church unfortunately experiences in some places: "In places where anti-religious legislation endeavors even to prevent education in the faith, and in places where widespread unbelief or invasive secularism makes real religious growth practically impossible, 'the Church of the home' remains the one place where children and young people can receive an authentic catechesis."[126]

Summa catechesis familiaris necessitas cum vi quadam erumpit certis in rerum condicionibus, quas Ecclesia pro dolor passim animadvertit: « ubi legibus religioni adversantibus ipsa etiam educatio in fide impeditur, ubi propter pervagatam in credulitatem vel saecularismum, qui dicitur, grassantem reapse facultas non datur in religione vere crescendi, haec ”veluti Ecclesia domestica” unus locus manet, ubi pueri et iuvenes germanam catechesim possint accipere » (126).

Ecclesial Service

 

53. The ministry of evangelization carried out by Christian parents is original and irreplaceable. It assumes the characteristics typical of family life itself, which should be interwoven with love, simplicity, practicality and daily witness.[127]

53. Evangelizandi ministerium proprium est parentum christianorum nee quidquam pro eo substitui potest: peculiares significationes induit familiaris vitae, veluti intertextae, ut esse debet, amore et simplicitate, efficientia et cotidiana testificatione (127).

The family must educate the children for life in such a way that each one may fully perform his or her role according to the vocation received from God. Indeed, the family that is open to transcendent values, that serves its brothers and sisters with joy, that fulfills its duties with generous fidelity, and is aware of its daily sharing in the mystery of the glorious Cross of Christ, becomes the primary and most excellent seed-bed of vocations to a life of consecration to the Kingdom of God.

Filios formare sic debet familia ad vitam u t suum munus quisque penitus impleat secundum acceptam a Deo vocationem. Nam familia, quae transcendentibus patet bonis, quae fratribus cum laetitia servit, quae magnanima cum fidelitate suis satisfacit officiis sentitque cotidianam suam participationem mysterii gloriosae Crucis Christi, primum fit optimumque seminarium ipsius vocationis ad vitam Regno Dei consecratam.

The parents' ministry of evangelization and catechesis ought to play a part in their children's lives also during adolescence and youth, when the children, as often happens, challenge or even reject the Christian faith received in earlier years. Just as in the Church the work of evangelization can never be separated from the sufferings of the apostle, so in the Christian family parents must face with courage and great interior serenity the difficulties that their ministry of evangelization sometimes encounters in their own children.

Evangelizationis et catechesis ministerium parentum comitetur oportet filiorum vitam etiam ipsis annis eorum adulescentiae et iuventutis, cum illi — ut saepius accidit — in controversiam adducunt vel etiam repudiant christianam fidem, teneris suae vitae annis susceptam. Quemadmodum evangelizandi opus in Ecclesia numquam ab apostoli secernitur doloribus, ita parentibus in familia subeundae sunt fortissimo serenissimoque animo difficultates, quibus eorum evangelizationis apostolatus nonnumquam inter ipsos liberos obicitur.

It should not be forgotten that the service rendered by Christian spouses and parents to the Gospel is essentially an ecclesial service. It has its place within the context of the whole Church as an evangelized and evangelizing community. In so far as the ministry of evangelization and catechesis of the Church of the home is rooted in and derives from the one mission of the Church and is ordained to the upbuilding of the one Body of Christ,[128] it must remain in intimate communion and collaborate responsibly with all the other evangelizing and catechetical activities present and at work in the ecclesial community at the diocesan and parochial levels.

Oblivisci non licet ministerium, a coniugibus parentibusque christianis pro Evangelio exactum, esse natura sua ecclesiale servitium, ingredi scilicet in compagem totius Ecclesiae ut communitatis evangelizatae et evangelizantis. Ex unica Ecclesiae missione promanans in eaque inhaerens atque ad unius Corporis Christi aedificationem ordinatum (128), domesticae Ecclesiae ministerium evangelizationis et catechesis debet intimis vinculis coniungi conscioque officiorum animo componi cum omnibus ceteris ministeriis evangelizationis atque catechesis, quae sunt et geruntur in ecclesiali communi tate tam dioecesana quam paroeciali.

To Preach the Gospel to the Whole Creation

 

54. Evangelization, urged on within by irrepressible missionary zeal, is characterized by a universality without boundaries. It is the response to Christ's explicit and unequivocal command: "Go into all the world and preach the Gospel to the whole creation."[129]

54. Universalitas sine finibus est patens campus evangelizationis proprius, quae studio et ardore missionali intrinsecus animatur: inde enim expresso et ambagibus vacuo iussui Christi respondetur: « Euntes in mundum universum praedicate Evangelium omni creaturae » (129).

The Christian family's faith and evangelizing mission also possesses this catholic missionary inspiration. The sacrament of marriage takes up and reproposes the task of defending and spreading the faith, a task that has its roots in Baptism and Confirmation,[130] and makes Christian married couples and parents witnesses of Christ "to the end of the earth,"[131] missionaries, in the true and proper sense, of love and life.

Fides quoque evangelizandique munus christianae familiae hunc impulsum missionalem catholicum prae se ferunt. Matrimonii sacramentum, quod renovat repetitque officium in baptismate et chrismate stabilitum (130) defendendi diffundendique fidem, coniuges parentesque christianos constituit Christi testes « usque ad ultimum terrae » (131) necnon veros et germanos amoris vitaeque « missionarios ».

A form of missionary activity can be exercised even within the family. This happens when some member of the family does not have the faith or does not practice it with consistency. In such a case the other members must give him or her a living witness of their own faith in order to encourage and support him or her along the path towards full acceptance of Christ the Savior.[132]

Iam intra familiam ipsam impleri potest genus quoddam actionis missionalis. Hoc fieri contingit, cum aliquod eius membrum fide caret aut eam non congruenter exsequitur. Quo in casu necessarii oportet testimonium fidei suae, vita ipsa comprobatae, ei exhibeant, quod eum exstimulet ac roboret in via, qua eo contend at ut Christo Salvatori prorsus adhaereat (132).

Animated in its own inner life by missionary zeal, the Church of the home is also called to be a luminous sign of the presence of Christ and of His love for those who are "far away," for families who do not yet believe, and for those Christian families who no longer live in accordance with the faith that they once received. The Christian family is called to enlighten "by its example and its witness...those who seek the truth."[133]

Animo missionali iam intus concitata, Ecclesia domestica impellitur ut splendidum signum sit praesentiae Christi eiusque amoris etiam pro « longinquis », pro familiis non dum credentibus, pro familiis ipsis christianis non amplius viventibus secundum fidem acceptam: vocatur ut « exemplo et testimonio suo» illuminet « eos qui veritatem quaerunt » (133).

Just as at the dawn of Christianity Aquila and Priscilla were presented as a missionary couple,[134] so today the Church shows forth her perennial newness and fruitfulness by the presence of Christian couples and families who dedicate at least a part of their lives to working in missionary territories, proclaiming the Gospel and doing service to their fellowman in the love of Jesus Christ.

Haud secus atque initiis christianae religionis Aquila et Priscilla se coniuges praebebant missionales (134), sic hac aetate Ecclesia suam numquam cessantem novitatem floremque per praesentiam ipsam coniugum ac familiarum christianarum testatur, quae saltem in certum temp oris spatium in terras abeunt missionali opere excolendas, annuntiaturi Evangelium hominibusque Iesu Christi amore servituri.

Christian families offer a special contribution to the missionary cause of the Church by fostering missionary vocations among their sons and daughters[135] and, more generally, "by training their children from childhood to recognize God's love for all people."[136]

Peculiari omnino ratione christianae familiae conferunt ad missionalem causam Ecclesiae, cum inter filios filiasque suas missionalem fovent vocationem (135), et magis generatim cum operi institutorio insistunt, quod « filios suos ab ipsa pueritia disponere ad agnoscendum amorem Dei erga universos homines » possit (136).

2. The Christian Family as a Community in Dialogue with God

 

The Church's Sanctuary in the Home

 

55. The proclamation of the Gospel and its acceptance in faith reach their fullness in the celebration of the sacraments. The Church which is a believing and evangelizing community is also a priestly people invested with the dignity and sharing in the power of Christ the High Priest of the New and Eternal Covenant.[137]

55. Evangelii nuntiatio eiusque in fide perceptio in sacramentali celebratione plenitudinem consequuntur. Ecclesia enim, credens communitas et evangelizans, est pariter populus sacerdotalis, nempe dignitate ornatus particepsque effectus potestatis Christi Summi Sacerdotis Novi et Aeterni Foederis (137).

The Christian family too is part of this priestly people which is the Church. By means of the sacrament of marriage, in which it is rooted and from which it draws its nourishment, the Christian family is continuously vivified by the Lord Jesus and called and engaged by Him in a dialogue with God through the sacraments, through the offering of one's life, and through prayer.

Familia quoque christiana Ecclesiae inseritur, sacerdotali populo: per matrimonii sacramentum, ubi fundatur et unde nutritur, perpetuo a Domino Iesu vivificatur ab eoque instigatur et obligatur ad colloquium cum Deo per sacramentalem vitam, per suae vitae oblationem necnon per precationem.

This is the priestly role which the Christian family can and ought to exercise in intimate communion with the whole Church, through the daily realities of married and family life. In this way the Christian family is called to be sanctified and to sanctify the ecclesial community and the world.

Roc est officium sacerdotale, quod familia christiana potest debetque exercere, cum universa Ecclesia arcte coniuncta in omnibus eventibus cotidianis vitae coniugalis ac familiaris: quo pacta familia christiana vocatur ad se sanctificandam atque etiam ad ecclesialem communitatem ac mundum sanctificandum.

Marriage as a Sacrament of Mutual Sanctification and an Act of Worship

 

56. The sacrament of marriage is the specific source and original means of sanctification for Christian married couples and families. It takes up again and makes specific the sanctifying grace of Baptism. By virtue of the mystery of the death and Resurrection of Christ, of which the spouses are made part in a new way by marriage, conjugal love is purified and made holy: "This love the Lord has judged worthy of special gifts, healing, perfecting and exalting gifts of grace and of charity."[138]

56. Proprius fons et singulare instrumentum sanctificationis coniugum familiaeque christianae est matrimonii sacramentum, quod sanctificantem baptismi gratiam resumit et perficit. Propter mortis et resunectionis Christi mysterium, in quod christianum matrimonium homines denuo immittit, purificatur coniugalis amor et sanctificatur: « Hunc amorem Dominus, speciali gratiae et caritatis dona, sanare, perficere elevare digna tus est » (138).

The gift of Jesus Christ is not exhausted in the actual celebration of the sacrament of marriage, but rather accompanies the married couple throughout their lives. This fact is explicitly recalled by the Second Vatican Council when it says that Jesus Christ "abides with them so that, just as He loved the Church and handed Himself over on her behalf, the spouses may love each other with perpetual fidelity through mutual self-bestowal.... For this reason, Christian spouses have a special sacrament by which they are fortified and receive a kind of consecration in the duties and dignity of their state. By virtue of this sacrament, as spouses fulfill their conjugal and family obligations, they are penetrated with the Spirit of Christ, who fills their whole lives with faith, hope and charity. Thus they increasingly advance towards their own perfection, as well as towards their mutual sanctification, and hence contribute jointly to the glory of God."[139]

Iesu Christi donum mlfilme totum positum est in sacramenti matrimonii celebratione verum coniuges fulcit in vitae eorum perpetuitate. Istud nominatim memor’at Concilium Vaticanum Secundum, cum docet: Iesus Christus « manet porro cum eis, ut quemadmodum Ipse dilexit Ecclesiam et Semetipsum pro ea tradidit, ita et coniuges, mutua deditione, se invicem perpetua fidelitate diligant ... Quapropter coniuges Christiani ad sui status officia et dignitatem peculiari Sacramento roborantur et veluti consecrantur; cuius virtute munus suum coniugale et familiare explentes, spiritu Christi imbuti, quo tota eorum vita, fide, spe et caritate pervaditur, magis ac magis ad propriam suam perfectionem mutuamque sanctificationem, ideoque communiter ad Dei glorificationem accedunt » (139).

Christian spouses and parents are included in the universal call to sanctity. For them this call is specified by the sacrament they have celebrated and is carried out concretely in the realities proper to their conjugal and family life.[140] This gives rise to the grace and requirement of an authentic and profound conjugal and family spirituality that draws its inspiration from the themes of creation, covenant, cross, resurrection, and sign, which were stressed more than once by the Synod.

Universalis ad sanctitatem vocatio ad coniuges similiter et ad christianos pertinet parentes: pro illis definitur e sacramento celebrato et modo concreto transfertur in res ipsas coniugalis ac familiaris vitae proprias (140). Hinc gratia enascitur et necessitas verae altaeque spiritualitatis coniugalis et familiaris, quae ad argumenta revocatur creationis, foederis, Crucis, resurrectionis necnon signi, in quibus saepenumero Synodus est immorata.

Christian marriage, like the other sacraments, "whose purpose is to sanctify people, to build up the body of Christ, and finally, to give worship to God,"[141] is in itself a liturgical action glorifying God in Jesus Christ and in the Church. By celebrating it, Christian spouses profess their gratitude to God for the sublime gift bestowed on them of being able to live in their married and family lives the very love of God for people and that of the Lord Jesus for the Church, His bride.

Christianum matrimonium, perinde ac sacramenta cuncta, quae « ordinantur ad sanctificationem hominum, ad aedificationem Corporis Christi, ad cultum denique Deo reddendum » (141), in se ipso est liturgicus actus glorificationis Dei in Christo Iesu et in Ecclesia: eo celebrando profitentur coniuges christiani gratum erga Deum animum suum de praecelso dona sibi concesso ut iterum vivere valeant sua in exsistentia coniugali ac familiari ex ipso Dei amore in omnes homines et in Domini Iesu Ecclesiam, ipsius Sponsam.

Just as husbands and wives receive from the sacrament the gift and responsibility of translating into daily living the sanctification bestowed on them, so the same sacrament confers on them the grace and moral obligation of transforming their whole lives into a "spiritual sacrifice."[142] What the Council says of the laity applies also to Christian spouses and parents, especially with regard to the earthly and temporal realities that characterize their lives: "As worshippers leading holy lives in every place, the laity consecrate the world itself to God."[143]

Et sicut ex sacramento in coniuges derivatur donum et obligatio, un de sanctificationem acceptam vivendo cotidie experiantur, ita eodem ex sacramento gratia profluit et morale officium universae eorum vitae transformandae in perpetuas « spiritales hostias » (142). Etiam ad coniuges et parentes christianos, praesertim in terrenis his temporariisque rebus, quae eos denotant, verba Concilii adhibentur: « Sic et laici, qua adoratores ubique sanete agentes, ipsum mundum Deo consecrant » (143).

Marriage and the Eucharist

 

57. The Christian family's sanctifying role is grounded in Baptism and has its highest expression in the Eucharist, to which Christian marriage is intimately connected. The Second Vatican Council drew attention to the unique relationship between the Eucharist and marriage by requesting that "marriage normally be celebrated within the Mass."[144] To understand better and live more intensely the graces and responsibilities of Christian marriage and family life, it is altogether necessary to rediscover and strengthen this relationship.

57. Sanctificationis offici urn familiae christianae primas suas habet in baptismo radices supremamque suam in Eucharistia significationem, cui christianum matrimonium intima iungitur ratione. Concilium Vaticanum Secundum peculiarem necessitudinem extollit intercedentem Eucharistiam inter et matrimonium, praecipiens ut « matrimonium ex more intra Missam celebretur » (144):  prorsus est necesse hanc necessitudinem iterum detegi altiusque perspici, si quis comprehendere et in vitae usum traducere exoptet gratias et obligationes matrimonii ac familiae christianae.

The Eucharist is the very source of Christian marriage. The Eucharistic Sacrifice, in fact, represents Christ's covenant of love with the Church, sealed with His blood on the Cross.[145] In this sacrifice of the New and Eternal Covenant, Christian spouses encounter the source from which their own marriage covenant flows, is interiorly structured and continuously renewed. As a representation of Christ's sacrifice of love for the Church, the Eucharist is a fountain of charity. In the Eucharistic gift of charity the Christian family finds the foundation and soul of its "communion" and its "mission": by partaking in the Eucharistic bread, the different members of the Christian family become one body, which reveals and shares in the wider unity of the Church. Their sharing in the Body of Christ that is "given up" and in His Blood that is "shed" becomes a never-ending source of missionary and apostolic dynamism for the Christian family.

Fons ipse christiani matrimonii est Eucharistia. Etenim Sacrificium Eucharisticum refert amoris foedus Christi cum Ecclesia, quod Sanguine est illius Crucis signatum (145). Atque in hoc Novi et Aeterni Testamenti Sacrificio coniuges christiani reperiunt originem, un de promanat interiusque figuratur ac perpetuo vivificatur eorum pactum coniugale. Tamquam Sacrificii am oris Christi in Ecclesiam repraesentatio Eucharistia est fons caritatis. In dona autem eucharistico caritatis familia christiana invenit fundamentum suum ac veluti animam suae « communionis » suaeque « missionis »: efficit enim Eucharisticus Panis variis ex familiaris communitatis membris unum corpus, quod est patefactio et participatio amplioris unitatis Ecclesiae; communicatio deinde Corporis « traditi » et Sanguinis Christi « effusi » fit inexhaustus fons missionalis apostolicaeque navitatis familiae christianae.

The Sacrament of Conversion and Reconciliation

 

58. An essential and permanent part of the Christian family's sanctifying role consists in accepting the call to conversion that the Gospel addresses to all Christians, who do not always remain faithful to the "newness" of the Baptism that constitutes them "saints." The Christian family too is sometimes unfaithful to the law of baptismal grace and holiness proclaimed anew in the sacrament of marriage.

58. Necessaria ac perpetua pars muneris sanctificationis in familia christiana est receptio evangelicae provocationis ad conversionem, quae omnibus adhibetur christianis, qui non semper fideles persistunt « novitati » illius baptismi, quo sunt « sancti » effecti. Neque ipsa christiana familia semper cohaeret cum lege gratiae et baptismalis sanctitatis rursus in matrimonii sacramento declaratae.

Repentance and mutual pardon within the bosom of the Christian family, so much a part of daily life, receive their specific sacramental expression in Christian Penance. In the Encyclical Humanae vitae, Paul VI wrote of married couples: "And if sin should still keep its hold over them, let them not be discouraged, but rather have recourse with humble perseverance to the mercy of God, which is abundantly poured forth in the sacrament of Penance."[146]

Paenitudo ac mutua venia intra familiam christianam, quae in vita cotidiana tantopere frequentantur, proprium sacramentale tempus habent in paenitentia christiana. Quod ad coniuges attinet, ita scripsit Paulus VI in Encyclicis Litteris Humanae vitae: « Si autem peccatis adhuc retineantur, ne concidant animo, sed humiles et constantes ad Dei misericordiam confugiant, quam abunde Paenitentiae Sacramentum dilargitur » (146).

The celebration of this sacrament acquires special significance for family life. While they discover in faith that sin contradicts not only the covenant with God, but also the covenant between husband and wife and the communion of the family, the married couple and the other members of the family are led to an encounter with God, who is "rich in mercy,"[147] who bestows on them His love which is more powerful than sin,[148] and who reconstructs and brings to perfection the marriage covenant and the family communion.

Ruius sacramenti celebratio vim specialem accipit ad familiarem vitam: dum per fidem intellegunt quomodo peccatum adversetur non tantum pacta cum Deo inito, sed etiam foederi coniugum familiaeque communioni, coniuges et omnes familiae sodales perducuntur ad congressionem cum Deo, « qui dives est in misericordia » (147) quique amorem suum peccato validiorem (148) impertiens, reficit ac perficit coniugale pactum familiaremque communionem.

Family Prayer

 

59. The Church prays for the Christian family and educates the family to live in generous accord with the priestly gift and role received from Christ the High Priest. In effect, the baptismal priesthood of the faithful, exercised in the sacrament of marriage, constitutes the basis of a priestly vocation and mission for the spouses and family by which their daily lives are transformed into "spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ."[149] This transformation is achieved not only by celebrating the Eucharist and the other sacraments and through offering themselves to the glory of God, but also through a life of prayer, through prayerful dialogue with the Father, through Jesus Christ, in the Holy Spirit.

59. Ecclesia pro familia christiana preces fundit, quam etiam instituit ut magnanima cum congruentia vivendo impleat donum officiumque sacerdotale, a Christo Summo Sacerdote receptum. Revera sacerdotium fidelium baptismale, vivendo expressum in matrimonio ut sacramento, coniugibus familiaeque fundamentum praebet vocationis et missionis, ob quam ipsa eorum cotidiana vita transit in « spiritales hostias acceptabiles Deo per Iesum Christum » (149): evenit hoc non tantum per Eucharistiae aliorumque sacramentorum celebrationem et per sui ipsius oblationem factam ad Dei gloriam, sed etiam per precandi consuetuclinem perque collocutionem, orationi iunctam, cum Patre per legum Christum in Spiritu Sancto.

Family prayer has its own characteristic qualities. It is prayer offered in common, husband and wife together, parents and children together. Communion in prayer is both a consequence of and a requirement for the communion bestowed by the sacraments of Baptism and Matrimony. The words with which the Lord Jesus promises His presence can be applied to the members of the Christian family in a special way: "Again I say to you, if two of you agree on earth about anything they ask, it will be done for them by my Father in heaven. For where two or three are gathered in my name, there am I in the midst of them."[150]

Familiaris precatio habet suas proprietates. Nam est oratio communiter facta a marito et uxore simul, a parentibus una cum liberis. Eodem tempore communio in precatione fructus est ac postulatum illius communionis, quae sacramentis baptismi et matrimonii suppeditatur. Ad christianae familiae membra adhiberi particulatim possunt voces, quibus Dominus Jesus praesentiam suam pollicetur: « iterum dico vobis: Si duo ex vobis consenserint super terram de omni re, quacumque petierint, fiet illis a Patre meo, qui in caelis est. Ubi enim sunt duo vel tres congregati in nomine meo, ibi sum in medio eorum » (150).

Family prayer has for its very own object family life itself, which in all its varying circumstances is seen as a call from God and lived as a filial response to His call. Joys and sorrows, hopes and disappointments, births and birthday celebrations, wedding anniversaries of the parents, departures, separations and homecomings, important and far-reaching decisions, the death of those who are dear, etc.-all of these mark God's loving intervention in the family's history. They should be seen as suitable moments for thanksgiving, for petition, for trusting abandonment of the family into the hands of their common Father in heaven. The dignity and responsibility of the Christian family as the domestic Church can be achieved only with God's unceasing aid, which will surely be granted if it is humbly and trustingly petitioned in prayer.

Singulare argumentum huiusmodi familiaris precationis est ipsa vita familiae, quae in universis variisque suis adiunctis explicatur tamquam Dei vocatio et tamquam responsio filiorum appellationi eius efficitur: gaudia et dolores, spes et tristitiae, dies natales et anniversarii, nuptiarum iubilaea parentum, profectiones, longinquae commorationes et reversiones, graves et decretoriae electiones, obitus carorum et alii huiusmodi eventus demonstrant Dei amorem in familiae rerum cursu intervenientem ac pariter designare debent tempus aptum ad gratiarum actionem, ad implorationem, ad actum, quo familia fidenter se permittit Patri communi, qui est in caelis. Dignitas autem officiumque christianae familiae ut Ecclesiae domesticae exprimi possunt solum assiduo Dei auxilio, quod sine dubio concedetur, si humiliter fidenterque flagitabitur precatione.

Educators in Prayer

 

60. By reason of their dignity and mission, Christian parents have the specific responsibility of educating their children in prayer, introducing them to gradual discovery of the mystery of God and to personal dialogue with Him: "It is particularly in the Christian family, enriched by the grace and the office of the sacrament of Matrimony, that from the earliest years children should be taught, according to the faith received in Baptism, to have a knowledge of God, to worship Him and to love their neighbor."[151]

60. Ex eorum dignitate ac sacerdotali missione ad omnes baptizatos pertinente, proprium christianorum parentum munus est liberos instruere ad orandum eosque addu cere paulatim ad mysterium Dei detegendum et ad colloquendum singulariter cum eo: « Maxime vero in Christiana familia, matrimonii Sacramenti gratia et officio ditata, filii iam a prima aetate secundum fidem in Baptismo receptam Deum percipere et colere atque proximum diligere doceantur oportet » (151).

The concrete example and living witness of parents is fundamental and irreplaceable in educating their children to pray. Only by praying together with their children can a father and mother-exercising their royal priesthood-penetrate the innermost depths of their children's hearts and leave an impression that the future events in their lives will not be able to efface. Let us again listen to the appeal made by Paul VI to parents: "Mothers, do you teach your children the Christian prayers? Do you prepare them, in conjunction with the priests, for the sacraments that they receive when they are young: Confession, Communion and Confirmation? Do you encourage them when they are sick to think of Christ suffering to invoke the aid of the Blessed Virgin and the saints Do you say the family rosary together? And you, fathers, do you pray with your children, with the whole domestic community, at least sometimes? Your example of honesty in thought and action, joined to some common prayer, is a lesson for life, an act of worship of singular value. In this way you bring peace to your homes: Pax huic domui. Remember, it is thus that you build up the Church."[152]

Primaria necessariaque pars educationis ad precandum est concretum exemplum parentum et testimonium, vita comprobatum: dumtaxat una cum liberis orantes pater ac mater, dum suum perficiunt regale sacerdotium, in cordis filiorum veluti penetralia descendunt ibique vestigia relinquunt, quae sequentes vitae eventus exterminare non valebunt. Audiamus denuo Paulum VI parentes exhortantem: « Matres, docetisne liberos vestros christiani hominis precationes? Praeparatisne una cum sacerdotibus filios vestros ad primae aetatis sacramenta, Paenitentiam, Eucharistiam, Confirmationem? Assuefacitisne eos, si aegrotant, ut Christum cogitent perdolentem?, ut Virginis Mariae Sanctorumque invocent auxilia? Persolvitisne in familia marialis Rosarii precationem? Et vos patres, scitisne una cum liberis vestris cum omnique domestica communitate saltem interdum orare? Exemplum enim vestrum, comitante cogitationis actionisque honestate ac suffragante aliqua communi precatione, tantum valet quantum uti lis ad vitam schola, quantum cultus exerci ”pax huic domui!”. Reminiscimini: ita aedificatis Ecclesiam! » (152).

Liturgical Prayer and Private Prayer

 

61. There exists a deep and vital bond between the prayer of the Church and the prayer of the individual faithful, as has been clearly reaffirmed by the Second Vatican Council.[153] An important purpose of the prayer of the domestic Church is to serve as the natural introduction for the children to the liturgical prayer of the whole Church, both in the sense of preparing for it and of extending it into personal, family and social life. Hence the need for gradual participation by all the members of the Christian family in the celebration of the Eucharist, especially on Sundays and feast days, and of the other sacraments, particularly the sacraments of Christian initiation of the children. The directives of the Council opened up a new possibility for the Christian family when it listed the family among those groups to whom it recommends the recitation of the Divine Office in common.[154] Likewise, the Christian family will strive to celebrate at home, and in a way suited to the members, the times and feasts of the liturgical year.

61. Inter Ecclesiae precationes ac singulorum fidelium orationes alta vitalisque necessitudo intercedit, sicut liquido confirmavit Concilium Vaticanum Secundum (153). Praecipuum vero quoddam propositum precationis in Ecclesia domestica eo spectat ut filii naturali quodam modo ad orationem liturgicam totius Ecclesiae inducantur, quatenus ii tum componuntur ad eam, tum ambitum vitae personalis, familiaris, socialis illa complectitur. Hinc necesse est omnes christianae familiae sodales pedetemptim participent Eucharistiam, maxime dominicalem et festivam, necnon alia sacramenta, praesertim initiationis christianae filiorum. Directoriae Concilii normae novam opportunitatem familiae christianae praebent, quae inter coetus est annumerata, quibus communitaria celebratio suadetur Liturgiae Horarum (154). Curabit pariter familia christiana ut etiam domi, ratione quidem suis sodalibus idonea, tempora ac liturgici anni festi dies celebrentur.

As preparation for the worship celebrated in church, and as its prolongation in the home, the Christian family makes use of private prayer, which presents a great variety of forms. While this variety testifies to the extraordinary richness with which the Spirit vivifies Christian prayer, it serves also to meet the various needs and life situations of those who turn to the Lord in prayer. Apart from morning and evening prayers, certain forms of prayer are to be expressly encouraged, following the indications of the Synod Fathers, such as reading and meditating on the word of God, preparation for the reception of the sacraments, devotion and consecration to the Sacred Heart of Jesus, the various forms of veneration of the Blessed Virgin Mary, grace before and after meals, and observance of popular devotions.

Ut autem domi praeparetur et continuetur cultus in Ecclesia celebrandus, familia utitur christiana precibus privatis, quarum magna invenitur varietas formarum: haec varietas, immensas testans divitias, secundum quas precationem christianam Spiritus movet, diversis satisfacit postulationibus condicionibusque vitae illius qui ad Dominum dirigit mentem. Praeter preces matutinas ac vespertinas, expressis verbis suadentur secundum Synodi Patrum monitionem : lectio et meditatio verbi Dei, praeparatio sacramentorum, pietas in Sacratissimum Cor Iesu et consecratio ei facta, variae rationes cultus Beatae Mariae Virginis, benedictio mensae, religionis popularis custodia.

While respecting the freedom of the children of God, the Church has always proposed certain practices of piety to the faithful with particular solicitude and insistence. Among these should be mentioned the recitation of the rosary: "We now desire, as a continuation of the thought of our predecessors, to recommend strongly the recitation of the family rosary.... There is no doubt that... the rosary should be considered as one of the best and most efficacious prayers in common that the Christian family is invited to recite. We like to think, and sincerely hope, that when the family gathering becomes a time of prayer the rosary is a frequent and favored manner of praying."[155] In this way authentic devotion to Mary, which finds expression in sincere love and generous imitation of the Blessed Virgin's interior spiritual attitude, constitutes a special instrument for nourishing loving communion in the family and for developing conjugal and family spirituality. For she who is the Mother of Christ and of the Church is in a special way the Mother of Christian families, of domestic Churches.

Ecclesia, filiorum Dei libertatem plane observans, nonnullas pietatis formas fidelibus peculiari cum cura et instantia proposuit pergitque proponere: inter quas memoretur oportet Marialis Rosarii recitatio: « Nunc autem, Decessorum Nostrorum proposita prosecutis, perplacet Nobis vehementer marialis Rosarii recitationem inter saepta domestica commendare ... dubium non est, quin Beatae Mariae Virginis Corona inter excellentissimas atque efficacissimas ”communes preces” recensenda sit, ad quas fundendas Christiana familia invitatur. Re quidem vera placet Nobis mente eo intendere ac vehementer optamus, ut, cum familiae membra ad precandum una conveniant, Rosarium crebro libenterque eo ipso tempore adhibeatur » (155). Germana sic pietas marialis, quae areta coniunctione et magnanima sequela spiritalium sensuum Virginis Sanctissimae declaratur, praestantissimum quoddam instrumentum est ad alendam amoris communionem familiae provehendamque coniugalem ac familiarem spiritualitatem. Illa enim, Christi Mater et Ecclesiae, insigniter etiam familiarum christianarum Mater est, nempe domesticarum Ecclesiarum.

Prayer and Life

 

62. It should never be forgotten that prayer constitutes an essential part of Christian life, understood in its fullness and centrality. Indeed, prayer is an important part of our very humanity: it is "the first expression of man's inner truth, the first condition for authentic freedom of spirit."[156]

62. Par non est oblivisci umquam precationem esse vitae christianae constitutivam et necessariam partem secundum suam integram et intimam naturam; quin immo ea pertinet ad ipsam nostram « humanitatem »: est « declaratio prima interioris veritatis hominis, condicio prima germanae libertatis spiritus » (156).

Far from being a form of escapism from everyday commitments, prayer constitutes the strongest incentive for the Christian family to assume and comply fully with all its responsibilities as the primary and fundamental cell of human society. Thus the Christian family's actual participation in the Church's life and mission is in direct proportion to the fidelity and intensity of the prayer with which it is united with the fruitful vine that is Christ the Lord.[157]

Hac de causa precatio minime significat quasi quandam fugam, quae a cotidianis officiis aliquem abducit, sed vehementiorem impulsum apportat ut christiana familia suscipiat pleneque absolvat munera universa sua tamquam cellulae primae ac fundamentalis humanae societatis. Proinde actuosa communicatio vitae munerisque Ecclesiae in mundo respondet fidelitati atque studio precationis, qua familia christiana fecundae coniungitur Viti, quae Christus est Dominus (157).

The fruitfulness of the Christian family in its specific service to human advancement, which of itself cannot but lead to the transformation of the world, derives from its living union with Christ, nourished by Liturgy, by self-oblation and by prayer.[158]

Ex vitali cum Christo consociatione, quae Sacra Liturgia nutritur nec non sui ipsius oblatione et oratione, profiuit etiam familiae christianae fecunditas in eius proprio ministerio ad progressionem humanam spectante, quod ex se necessario prodest mundo transformando (158).

3. The Christian Family

 

The New Commandment of Love

 

63. The Church, a prophetic, priestly and kingly people, is endowed with the mission of bringing all human beings to accept the word of God in faith, to celebrate and profess it in the sacraments and in prayer, and to give expression to it in the concrete realities of life in accordance with the gift and new commandment of love.

63. Ecclesiae, populo scilicet prophetico-sacerdotali-regali, officium est omnes homines perducere ad verbum Dei in fide accipiendum idque celebrandum ac testificandum in sacramentis et in precationibus et demum ad id commonstrandum in vitae rebus concretis secundum donum novumque amoris mandatum.

The law of Christian life is to be found not in a written code, but in the personal action of the Holy Spirit who inspires and guides the Christian. It is the "law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus"[159] "God's love has been poured into our hearts through the Holy Spirit who has been given to us."[160]

Familia christiana legem suam reperit non in scripto aliquo codice, verum in Sancti Spiritus actione personali, quae concitat christianum et gubernat; haec est enim « lex ... Spiritus vitae in Christo Iesu » (159): « caritas Dei diffusa est in cordibus nostris per Spiritum Sanctum qui datus est nobis » (160).

This is true also for the Christian couple and family. Their guide and rule of life is the Spirit of Jesus poured into their hearts in the celebration of the sacrament of Matrimony. In continuity with Baptism in water and the Spirit, marriage sets forth anew the evangelical law of love, and with the gift of the Spirit engraves it more profoundly on the hearts of Christian husbands and wives. Their love, purified and saved, is a fruit of the Spirit acting in the hearts of believers and constituting, at the same time, the fundamental commandment of their moral life to be lived in responsible freedom.

Hoc aequabiliter dicendum est de coniugibus ac familia christiana: eorum moderator et norma est Spiritus Iesu in corda effusus ex sacramenti matrimonii celebratione. Baptismum in aqua et Spiritu prosequens, matrimonium iterum proponit evangelicam amoris legem et Spiritus dona eam altius insculpit in christianorum coniugum animis: amor eorum, purificatus et redemptus, est fructus Spiritus, qui credentium in animis operatur eodemque tempore se veluti praebet principale mandatum moralis vitae, quae ab eorum responsabili libertate deposcitur.

Thus, the Christian family is inspired and guide by the new law of the Spirit and, in intimate communion with the Church, the kingly people, it is called to exercise its "service" of love towards God and towards its fellow human beings. Just as Christ exercises His royal power by serving us,[161] so also the Christian finds the authentic meaning of his participation in the kingship of his Lord in sharing His spirit and practice of service to man. "Christ has communicated this power to his disciples that they might be established in royal freedom and that by self-denial and a holy life they might conquer the reign of sin in themselves (cf. Rom. 6:12). Further, He has shared this power so that by serving Him in their fellow human beings they might through humility and patience lead their brothers and sisters to that King whom to serve is to reign. For the Lord wishes to spread His kingdom by means of the laity also, a kingdom of truth and life, a kingdom of holiness and grace, a kingdom of justice, love and peace. In this kingdom, creation itself will be delivered out of its slavery to corruption and into the freedom of the glory of the children of God (cf. Rom. 8:21). "[162]

Sic quidem familia christiana animatur et ducitur nova lege Spiritus intimaque in communione cum Ecclesia ipsa, populo regali, et adigitur ut « ministerium » suum amoris erga Deum fratresque exprimat vivendo. Sicut Christus fungitur regali sua potestate, cum se devovet hominum servitio (161), sic et christianus verum consequitur sensum suae participationis dignitatis regalis, Domini sui propriae, cum spiritum eius communicat moremque homini serviendi: hanc « potestatem discipulis communicavit, ut et illi in regali libertate constituantur et sui abnegatione vitaque sancta regnum peccati in seipsis devincant (cfr. Rom 6, 12), immo ut Christo etiam in aliis servientes, fratres suos ad Regem, cui servire regnare est, humilitate et patientia perducant. Dominus enim Regnum suum etiam per laicos fideles dilatare cupit, Regnum scilicet veritatis et vitae, Regnum sanctitatis et gratiae, Regnum iustitiae, amoris et pacis; in quo Regno ipsa creatura liberabitur a servitute corruptionis in libertatem gloriae filiorum Dei (cfr. Rom 8, 21) » (162).

To Discover the Image of God in Each Brother and Sister

 

64. Inspired and sustained by the new commandment of love, the Christian family welcomes, respects and serves every human being, considering each one in his or her dignity as a person and as a child of God.

64. Incitata novo amoris mandato ac sustentata, familia christiana in vitae usu servat hospitalitatem et reverentiam et servitutem erga omnem hominem, qui semper pro sua dignitate personae et filii Dei accipitur,

It should be so especially between husband and wife and within the family, through a daily effort to promote a truly personal community, initiated and fostered by an inner communion of love. This way of life should then be extended to the wider circle of the ecclesial community of which the Christian family is a part. Thanks to love within the family, the Church can and ought to take on a more homelike or family dimension, developing a more human and fraternal style of relationships.

Contingere autem hoc imprimis oportet intra coniuges ac familiam et in utrorumque bonum, videlicet per cotidianum munus germanae provehendae personarum communitatis, innixae in interna amoris communi one et inde augescentis. Id proficere debet intra vastiorem orb em ecclesialis communitatis, cui christiana inserta est familia: propter ipsam familiae caritatem Ecclesia potest et debet magis domesticam induere indolem, nempe familiariorem, genere necessitudinum humaniore magisque fraterno sibi asciscendo.

Love, too, goes beyond our brothers and sisters of the same faith since "everybody is my brother or sister." In each individual, especially in the poor, the weak, and those who suffer or are unjustly treated, love knows how to discover the face of Christ, and discover a fellow human being to be loved and served.

Caritas vero proprios fidei fratres excedit, quoniam « omnis homo meus est frater »; in unoquoque homine, potissimum egeno et infirmo, dolente iniusteque tractato, caritas detegit Christi vultum necnon fratrem, qui amandus est et cui serviendum.

In order that the family may serve man in a truly evangelical way, the instructions of the Second Vatican Council must be carefully put into practice: "That the exercise of such charity may rise above any deficiencies in fact and even in appearance, certain fundamentals must be observed. Thus, attention is to be paid to the image of God in which our neighbor has been created, and also to Christ the Lord to whom is really offered whatever is given to a needy person."[163]

Ut ministerium hominis a familia impleatur secundum evangelicum morem, diligenter effici oportet, quod Concilium Vaticanum Secundum inculcat: « Quo huiusmodi caritatis exercitium omni exceptione maius sit et tale appareat: in proximo consideretur imago Dei ad quam creatus est, et Christus Dominus cui re vera offertur quidquid indigenti donatur » (163).

While building up the Church in love, the Christian family places itself at the service of the human person and the world, really bringing about the "human advancement" whose substance was given in summary form in the Synod's Message to families: "Another task for the family is to form persons in love and also to practice love in all its relationships, so that it does not live closed in on itself, but remains open to the community, moved by a sense of justice and concern for others, as well as by a consciousness of its responsibility towards the whole of society."[164]

Familia christiana, dum Ecclesiam in caritate aedificat, se hominum ministerio dicat et mundo illa reapse perficienda « promotione humana », cuius natura his verbis est breviter descripta in Nuntio a Synodo familiis dato: « Aliud munus familiae est homines informare ad amorem pariterque amorem praestare in cunctis rationibus, quae ipsi cum aliis intercedunt, ita ut familia non in se concludatur, sed pateat communitati, quippe cum sensu iustitiae atque reverentia erga alios necnon conscientiae suae officio erga totam hominum societatem permoveatur » (164).

PART FOUR - DIFFICULT CASES (77-85)  

 

 

 

 

PART FOUR
PASTORAL CARE of the FAMILY: STAGES, STRUCTURES, AGENTS and SITUATIONS

IV

 

 

 

 

 

 

I - STAGES OF PASTORAL CARE OF THE FAMILY

 

The Church Accompanies the Christian Family on Its Journey Through Life

 

65. Like every other living reality, the family too is called upon to develop and grow. After the preparation of engagement and the sacramental celebration of marriage, the couple begin their daily journey towards the progressive actuation of the values and duties of marriage itself.

I - 65. Sicut omnis animans, ita et familia progrediatur et crescat oportet. Post sponsalium praeparationem atque celebrationem sacramentalem matrimonii, coniuges cotidianum veluti iter instituunt eo pertinens ut per gradus matrimonii bona consequantur et officia impleant.

In the light of faith and by virtue of hope, the Christian family too shares, in communion with the Church, in the experience of the earthly pilgrimage towards the full revelation and manifestation of the Kingdom of God.

Fide illuminata et ob virtutem spei etiam christiana familia, in communione cum Ecclesia, experiendo particeps fit humanae peregrinationis ad plenam revelationem et effectum Regni Dei contendentis.

Therefore, it must be emphasized once more that the pastoral intervention of the Church in support of the family is a matter of urgency. Every effort should be made to strengthen and develop pastoral care for the family, which should be treated as a real matter of priority, in the certainty that future evangelization depends largely on the domestic Church."[165]

Quapropter impensius etiam illustrari oportet quantopere interventus pastoralis Ecclesiae ad fovendam familiam urge at. Omnibus est nitendum viribus ut pastoralis cura familiae firmetur ac provehatur, operando in re ceteris vere anteferenda, minime dubitando quin evangelizatio tempore futuro ex Ecclesia domestica pendeat (165).

The Church's pastoral concern will not be limited only to the Christian families closest at hand; it will extend its horizons in harmony with the Heart of Christ, and will show itself to be even more lively for families in general and for those families in particular which are in difficult or irregular situations. For all of them the Church will have a word of truth, goodness, understanding, hope and deep sympathy with their sometimes tragic difficulties. To all of them she will offer her disinterested help so that they can come closer to that model of a family which the Creator intended from "the beginning" and which Christ has renewed with His redeeming grace.

Sollicitudo pastoralis Ecclesiae non continetur tantum christianis familiis propinquioribus, sed, fines suos dilatans secundum Cordis Christi mensuram, diligentior erit circa omnes familias universe et eas particulatim, quae in difficili vitiataque condicione versantur. Ecclesia oportet ad cunctas familias verba dirigat plena veritatis, humanitatis, bonitatis, spei, impensae participationis difficultatum interdum vere gravissimarum, quibus premuntur; omnibus erit auxilio, sui commodi immemor, ut possint accedere ad illud familiae exemplar, quod Creator voluit usque « a principio » quodque Christus sua gratia redemptrice renovavit.

The Church's pastoral action must be progressive, also in the sense that it must follow the family, accompanying it step by step in the different stages of its formation and development.

Actio pastoralis Ecclesiae gradatim fiat oportet, etiam quatenus familiam debet comitari, eam pedetemptim sequens In variis veluti gradibus eius institutionis et progressus.

Preparation for Marriage

 

66. More than ever necessary in our times is preparation of young people for marriage and family life. In some countries it is still the families themselves that, according to ancient customs, ensure the passing on to young people of the values concerning married and family life, and they do this through a gradual process of education or initiation. But the changes that have taken place within almost all modern societies demand that not only the family but also society and the Church should be involved in the effort of properly preparing young people for their future responsibilities. Many negative phenomena which are today noted with regret in family life derive from the fact that, in the new situations, young people not only lose sight of the correct hierarchy of values but, since they no longer have certain criteria of behavior, they do not know how to face and deal with the new difficulties. But experience teaches that young people who have been well prepared for family life generally succeed better than others.

66. Hisce temporibus magis quam alias necesse est ut iuvenes ad matrimonium atque familiarem vitam praeparentur. In quibusdam regionibus ipsae familiae adhuc iuxta veterem morem iuvenibus tradunt bona ad vitam coniugalem et familiarem spectantia, per progrediens educationis vel initiationis opus. Sed mutationes, quae supervenerunt intra prope omnes nostrorum temporum communitates, postulant ut non solum familia verum etiam human a societas et Ecclesia studiose nitantur ut praeparentur apte iuvenes ad futura officia. Haud paucae res adversae, quae hodie in familiari vita deprehenduntur, ex eo oriuntur quod inter nova rerum adiuncta iuvenes non solum rectum bonorum ordinem obliviscuntur, sed, firmas agendi regulas iam non habentes, nesciunt quomodo possint oppetere novasque expedire difficultates. At experientia docet iuvenes ad familiarem vitam affatim praeparatos universe magis proficere quam ceteros.

This is even more applicable to Christian marriage, which influences the holiness of large numbers of men and women. The Church must therefore promote better and more intensive programs of marriage preparation, in order to eliminate as far as possible the difficulties that many married couples find themselves in, and even more in order to favor positively the establishing and maturing of successful marriages.

Hoc eo magis refertur ad christianum matrimonium, cuius vis sanctitatem tot virorum et mulierum pervadit. Quare Ecclesia aptiores amplioresque rationes praeparationis ad matrimonium provehat oportet ut, quantum fieri possit, amoveantur difficultates, quibus plurimi coniuges premuntur, atque etiam amplius certe foveatur ortus et auctus matrimoniorum, quae felicem exitum habent.

Marriage preparation has to be seen and put into practice as a gradual and continuous process. It includes three main stages: remote, proximate and immediate preparation.

Praeparatio ad matrimonium habeatur ac perficiatur tamquam processus, qui gradatim fit et continenter. Ea enim tres praecipuos postulat gradus: praeparationem remotam, propinquiorem, proximam.

Remote preparation begins in early childhood, in that wise family training which leads children to discover themselves as being endowed with a rich and complex psychology and with a particular personality with its own strengths and weaknesses. It is the period when esteem for all authentic human values is instilled, both in interpersonal and in social relationships, with all that this signifies for the formation of character, for the control and right use of one's inclinations, for the manner of regarding and meeting people of the opposite sex, and so on. Also necessary, especially for Christians, is solid spiritual and catechetical formation that will show that marriage is a true vocation and mission, without excluding the possibility of the total gift of self to God in the vocation to the priestly or religious life.

Praeparatio remota ab ipsa infantia incipit, in ea sapienti familiari arte paedagogica, quae dirigere studet pueros ad se ipsos cognoscendos ut homines uberibus et implicatis dotibus psychologicis necnon singularis indole personae praeditos, cum viribus propriis et infirmitatibus. Hoc est temp oris spatium, quo inculcentur oportet existimatio omnis veri humani boni in rationibus sive inter personas intercedentibus sive socialibus; quibus rebus addendum est momentum, quod illud habet ad ingenium formandum, ad dominatum rectumque usum propriarum proclivitatum, ad modum iudicandi de alterius sexus personis cum iisque congrediendi de aliisque hoc genus rebus. Insuper opus est, maxime christianis, valida spiritalis et catechetica institutio, quae matrimonium valeat explicare tamquam veram vocationem et missionem, haud omissa facultate se Deo penitus devovendi in vocatione ad vitam sacerdotalem vel religiosam.

Upon this basis there will subsequently and gradually be built up the proximate preparation, which-from the suitable age and with adequate catechesis, as in a catechumenal process-involves a more specific preparation for the sacraments, as it were, a rediscovery of them. This renewed catechesis of young people and others preparing for Christian marriage is absolutely necessary in order that the sacrament may be celebrated and lived with the right moral and spiritual dispositions. The religious formation of young people should be integrated, at the right moment and in accordance with the various concrete requirements, with a preparation for life as a couple. This preparation will present marriage as an interpersonal relationship of a man and a woman that has to be continually developed, and it will encourage those concerned to study the nature of conjugal sexuality and responsible parenthood, with the essential medical and biological knowledge connected with it. It will also acquaint those concerned with correct methods for the education of children, and will assist them in gaining the basic requisites for well-ordered family life, such as stable work, sufficient financial resources, sensible administration, notions of housekeeping.

Hoc fundamento innixa, postea praeparatio proxima, fusius pertractanda, instituitur, quae — ab aetate consentanea et congruenti cum catechesi, veluti institutione catechumenorum — magis peculiarem postulat praeparationem ad sacramenta suscipienda, ad novam nempe quasi eorum inventionem. Haec renovata catechesis iuvenum et eorum omnium, qui ad matrimonium christianum se praeparant, est omnino necessaria ut sacramentum necessariis cum animi dispositionibus moralibus et spiritalibus celebretur et ex eo deinde vivatur. Oportet ut institutio religiosa iuvenum, apto tempore ac secundum varias certasque necessitates, compleatur praeparatione ad communem vitam a duobus coniunctim ducendam; qua praeparatione matrimonium tamquam necessitudo inter personas viri et mulieris continenter excolenda proponatur atque animi impellantur ut quaestiones sexualitatis coniugalis et consciae paternitatis altius perspiciant, adiuvantibus praecipuis notionibus medicis-biologicis, quae hisce rebus iunguntur; eadem inducat ad usum idonearum methodorum educationis filiorum necnon elementa primaria curet comparanda, quibus familia consentanee regatur (cuius modi sunt: opus stabile, sufficiens et expedita pecunia, prudens rerum administratio, cognitio disciplinae oeconomicae domesticae et similia).

Finally, one must not overlook preparation for the family apostolate, for fraternal solidarity and collaboration with other families, for active membership in groups, associations, movements and undertakings set up for the human and Christian benefit of the family.

Denique oportet ne praeparatio neglegatur ad apostolatum familiarem, ad fraternitatem et cooperationem cum aliis familiis, ad partem actuose habendam in coetibus, consociationibus, motibus et inceptis, quae ad bonum humanum et christianum familiae pertinent.

The immediate preparation for the celebration of the sacrament of Matrimony should take place in the months and weeks immediately preceding the wedding, so as to give a new meaning, content and form to the so-called premarital enquiry required by Canon Law. This preparation is not only necessary in every case, but is also more urgently needed for engaged couples that still manifest shortcomings or difficulties in Christian doctrine and practice.

Expedit ut praeparatio proxima ad matrimonii sacramentum celebrandum postremis fiat mensibus et hebdomadibus, quae nuptiis antecedunt, ut nova veluti significatio, novum argumentum et forma tribuantur inquisitioni, quam dicunt, ante matrimonii celebrationem canonico iure postulatae. Hac praeparatione iugiter necessaria quocumque in casu ii magis indigent sponsi, qui adhuc defectus ac difficultates quoad christianam doctrinam vitaeque usum prae se ferunt.

Among the elements to be instilled in this journey of faith, which is similar to the catechumenate, there must also be a deeper knowledge of the mystery of Christ and the Church, of the meaning of grace and of the responsibility of Christian marriage, as well as preparation for taking an active and conscious part in the rites of the marriage liturgy.

Inter principia, quae tradenda sunt in hoc fidei veluti itinere, catechumenatui simili, oportet etiam altius perspiciatur Christi Ecclesiaeque mysterium, significatio gratiae atque officii matrimonii christiani necnon praeparatio ad actuosam et consciam participationem rituum liturgiae nuptialis.

The Christian family and the whole of the ecclesial community should feel involved in the different phases of the preparation for marriage, which have been described only in their broad outlines. It is to be hoped that the Episcopal Conferences, just as they are concerned with appropriate initiatives to help engaged couples to be more aware of the seriousness of their choice and also to help pastors of souls to make sure of the couples' proper dispositions, so they will also take steps to see that there is issued a Directory for the Pastoral Care of the Family. In this they should lay down, in the first place, the minimum content, duration and method of the "Preparation Courses," balancing the different aspects-doctrinal, pedagogical, legal and medical-concerning marriage, and structuring them in such a way that those preparing for marriage will not only receive an intellectual training but will also feel a desire to enter actively into the ecclesial community.

In variis gradibus praeparationis ad matrimonium — quos tantummodo indicii causa adumbravimus — familia christiana ac tota communitas ecclesialis officio se obstringant oportet. Exoptatur ut Conferentiae episcopales, quemadmodum in idonea incumbunt incepta ad adiuvandos futuros coniuges ut magis sint conscii momenti suae optionis necnon animarum pastores ut de consentaneis illorum dispositionibus ipsi fiant certiores, ita studeant ut Directorium de pastorali cura familiae edatur. In quo imprimis statuenda erunt minima argumentorum elementa, temp ora et methodi « Curriculorum praeparatoriorum », ubi simul variae inter se veluti librandae erunt partes — doctrinales, paedagogicae, iuridicae, medicae — quae ad matrimonium pertinent, et ita disponendae ut quotquot se ad matrimonium componunt, ultra intellectual em perspicientiam, impellantur ut in communitatem ecclesialem inserant se ipsos.

Although one must not underestimate the necessity and obligation of the immediate preparation for marriage-which would happen if dispensations from it were easily given-nevertheless such preparation must always be set forth and put into practice in such a way that omitting it is not an impediment to the celebration of marriage.

Licet haud minoris aestimanda sit necessitatis et obligationis ratio, praeparationis proximae ad matrimonium propria — quod quidem fieret, si facile ab ea aliquis eximeretur — tamen oportet haec praeparatio semper ita proponatur et ad effectum sic adducatur ut eius praetermissio, si eam fieri contingat, non sit impedimentum nuptiarum celebrandarum.

The Celebration

 

67. Christian marriage normally requires a liturgical celebration expressing in social and community form the essentially ecclesial and sacramental nature of the conjugal covenant between baptized persons.

67. Matrimonium christianum ad normam liturgicam postulat celebrationem, quae ratione sociali et communitaria naturam essentialiter ecclesialem et sacramentalem coniugalis foederis inter baptizatos declaret.

Inasmuch as it is a sacramental action of sanctification, the celebration of marriage-inserted into the liturgy, which is the summit of the Church's action and the source of her sanctifying power[166] must be per se valid, worthy and fruitful. This opens a wide field for pastoral solicitude, in order that the needs deriving from the nature of the conjugal convent, elevated into a sacrament, may be fully met, and also in order that the Church's discipline regarding free consent, impediments, the canonical form and the actual rite of the celebration may be faithfully observed. The celebration should be simple and dignified, according to the norms of the competent authorities of the Church. It is also for them-in accordance with concrete circumstances of time and place and in conformity with the norms issued by the Apostolic See[167]-to include in the liturgical celebration such elements proper to each culture which serve to express more clearly the profound human and religious significance of the marriage contract, provided that such elements contain nothing that is not in harmony with Christian faith and morality.

Ut sacramentalis actio sanctificationis, matrimonii celebratio — Liturgiae, culmini actionis Ecclesiae et fonti eius virtutis sanctificantis, illigata (166) — oportet per se sit valida, digna, frugifera. Hic amplus patet campus sollicitae curae pastorali ut postulationes prorsus impleantur, quae e natura foederis coniugalis, sacramenti dignitate aucti, promanant, atque simul disciplina Ecclesiae recte servetur, quod attinet ad liberum consensum, impedimenta, canonicam formam et ipsum celebrationis ritum. Hic simplex et decorus sit iuxta normas competentium auctoritatum Ecclesiae, quarum est etiam —secundum certa et definita adiuncta temporis et loci atque congruenter normis ab Apostolica Sede editis (167) — si forte res ferat, inducere in celebratione liturgica illa cuiusque cultus humani elementa quae ad exprimendam altam significationem humanam et religiosam coniugalis foederis satius valeant, dummodo in iis nihil insit, quod cum fide christianisque moribus parum conveniat.

Inasmuch as it is a sign, the liturgical celebration should be conducted in such a way as to constitute, also in its external reality, a proclamation of the word of God and a profession of faith on the part of the community of believers. Pastoral commitment will be expressed here through the intelligent and careful preparation of the Liturgy of the Word and through the education to faith of those participating in the celebration and in the first place the couple being married.

Ut signum celebratio liturgica ita peragatur ut fiat, etiam quoad exteriorem veri tatem, verbi Dei proclamatio et professio fidei communitatis credentium. Pastorale officium hac in re patescet sapienti diligentique cura « Liturgiae verbi» et institutione fidei, iis tradita, qui adsunt celebrationi, imprimis nuptias facientibus.

Inasmuch as it is a sacramental action of the Church, the liturgical celebration of marriage should involve the Christian community, with the full, active and responsible participation of all those present, according to the place and task of each individual: the bride and bridegroom, the priest, the witnesses, the relatives, the friends, the other members of the faithful, all of them members of an assembly that manifests and lives the mystery of Christ and His Church.

Ut sacramentalis actio Ecclesiae, celebratio oportet liturgica matrimonii christianam associet communitatem participatione plena, actuosa et conscia omnium astantium, secundum uniuscuiusque locum et officium: nuptias facientium, sacerdotis, testium, propinquorum, amicorum ceterorumque fidelium, qui omnes coetui intersunt, qui mysterium Christi eiusque Ecclesiae manifestat et exprimit vivendo.

For the celebration of Christian marriage in the sphere of ancestral cultures or traditions, the principles laid down above should be followed.

Quod attinet ad celebrationem matrimonii christiani in regionibus propriis cum cultus humani formis vel traditionibus avitis, principia serventur supra enuntiata.

Celebration of Marriage and Evangelization of Non-believing Baptized Persons

 

68. Precisely because in the celebration of the sacrament very special attention must be devoted to the moral and spiritual dispositions of those being married, in particular to their faith, we must here deal with a not infrequent difficulty in which the pastors of the Church can find themselves in the context of our secularized society.

68. Maxime eo quod in celeb ratione sacramenti peculiaris cura impenditur dispositionibus moralibus et spiritalibus matrimonium ineuntium, potissimum vero eorum fidei, hic aggredienda est difficultas, quae non raro contingit et in quam pastores Ecclesiae incidere possunt in hac nostra societate, saecularem formam induta.

In fact, the faith of the person asking the Church for marriage can exist in different degrees, and it is the primary duty of pastors to bring about a rediscovery of this faith and to nourish it and bring it to maturity. But pastors must also understand the reasons that lead the Church also to admit to the celebration of marriage those who are imperfectly disposed.

Etenim fides eius qui ab Ecclesia petit ut matrimonium possit contrahere, varios habere potest gradus, atque praecipuum est munus pastorum efficere ut ea iterum reperiatur, alatur, ad maturitatem adducatur. Sed oportet quoque ut ii intellegant causas, quae suadent Ecclesiae ut, etiam qui non est perfecte dispositus ad celebrationem, admittatur.

The sacrament of Matrimony has this specific element that distinguishes it from all the other sacraments: it is the sacrament of something that was part of the very economy of creation; it is the very conjugal covenant instituted by the Creator "in the beginning." Therefore the decision of a man and a woman to marry in accordance with this divine plan, that is to say, the decision to commit by their irrevocable conjugal consent their whole lives in indissoluble love and unconditional fidelity, really involves, even if not in a fully conscious way, an attitude of profound obedience to the will of God, an attitude which cannot exist without God's grace. They have thus already begun what is in a true and proper sense a journey towards salvation, a journey which the celebration of the sacrament and the immediate preparation for it can complement and bring to completion, given the uprightness of their intention.

Prae ceteris sacramentis haec sunt eiusdem matrimonii sacramenti peculiaria et propria: est videlicet sacramentum rei, quae iam in creationis dispositione inest, est idem foedus coniugale a Creatore institutum « in principio ». Viri ergo mulierisque propositum matrimonium contrahendi secundum hoc Dei consilium, id est secundum propositum vitam, per ipsorum coniugalem et irrevocabilem consensum, amore indissolubili atque fidelitate sine condicionibus astringendi, revera requirit, etiamsi modo non omnino conscio, animum affatim oboediendi Dei voluntati, qui sine eius gratia non potest haberi. Ii igitur verum propriumque salutis iter sunt ingressi, quod celebratio sacramenti et proxima ad eandem praeparatio complere valent et ad metam adducere, dummodo recta sit eorum intentio.

On the other hand it is true that in some places engaged couples ask to be married in church for motives which are social rather than genuinely religious. This is not surprising. Marriage, in fact, is not an event that concerns only the persons actually getting married. By its very nature it is also a social matter, committing the couple being married in the eyes of society. And its celebration has always been an occasion of rejoicing that brings together families and friends. It therefore goes without saying that social as well as personal motives enter into the request to be married in church.

Ceterum verum est in quibusdam regionibus magis sociales quam reapse religiosas causas impellere sponsos, ut celebrationem matrimonii in Ecclesia petant. Quod non est mirum. Namque matrimonium est eventus, qui non tantummodo facturos nuptias respicit. Suapte enim natura est etiam quiddam sociale, quod sponsos respectu societatis obligato Ex omni tempore celebratio eius dies est festus, quo familiae amicique inter se coniunguntur. Patet ergo sociales causas concurrere cum privatis in petitione matrimonium in ecclesia contrahendi.

Nevertheless, it must not be forgotten that these engaged couples, by virtue of their Baptism, are already really sharers in Christ's marriage Covenant with the Church, and that, by their right intention, they have accepted God's plan regarding marriage and therefore at least implicitly consent to what the Church intends to do when she celebrates marriage. Thus, the fact that motives of a social nature also enter into the request is not enough to justify refusal on the part of pastors. Moreover, as the Second Vatican Council teaches, the sacraments by words and ritual elements nourish and strengthen faith"[168]: that faith towards which the married couple are already journeying by reason of the uprightness of their intention, which Christ's grace certainly does not fail to favor and support.

Neque obliviscendum est matrimonium inituros huiusmodi, vi sui baptismi, vere iam alligari Foedere sponsali Christi cum Ecclesia atque ob rectam suam intentionem Dei cons ilium de matrimonio se accepisse ideoque, saltem implicite, ei assentiri, quod Ecclesia facere intendat, cum matrimonium celebret. Quamobrem tantummodo eo quod in huiusmodi petitione etiam sociales causae inveniuntur, probari non potest celebrationis recusatio a pastoribus forsitan facta. Ceteroquin, ut Concilium Vaticanum Secundum docuit, Sacramenta verbis et rebus ritualibus fidem alunt et roborant (168):  fidem dicimus, ad quam matrimonium inituri iam contendunt vi rectae suae intentionis, quam gratia Christi sine dubio fovet et firmat.

As for wishing to lay down further criteria for admission to the ecclesial celebration of marriage, criteria that would concern the level of faith of those to be married, this would above all involve grave risks. In the first place, the risk of making unfounded and discriminatory judgments; secondly, the risk of causing doubts about the validity of marriages already celebrated, with grave harm to Christian communities, and new and unjustified anxieties to the consciences of married couples; one would also fall into the danger of calling into question the sacramental nature of many marriages of brethren separated from full communion with the Catholic Church, thus contradicting ecclesial tradition.

Praeterea, si aliae rationes circa admission em ad celebrationem ecclesialem matrimonii statuantur, quae gradum fidei nuptias facere volentium respiciant, gravia pericula possunt afferri: imprimis periculum faciendi iudicia fundamento carentia et discriminantia; deinde periculum ingerendi dubia de validitate matrimoniorum iam celebratorum, magno cum detrimento christianarum communitatum cumque novis, non probandis angoribus conscientiae coniugum; periculum impugnandi vel in dubium vocandi indolem sacramentalem multorum matrimoniorum fratrum a plena communione cum Ecclesia catholica seiunctorum, quod ab ecclesiali discrepat traditione.

However, when in spite of all efforts, engaged couples show that they reject explicitly and formally what the Church intends to do when the marriage of baptized persons is celebrated, the pastor of souls cannot admit them to the celebration of marriage. In spite of his reluctance to do so, he has the duty to take note of the situation and to make it clear to those concerned that, in these circumstances, it is not the Church that is placing an obstacle in the way of the celebration that they are asking for, but themselves.

Cum, contra, omni conatu ad irritum redacto, nuptias facturi aperte et expresse id quod Ecclesia intendit, cum matrimonium baptizatorum celebratur, se respuere fatentur, animarum pastori non licet eos ad celebrationem admittere. Quamvis id aegre ferat, debet id ipsum agnoscere atque iis, quorum interest, persuadere non Ecclesiam in tali rerum statu sed eos ipsos celebrationem, quam quid em petant, impedire.

Once more there appears in all its urgency the need for evangelization and catechesis before and after marriage, effected by the whole Christian-community, so that every man and woman that gets married celebrates the sacrament of Matrimony not only validly but also fruitfully.

Etiam instantius hic videtur urgeri necessitas evangelizationis et catechesis ante et post matrimonium tradendarum, quas cuncta christiana communitas exsequatur oportet ea mente ut unusquisque vir et mulier, qui matrimonium contrahunt, sacramentum matrimonii non solum valide celebrent sed etiam fructuose.

Pastoral Care After Marriage

 

69. The pastoral care of the regularly established family signifies, in practice, the commitment of all the members of the local ecclesial community to helping the couple to discover and live their new vocation and mission. In order that the family may be ever more a true community of love, it is necessary that all its members should be helped and trained in their responsibilities as they face the new problems that arise, in mutual service, and in active sharing in family life.

69. Cura pastoralis familiae legitime constitutae reapse idem valet atque officium omnium eorum, qui communitatem ecclesialem localem efficiunt, auxilium praebendi coniugibus ut novam suam vocationem et missionem deprehendant et in vitae usum traducant. Quo magis magisque familia vera fiat amoris communitas, oportet universa eius membra adiuventur atque ad sua informentur officia respectu novarum, quae occurrant, difficultatum, ad mutuum servitium, ad vivam in familiari vita partem habendam.

This holds true especially for young families, which, finding themselves in a context of new values and responsibilities, are more vulnerable, especially in the first years of marriage, to possible difficulties, such as those created by adaptation to life together or by the birth of children. Young married couples should learn to accept willingly, and make good use of, the discreet, tactful and generous help offered by other couples that already have more experience of married and family life. Thus, within the ecclesial community-the great family made up of Christian families-there will take place a mutual exchange of presence and help among all the families, each one putting at the service of others its own experience of life, as well as the gifts of faith and grace. Animated by a true apostolic spirit, this assistance from family to family will constitute one of the simplest, most effective and most accessible means for transmitting from one to another those Christian values which are both the starting point and goal of all pastoral care. Thus young families will not limit themselves merely to receiving, but in their turn, having been helped in this way, will become a source of enrichment for other longer established families, through their witness of life and practical contribution.

Hoc praesertim novellas familias respicit, quae in novo bonorum novorumque officiorum ambitu versantes, maxime prioribus conubii annis fortasse difficultatibus sunt obnoxiae, veluti iis quae ex accommodatione ad communem vitam agendam filiorumque ortu promanant. Novelli coniuges ex animo suscipiant scienterque adhibeant auxilium prudens, humanum, munificum coniugum aliorum, qui iam a multo tempore vitam matrimonialem familiaremque experiendo noverunt. Sic intra ecclesialem communitatem — familiam magnam e christianis constantem familiis — mutuum assiduitatis commercium auxiliumque inter omnes familias efficietur, dum unaquaeque aliis adest sua cum experientia humana atque etiam fidei et gratiae donis. Vere apostolico spiritu vivificatum, hoc auxilium inter familias e facillimis, validissimis et omnium usui accommodatis erit modis, quo illa praestantia bona christiana longe lateque manantia transfundantur, quae principium et meta sunt cuiusvis ministerii pastoralis. Hac profecto ratione novae familiae non solum accipient sed vicissim, ita adiutae, veluti fons erunt incrementi pro aliis familiis, iampridem constitutis, vitae testimonio suo et opera sua sedulo collata.

In her pastoral care of young families, the Church must also pay special attention to helping them to live married love responsibly in relationship with its demands of communion and service to life. She must likewise help them to harmonize the intimacy of home life with the generous shared work of building up the Church and society. When children are born and the married couple becomes a family in the full and specific sense, the Church will still remain close to the parents in order that they may accept their children and love them as a gift received from the Lord of life, and joyfully accept the task of serving them in their human and Christian growth.

Praeterea in pastorali obeundo ministerio, quod novis familiis praebet, Ecclesia oportet peculiariter conitatur ut eas instituat ad amorem coniugalem cum conscientiae officio praestandum respectu eius necessitatum communionis ac servitii vitae impendendi, atque etiam ad intimam domesticae vitae consuetudinem cum communi et generoso opere aedificandae Ecclesiae atque humanae societatis componendam. Cum filiorum ortu bini coniuges omnino proprieque familia efficiuntur, Ecclesia adhuc parentibus aderit ea mente ut filios illi suscipiant ac diligant instar doni a Domino vitae accepti, cum gaudio laborem subeuntes iis opitulandi in humano et christiano progressu.

II - STRUCTURES OF FAMILY PASTORAL CARE

 

Pastoral activity is always the dynamic expression of the reality of the Church, committed to her mission of salvation. Family pastoral care too-which is a particular and specific form of pastoral activity- has as its operative principle and responsible agent the Church herself, through her structures and workers.

II - Actio pastoralis semper dynamico modo veram Ecclesiae naturam ostendit, quae missione sua salvifica obstringitur. Etiam pastoralis cura familiae — peculiaris ac praecipua ratio pastoralis ministerii — habet principium suum efficiens principemque auctorem ipsam Ecclesiam per eius structuras perque illos qui in ea operantur.

The Ecclesial Community and in Particular the Parish

 

70. The Church, which is at the same time a saved and a saving community, has to be considered here under two aspects: as universal and particular. The second aspect is expressed and actuated in the diocesan community, which is pastorally divided up into lesser communities, of which the parish is of special importance.

70. Ecclesia, communitas salvata simul et salvans, hic consideranda est in duplici sua ratione universali et particulari: haec in dioecesana communi tate, modo pastorali in minores communitates divisa, inter quas, suum ob praecipuum pondus, paroecia est insignis, declaratur et ad effectum adducitur.

Communion with the universal Church does not hinder but rather guarantees and promotes the substance and originality of the various particular Churches. These latter remain the more immediate and more effective subjects of operation for putting the pastoral care of the family into practice. In this sense every local Church and, in more particular terms, every parochial community, must become more vividly aware of the grace and responsibility that it receives from the Lord in order that it may promote the pastoral care of the family. No plan for organized pastoral work, at any level, must ever fail to take into consideration the pastoral care of the family.

Communio cum Ecclesia universali non deprimit, quin immo in tuto ponit et promovet stabilitatem et peculiarem inclolem variarum Ecclesiarum particularium; quae esse pergunt subiecta opere valentia et proxima necnon efficientissima ad curam pastoralem familiae peragendam. Ita quaevis Ecclesia localis et peculiari modo quaevis communitas paroecialis oportet sit magis conscia gratiae et officii, quae a Domino accipit ut curam provehat pastoralem. Expedit ne quodlibet pastoralis curae apte dispositae consilium, omnibus in ordinibus, umquam ad curam pastoralem familiae spectare praetermittat.

Also to be seen in the light of this responsibility is the importance of the proper preparation of all those who will be more specifically engaged in this kind of apostolate. Priests and men and women religious, from the time of their formation, should be oriented and trained progressively and thoroughly for the various tasks. Among the various initiatives I am pleased to emphasize the recent establishment in Rome, at the Pontifical Lateran University, of a Higher Institute for the study of the problems of the family. Institutes of this kind have also been set up in some dioceses. Bishops should see to it that as many priests as possible attend specialized courses there before taking on parish responsibilities. Elsewhere, formation courses are periodically held at Higher Institutes of theological and pastoral studies. Such initiatives should be encouraged, sustained, increased in number, and of course are also open to lay people who intend to use their professional skills (medical, legal, psychological, social or educational) to help the family.

Huiusce officii habita ratione, intellegitur etiam momentum consentaneae institutionis eorum qui in hoc genus apostolatum modo magis peculiari insistunt. Sacerdotes, religiosi et religiosae, inde a formationis suae tempore, progressione quadam et consentanee ad cuiusque munus implendum dirigantur et instituantur. Inter alia incepta nos iuvat in lumine ponere novum Romae apud Pontificiam Universitatem Lateranensem conditum Altius Institutum studio quaestionum de familia destinatum. Etiam in quibusdam dioecesibus huiusmodi instituta sunt excitata: curent Episcopi ut quam plurimi sacerdotes, antequam paroecialia munia ineant, in his specialia frequentent curricula. Aliis in locis institutoria curricula per intervalla habentur apud Altiora Instituta studiorum theologicorum et pastoralium. Haec incepta fovenda, sustinenda, multiplicanda et aperienda sunt, utliquet, etiam laicis, qui ad utilitatem familiae operam conferant pro munere sibi proprio (medico, iuridico, psychologico, sociali, paedagogico).

The Family

 

71. But it is especially necessary to recognize the unique place that, in this field, belongs to the mission of married couples and Christian families, by virtue of the grace received in the sacrament. This mission must be placed at the service of the building up of the Church, the establishing of the Kingdom of God in history. This is demanded as an act of docile obedience to Christ the Lord. For it is He who, by virtue of the fact that marriage of baptized persons has been raised to a sacrament, confers upon Christian married couples a special mission as apostles, sending them as workers into His vineyard, and, in a very special way, into this field of the family.

71. Sed maxime praecipuus habendus est locus, qui hac in re ad missionem coniugum familiarumque christianarum pertinet, ac quid em vi gratiae in sacramento acceptae. Quae missio est exsequenda ut Ecclesia atque Regnum Dei in rerum humanarum cursu aedificentur. Id postulatur sicut actus promptae obtemperationis Christo Domino. Is enim, virtute matrimonii baptizatorum ad sacramenti dignitatem evecti, coniugibus christianis peculiarem missionem apostolorum impertit, qua ut operarii in vineam eius et, praecipuo modo, in hunc campum familiae mittuntur.

In this activity, married couples act in communion and collaboration with the other members of the Church, who also work for the family, contributing their own gifts and ministries. This apostolate will be exercised in the first place within the families of those concerned, through the witness of a life lived in conformity with the divine law in all its aspects, through the Christian formation of the children, through helping them to mature in faith, through education to chastity, through preparation for life, through vigilance in protecting them from the ideological and moral dangers with which they are often threatened, through their gradual and responsible inclusion in the ecclesial community and the civil community, through help and advice in choosing a vocation, through mutual help among family members for human and Christian growth together, and so on. The apostolate of the family will also become wider through works of spiritual and material charity towards other families, especially those most in need of help and support, towards the poor, the sick, the old, the handicapped, orphans, widows, spouses that have been abandoned, unmarried mothers and mothers-to-be in difficult situations who are tempted to have recourse to abortion, and so on.

Haec dum faciunt, in communione et sociata opera cum ceteris Ecclesiae membris, quae naviter agunt in bonum familiae, simul dona sua et ministeria fructificando. Talis apostolatus imprimis intra propriam familiam explicabitur, prout testimonium perhibetur vitae actae secundum Dei legem omnibus in eius partibus, christiane instituendo filios, iis praebendo auxilium ut fidem suam ad maturitatem adducant, eos ad castitatem educando, praeparando ad vitam, vigilando ut a periculis ideologicis et moralibus, quibus saepe sunt obnoxii, prohibeantur, eos gradatim cum conscientiae officio inserendo in ecclesialem civilemque communi tatem, iis subveniendo et suadendo in vocatione seligenda, mutuum praebendo auxilium inter membra familiae pro communi auetu humano et christiano aliisque huiusmodi rationibus. Inde apostolatus familiae diffundetur operibus caritatis spiritalis et corporalis ad alias familias, praesertim ad eas quae magis egeant auxilio et fulcimine, ad pauperes, aegrotos, senes, praepeditos, orphanos, viduas, coniuges derelictos, matres innuptas et eas quae in difficilibus rerum adiunctis temptantur ut partum abigant et ad hisce similes.

Associations of Families for Families

 

72. Still within the Church, which is the subject responsible for the pastoral care of the family, mention should be made of the various groupings of members of the faithful in which the mystery of Christ's Church is in some measure manifested and lived. One should therefore recognize and make good use of-each one in relationship to its own characteristics, purposes effectiveness and methods-the different ecclesial communities, the various groups and the numerous movements engaged in various ways, for different reasons and at different levels, in the pastoral care of the family.

72. In Ecclesia insuper, quae est subiectum responsabile curae pastoralis familiae, memorandae sunt complures consociationes fidelium, in quibus declaratur Christi Ecclesiae mysterium et aliquomodo vivitur ex eo. Sunt igitur agnoscendae, cuiusque opera expostulata, — omnes quidem secundum proprietates suas, fines, momenta ad rem et methodos — plurimae ecclesiales communitates, varii coetus plurimique motus, quoquo modo, varii generis nomine et gradu, in cura pastorali familiae versantes.

For this reason the Synod expressly recognized the useful contribution made by such associations of spirituality, formation and apostolate. It will be their task to foster among the faithful a lively sense of solidarity, to favor a manner of living inspired by the Gospel and by the faith of the Church, to form consciences according to Christian values and not according to the standards of public opinion; to stimulate people to perform works of charity for one another and for others with a spirit of openness which will make Christian families into a true source of light and a wholesome leaven for other families.

Hac de causa Synodus manifeste comprobavit fructuosam operam huiusmodi consociationum spiritualitati, institutioni et apostolatui deditarum. Earum erit sincerum sensum solidae necessitudinis cum aliis excitare, vitae fovere rationem, quae Evangelium Ecclesiaeque fidem sequatur, conscientias formare iuxta christianas virtutes, non iuxta modos publicae opinionis, aclhortari ad opera caritatis mutuae et erga alios aperto animo, qui christianas familias tamquam verum fontem luminis validumque fermentum pro ceteris efficiat.

It is similarly desirable that, with a lively sense of the common good, Christian families should become actively engaged, at every level, in other non-ecclesial associations as well. Some of these associations work for the preservation, transmission and protection of the wholesome ethical and cultural values of each people, the development of the human person, the medical, juridical and social protection of mothers and young children, the just advancement of women and the struggle against all that is detrimental to their dignity, the increase of mutual solidarity, knowledge of the problems connected with the responsible regulation of fertility in accordance with natural methods that are in conformity with human dignity and the teaching of the Church. Other associations work for the building of a more just and human world; for the promotion of just laws favoring the right social order with full respect for the dignity and every legitimate freedom of the individual and the family, on both the national and international level; for collaboration with the school and with the other institutions that complete the education of children, and so forth.

Pariter exoptatur ut familiae christianae, communis utilitatis consciae, naviter operentur omnibus in graclibus, etiam in aliis non ecclesialibus consociationibus. Aliae ex his pertinent ad conservanda, tradenda, tuenda praestantia bona ethica et culturalia singulorum, quorum interest, populorum, ad personae humanae progressionem, ad tutelam medicam, iuridicam et social ìem matrum et infantium, ad iustam mulieris promotionem et ad luctationem adversus ea quae eius dignitatem abiciunt, ad auctum mutuae necessitudinis, ad cognitionem quaestionum coniunctarum cum conscia natalium temperatione secundum naturales methodos congruentes cum humana dignitate et Ecclesiae doctrina. Aliae tendunt ad iustiorem humanioremque aedificandam societatem, ad iustas fovendas leges, quae recto sociali ordini faveant, plene observata dignitate omnique legitima libertate uniuscuiusque ac familiae in gradu sive nationali sive internationali, ad cooperationem cum schola aliisque institutis, quae filiorum educationem complent, et ad alias res huiusce generis.

III - AGENTS OF THE PASTORAL CARE OF THE FAMILY

 

As well as the family, which is the object but above all the subject of pastoral care of the family, one must also mention the other main agents in this particular sector.

III - Praeter familiam — obiectum videlicet, sed imprimis subiectum eiusdem pastoralis curae familiae — alii etiam sunt memorandi iique praecipui, qui in peculiari hac provincia operantur.

Bishops and Priests

 

73. The person principally responsible in the diocese for the pastoral care of the family is the Bishop. As father and pastor, he must exercise particular solicitude in this clearly priority sector of pastoral care. He must devote to it personal interest, care, time, personnel and resources, but above all personal support for the families and for all those who, in the various diocesan structures, assist him in the pastoral care of the family. It will be his particular care to make the diocese ever more truly a "diocesan family," a model and source of hope for the many families that belong to it. The setting up of the Pontifical Council for the Family is to be seen in this light: to be a sign of the importance that I attribute to pastoral care for the family in the world, and at the same time to be an effective instrument for aiding and promoting it at every level.

73. Princeps curator et auctor rei pastoralis familiae in dioecesi est episcopus. Ut Pater et Pastor ipse oportet sit peculiari ratione sollicitus de hac parte, sine dubio ceteris praestante, ministerii pastoralis. Ei oportet curam, sollicitudinem, tempus, administros, copias impendat; praesertim vero suum ipsius adiumentum familiis et omnibus, qui in variis dioecesis structuris ei opitulantur in cura pastorali familiae, praebeat. Maxime ei cordi sit ut dioecesis sua magis magisque fiat vera « familia dioecesana », exemplar et fons spei pro tot familiis, ad hanc pertinentibus. Constitutio Pontificii Consilii pro Familia, ad hoc quod attinet, eo putetur spectare ut sit signum momenti, quod nos curae pastorali familiae in mundo tribuimus et ut simul sit efficax instrumentum, quo ea omnibus gradibus adiuvetur.

The Bishops avail themselves especially of the priests, whose task-as the Synod expressly emphasized-constitutes an essential part of the Church's ministry regarding marriage and the family. The same is true of deacons to whose care this sector of pastoral work may be entrusted.

Episcopi praesertim presbyteris utuntur, quorum munus — sicut Synodus aperte illustravit — pars est primaria ministerii Ecclesiae in utilitatem matrimonii atque familiae. Idem dicendum est de iis diaconis, quibus curatio huiusce provinciae pastoralis fortasse concreditur.

Their responsibility extends not only to moral and liturgical matters but to personal and social matters as well. They must support the family in its difficulties and sufferings, caring for its members and helping them to see their lives in the light of the Gospel. It is not superfluous to note that from this mission, if it is exercised with due discernment and with a truly apostolic spirit, the minister of the Church draws fresh encouragement and spiritual energy for his own vocation too and for the exercise of his ministry.

Eorum officium non solum quaestiones morales et liturgicas amplectitur, sed etiam personales atque sociales. Ipsi oportet familiam sustineant in eius difficultatibus et angustiis, eiusdem membris se consociantes eamque adiuvantes ut vitam suam, luce Evangelii refulgente, considerent. Non supervacaneum est animadvertere ex hac missione, si exerceatur necessario habito discrimine veroque cum spiritu apostolico, Ecclesiae ministrum nova accipere incitamenta ac spiritales vires pro sua etiam vocatione ipsaque ministerii exercitatione.

Priests and deacons, when they have received timely and serious preparation for this apostolate, must unceasingly act towards families as fathers, brothers, pastors and teachers, assisting them with the means of grace and enlightening them with the light of truth. Their teaching and advice must therefore always be in full harmony with the authentic Magisterium of the Church, in such a way as to help the People of God to gain a correct sense of the faith, to be subsequently applied to practical life. Such fidelity to the Magisterium will also enable priests to make every effort to be united in their judgments, in order to avoid troubling the consciences of the faithful.

Suo tempore intentoque studio ad hunc apostolatum instituti, sacerdos vel diaconus oportet continenter se gerant erga familias tamquam patres, fratres, pastores et magistros, eas gratiae iuvantes subsidiis ac veritatis lumine collustrantes. Necesse igitur est ut institutio, quam tradunt, et consilia eorum plane cum germano Ecclesiae Magisterio congruant ita ut Dei Populo auxilia praebeant ad rectum sensum fidei sibi. comparandum, qui postea ad ipsam vitam oportet aptetur. Haec erga Magisterium fidelitas efficiet quoque ut sacerdotes omni navitate iudiciorum suorum congruentiam curent ea mente ut a fidelibus suis conscientiae auferre valeant formidines.

In the Church, the pastors and the laity share in the prophetic mission of Christ: the laity do so by witnessing to the faith by their words and by their Christian lives; the pastors do so by distinguishing in that witness what is the expression of genuine faith from what is less in harmony with the light of faith; the family, as a Christian community, does so through its special sharing and witness of faith. Thus there begins a dialogue also between pastors and families. Theologians and experts in family matters can be of great help in this dialogue, by explaining exactly the content of the Church's Magisterium and the content of the experience of family life. In this way the teaching of the Magisterium becomes better understood and the way is opened to its progressive development. But it is useful to recall that the proximate and obligatory norm in the teaching of the faith-also concerning family matters-belongs to the hierarchical Magisterium. Clearly defined relationships between theologians, experts in family matters and the Magisterium are of no little assistance for the correct understanding of the faith and for promoting-within the boundaries of the faith-legitimate pluralism.

Pastores et laici in Ecclesia participes sunt propheticae Christi missionis; laici testimonium perhibendo fidei verbis atq ue christiana vita; pastores distinguendo in hoc testimonio, quod ex germana fide oriatur ab eo quod minus congruit cum lumine fidei; familia, ut christiana communitas, sua peculiari fidei participatione ac testimonio. Itaque etiam inter pastores et familias dialogus inchoatur. Theologi et quaestionum familiarium periti possunt magnopere auxilio esse huic collocutioni accurate explanando argumenta sive Ecclesiae Magisterii sive experientiae vitae familiaris. Tali ratione Magisterii doctrina melius intellegitur atque via aperitur ad eius auctum progredientem.Tamen decet monere normam proximam et obstringentem, ad fidei doctrinam quod attinet — etiam quoad quaestiones familiae — ad hierarchicum Magisterium spectare. Rationes inter theologos, quaestionum familiarium peritos et Magisterium sine ambagibus intercedentes haud paulum conferunt ad rectam fidem intellegendam et ad fovendum — intra ipsius fines — legitimum pluralismum, qui dicitur.

 

 

 

 

 Men and Women Religious

 

 

 

74. The contribution that can be made to the apostolate of the family by men and women religious and consecrated persons in general finds its primary, fundamental and original expression precisely in their consecration to God. By reason of this consecration, "for all Christ's faithful religious recall that wonderful marriage made by God, which will be fully manifested in the future age, and in which the Church has Christ for her only spouse,"[169] and they are witnesses to that universal charity which, through chastity embraced for the Kingdom of heaven, makes them ever more available to dedicate themselves generously to the service of God and to the works of the apostolate.

74. Partes, quas religiosi ac religiosae necnon in universum fideles Deo consecrati conferre valent ad apostolatum familiae, imprimis ac fundamentali singularique ratione ipsa eorum consecratione Deo facta ostenduntur, quae eos reddit « coram omnibus Christifidelibus» tamquam evocantes « mirabile illud ... connubium a Deo conditum et in futuro saeculo plene manifestandum quo Ecclesia unicum sponsum Christum habet » (169), necnon testes illius caritatis cunctos complectentis, quae per castitatem propter Regnum caelorum susceptam eos efficit usque paratiores ad sese liberaliter devovendos ministerio divino apostolatusque operibus.

Hence the possibility for men and women religious, and members of Secular Institutes and other institutes of perfection, either individually or in groups, to develop their service to families, with particular solicitude for children, especially if they are abandoned, unwanted, orphaned, poor or handicapped. They can also visit families and look after the sick; they can foster relationships of respect and charity towards one-parent families or families that are in difficulties or are separated; they can offer their own work of teaching and counseling in the preparation of young people for marriage, and in helping couples towards truly responsible parenthood; they can open their own houses for simple and cordial hospitality, so that families can find there the sense of God's presence and gain a taste for prayer and recollection, and see the practical examples of lives lived in charity and fraternal joy as members of the larger family of God.

Hinc fieri potest ut religiosi ac religiosae, sodales Institutorum saecularium et aliarum perfectionis Institutionum, singillatim vel coniunctim, ministerium factitent in bonum familiarum, peculiarem curam gerentes infantium, praesertim derelictorum, inoptatorum et orphanorum, pauperum vel impeditorum, invisentes familias aegrisque assidentes, excolentes necessitudinem observantiae et caritatis cum familiis semiplenis, versantibus in difficultate aut disiunctis, praebentes propriam docendi et consilia dandi industriam in praeparandis iuvenibus ad matrimonium et in subsidiis praestandis ipsis coniugibus ad procreationem vere responsabilem, pan dentes proprias domos simplici comique hospitalitati ut ibi familiae experiri valeant sensum Dei et spiritalem gustum precationis animique in Deum collecti et verum exemplum vitae transactae in caritate fraternaque laetitia tamquam inter membra amplioris familiae Dei.

I would like to add a most pressing exhortation to the heads of institutes of consecrated life to consider-always with substantial respect for the proper and original charism of each one-the apostolate of the family as one of the priority tasks, rendered even more urgent by the present state of the world.

His addere libet nobis instantissimam cohortationem, quam praepositis Institutorum vitae Deo consecratae adhibemus ut existiment — proprium et primigenum charisma quoad substantiam semper observantes — apostolatum ad familias directum velut unum ex potioribus officiis magis quidem urgentibus ob hodiernam rerum condicionem.

Lay Specialists

 

75. Considerable help can be given to families by lay specialists (doctors, lawyers, psychologists, social workers, consultants, etc.) who either as individuals or as members of various associations and undertakings offer their contribution of enlightenment, advice, orientation and support. To these people one can well apply the exhortations that I had the occasion to address to the Confederation of Family Advisory Bureaus of Christian Inspiration: "Yours is a commitment that well deserves the title of mission, so noble are the aims that it pursues, and so determining, for the good of society and the Christian community itself, are the results that derive from it.... All that you succeed in doing to support the family is destined to have an effectiveness that goes beyond its own sphere and reaches other people too and has an effect on society The future of the world and of the Church passes through the family."[170]

75. Haud paulum utilitatis afferre familiae possunt laici illi peculiariter instituti (medici, iurisperiti, psychologi, sociales adiutores, consultores aliique consimiles), qui sive singillatim sive variis in consociationibus inceptisque coniunctim operam implent suam illuminancli, consilia dandi, dirigendi, sustentandi. Ad eos recte referri possunt hortativa verba, quibus pro opportunitate allocuti sumus Confoederationem Consultoriorum familiarium mente christiana ductorum: « Vestrum est officium, quod apte sibi missionis nomen meretur; tam enim sublimia sunt proposita, quae illud persequitur, et tantum momentum habent ad bonum societatis ipsiusque christianae communitatis effectus inde man antes ... Quidquid peragere potueritis ad familiam fulciendam, habebit certissime efficacitatem, quae, proprium ambitum transcendens, alios etiam homines attinget afficietque societates. Ventura enim mundi et Ecclesiae aetas per familiam transit » (170). 

Recipients and Agents of Social Communications

 

76. This very important category in modern life deserves a word of its own. It is well known that the means of social communication "affect, and often profoundly, the minds of those who use them, under the affective and intellectual aspect and also under the moral and religious aspect," especially in the case of young people.[171] They can thus exercise a beneficial influence on the life and habits of the family and on the education of children, but at the same time they also conceal "snares and dangers that cannot be ignored."[172] They could also become a vehicle-sometimes cleverly and systematically manipulated, as unfortunately happens in various countries of the world-for divisive ideologies and distorted ways of looking at life, the family, religion and morality, attitudes that lack respect for man's true dignity and destiny.

76. Aliquid seorsum dicendum est de hominibus accipientibus et curantibus socialem communicationem, quod genus tantum pondus prae se fert in huius temporis vita. Notum enim est communicationis socialis instrumenta « insidere, ac quidem saepe penitus, in animis utentium ipsis respectu tam affectus et intellectus quam doctrinae moralis ac religion is », maxime si adulescentes sunt iidem (171). Quocirca ea salutarem possunt vim habere ad vitam moresque familiae necnon ad filiorum institutionem, at simul in se continent etiam « insidias ac pericula mini me neglegenda » (172) atque — calli de et artificio et via gubernata, sicut pro dolor variis in mundi partibus accidit — fieri possunt instrumenta ideologiarum homines seiungentium ac deformium iudiciorum de vita et familia, de religione et re morali, cum veram dignitatem non reverentur hominisque sortem.

This danger is all the more real inasmuch as "the modern life style- especially in the more industrialized nations-all too often causes families to abandon their responsibility to educate their children. Evasion of this duty is made easy for them by the presence of television and certain publications in the home, and in this way they keep their children's time and energies occupied."[173] Hence "the duty. . .to protect the young from the forms of aggression they are subjected to by the mass media," and to ensure that the use of the media in the family is carefully regulated. Families should also take care to seek for their children other forms of entertainment that are more wholesome, useful and physically, morally and spiritually formative, "to develop and use to advantage the free time of the young and direct their energies."[174]

Quod periculum tanto magis instat reapse quanto « saepius hodiernus vitae agendae modus — praesertim apud nationes machinali industria provectiores — saepissime familias adducit ut sua educationis officia deiciant reperiantque in facilibus effugii occasionibus (domi potissimum oblatis per televisificum instrumentum ac per scripta quaedam pervulgata) viam, qua tempus et agendi spatia infantium occupent ac puerorum » (173). Unde exoritur « officium ... defendendi maxime infantes ac pueros ab ”incursibus”, quos ex his communicationis instrumentis patiuntur » necnon curandi ut eorum usus in familia temperetur maxima cum diligentia. Sic etiam interesse debet familiae ut propriis filiis quaerantur alia oblectamenta saniora, utiliora magisque institutoria, ad corpus, mores, animam quod attinet, « ut tempus puerorum vacuum efficacius adhibeatur plurisque aestimetur et ut eorum vires probe dirigantur » (174).

Furthermore, because the means of social communication, like the school and the environment, often have a notable influence on the formation of children, parents as recipients must actively ensure the moderate, critical, watchful and prudent use of the media, by discovering what effect they have on their children and by controlling the use of the media in such a way as to "train the conscience of their children to express calm and objective judgments, which will then guide them in the choice or rejection of programs available .[175]

Quoniam vero communicationis socialis instrumenta — perinde ac schola et ambitus vitae — crebro etiam filiorum institutionem insignite afficiunt, parentes tamquam receptores actuosas sibi sum ere partes debent, quoad usum moderatum et censorium, vigilem et prudentem illorum, discernentes qualem effectum habeant in filios, necnon quoad directoriam moderationem, quae faciat « ut liberorum conscientia conformetur ad iudicia serena rebusque congruentia proferenda, quae eam dirigant in eligendis et excludendis spectaculis, quae exhibentur » (175).

With equal commitment parents will endeavor to influence the selection and the preparation of the programs themselves, by keeping in contact-through suitable initiatives-with those in charge of the various phases of production and transmission. In this way they will ensure that the fundamental human values that form part of the true good of society are not ignored or deliberately attacked. Rather they will ensure the broadcasting of programs that present in the right light family problems and their proper solution. In this regard my venerated predecessor Paul VI wrote: "Producers must know and respect the needs of the family, and this sometimes presupposes in them true courage, and always a high sense of responsibility. In fact they are expected to avoid anything that could harm the family in its existence, its stability, its balance and its happiness. Every attack on the fundamental value of the family-meaning eroticism or violence, the defense of divorce or of antisocial attitudes among young people-is an attack on the true good of man."[176]

Eadem officii ratione agant, in ipsis spectaculis seligendis et apparandis, consuetudinem — per opportuna incepta — habentes cum auctoribus variarum partium effectionis transmissionisque eorundem spectaculorum ut certo videant ne temere praetereantur vel consulto reiciantur illa primaria hominum bona, quibus verum bonum commune societatis continetur, sed ut, contra, diffundantur spectacula idonea ad monstrandas, ut par est, quaestiones familiae earumque rectas solutiones. Hac de re Decessor noster rec. memo Paulus VI scripsit: « cognoscere debent effectores ac revereri familiarum postulata, id quod ab iis nonnumquam veram animi fortitudinem semperque acerrimam officiorum propriorum conscientiam deposcit. Eos enim vitare omnia oportet, quae familiam laedere possint in vita eius et stabilitate necnon aequilibritate et felicitate. Omnis violatio principalium familiae bonorum — sive de re amatoria agitur vel violentia, sive de divortii clefensione vel de iuvenum habitudine societati contraria — est etiam veri boni hominum offensio » (176).

I myself, on a similar occasion, pointed out that families "to a considerable extent need to be able to count on the good will, integrity and sense of responsibility of the media professionals- publishers writers, producers, directors, playwrights, newsmen, commentators and actors."[177] It is therefore also the duty of the Church to continue to devote every care to these categories, at the same time encouraging and supporting Catholics who feel the call and have the necessary talents, to take up this sensitive type of work.

Simili data opportunitate nos ipsi haec verba pronuntiavimus: familiae «( necesse est possint non paulum confidere bonae voluntati et probitati et consciae propriorum munerum fidelitati in iis qui pro munere suo haec communicationis instrumenta procurant: qui sunt editores, scriptores, effectores, moderatores, scaenici auctores, nuntiatores, explanatores, actores » (177). Quapropter par etiam est pergere Ecclesiam omnes curas his destinare generibus opificum, cohortantem simul ac sustentantem catholicos, qui ad illos se sentiant vocari earumque rerum dotes prae se ferant, ut in has magnae prudentiae negotiorum provincias sedulo incumbant.

IV - PASTORAL CARE OF THE FAMILY IN DIFFICULT CASES

 

Particular Circumstances

 

77. An even more generous, intelligent and prudent pastoral commitment, modelled on the Good Shepherd, is called for in the case of families which, often independently of their own wishes and through pressures of various other kinds, find themselves faced by situations which are objectively difficult.

77. Pastorale studium etiam promptius, sapientius, prudentius ad Boni Pastoris exemplar flagitatur erga illas familias, quae — plerumque praeter suam voluntatem aut ob alias varii generis necessitates, quibus premuntur — condicionibus occurrere debent re ipsa difficilibus.

In this regard it is necessary to call special attention to certain particular groups which are more in need not only of assistance but also of more incisive action upon public opinion and especially upon cultural, economic and juridical structures, in order that the profound causes of their needs may be eliminated as far as possible.

Ad hoc quod pertinet, animus praesertim attendat oportet ad quosdam or dines peculiares, qui magis non modo auxiliorum egent verum etiam actionis maiorem vim habentis ad publicam opinionem et imprimis ad structuras culturales, oeconomicas, iuridiciales, ut quam maxime earum causae incommoditatum extremae removeantur.

Such for example are the families of migrant workers; the families of those obliged to be away for long periods, such as members of the armed forces, sailors and all kinds of itinerant people; the families of those in prison, of refugees and exiles; the families in big cities living practically speaking as outcasts; families with no home; incomplete or single-parent families; families with children that are handicapped or addicted to drugs; the families of alcoholics; families that have been uprooted from their cultural and social environment or are in danger of losing it; families discriminated against for political or other reasons; families that are ideologically divided; families that are unable to make ready contact with the parish; families experiencing violence or unjust treatment because of their faith; teenage married couples; the elderly, who are often obliged to live alone with inadequate means of subsistence.

Ruius generis sunt, ut exempla afferamus, familiae operis faciendi causa migrantium; familiae eorum qui diu abesse coguntur, veluti militum, nautarum, iter facientium cuiusvis modi; familiae vinculis detentorum, profugorum et in exilium pulsorum; familiae, quae magnis in urbibus degunt revera sedusae; familiae domo carentes vel sodalibus aut alterutro parente; familiae cum liberis impeditis vel toxicorum medicamentorum vitio infectis; familiae vinolentorum; familiae ex proprio ambitu culturali et sociali evulsae versantesve in periculo ne eum amittant; familiae ob rationes politicas aliasve passae discrimen; familiae ob ideologiam discordes; familiae cum paroecia non facile consuetudinem habentes; familiae vim aut iniustam tractationem ob propriam fidem patientes; familiae ex coniugibus minoris aetatis constantes; senes ipsi, qui haud raro compelluntur ut soli vivant et sine congruentibus subsidiis.

The families of migrants, especially in the case of manual workers and farm workers, should be able to find a homeland everywhere in the Church. This is a task stemming from the nature of the Church, as being the sign of unity in diversity. As far as possible these people should be looked after by priests of their own rite, culture and language. It is also the Church's task to appeal to the public conscience and to all those in authority in social, economic and political life, in order that workers may find employment in their own regions and homelands, that they may receive just wages, that their families may be reunited as soon as possible, be respected in their cultural identity and treated on an equal footing with others, and that their children may be given the chance to learn a trade and exercise it, as also the chance to own the land needed for working and living.

Migrantium familiae, praesertim cum de operariis agitur et agricolis, necesse est ubique in Ecclesia suam invenire possint patriam. Quod est nativum quoddam Ecclesiae munus, quandoquidem unitatis ipsa est signum in diversitate. Quantum fieri potest, iis assistant sacerdotes eiusdem eorum ritus, cultus humani ac sermonis. Praeterea est etiam Ecclesiae provocare conscientiam publicam et eos, quotquot in vita sociali, oeconomica et politica potestatem gerunt, ut opifices sua in regione patriaque opus faciendum reperiant, ut iusta illis retribuatur mercedes, ut quam primum familiae denuo coniungantur, ut ratio habeatur eorum identitatis culturalis, ut pares aliis familiis tractentur utque denique eorum filiis opportunitas praebeatur ediscendae alicuius artis et exercendae professionis, tum etiam terrae possidendae ad opus vitamque necessariae.

A difficult problem is that of the family which is ideologically divided. In these cases particular pastoral care is needed. In the first place it is necessary to maintain tactful personal contact with such families. The believing members must be strengthened in their faith and supported in their Christian lives. Although the party faithful to Catholicism cannot give way, dialogue with the other party must always be kept alive. Love and respect must be freely shown, in the firm hope that unity will be maintained. Much also depends on the relationship between parents and children. Moreover, ideologies which are alien to the faith can stimulate the believing members of the family to grow in faith and in the witness of love.

Difficilis exsistit quaestio de familiis, quae ideologiis discinduntur. Quibus in casibus peculiaris exposcitur cura pastoralis. Ante omnia oportet colere prudenter necessitudinem personalem talibus cum familiis. In fide credentes sunt confirmandi in vitaque christiana solidandi. Tametsi partem catholico nomini fidelem cedere non licet, semper tamen agitari decet colloquium cum altera parte. Significationes multiplicentur amoris et observationis, dum firmiter speratur unitatem posse servari. Multum etiam pendet e rationibus, quibus parentes ac liberi inter se coniunguntur. Ideologiae fide alienae incitare ceteroquin possunt credentes familiae sodales ut in amore crescant amorisque testificatione.

Other difficult circumstances in which the family needs the help of the ecclesial community and its pastors are: the children's adolescence, which can be disturbed, rebellious and sometimes stormy; the children's marriage, which takes them away from their family; lack of understanding or lack of love on the part of those held most dear; abandonment by one of the spouses, or his or her death, which brings the painful experience of widowhood, or the death of a family member, which breaks up and deeply transforms the original family nucleus.

Alia momenta difficilia, quibus familia communitatis ecclesialis eiusque pastorum eget acliumento, haec possunt esse: filiorum adulescentia inquieta, reclamitans et interdum tumultuosa; conubium eorum, quo a familia pristina abstrahuntur; deficiens indulgentia vel caritas, quae ex carissimis venit familiaribus; desertio alterutri coniugi tribuenda eiusve obitus, qui secum infert acerbum experimentum viduitatis vel mortis alicuius consanguinei, quae mutilat et penitus mutat priscum familiae veluti nucleum.

Similarly, the Church cannot ignore the time of old age, with all its positive and negative aspects. In old age married love, which has been increasingly purified and ennobled by long and unbroken fidelity, can be deepened. There is the opportunity of offering to others, in a new form, the kindness and the wisdom gathered over the years, and what energies remain. But there is also the burden of loneliness, more often psychological and emotional rather than physical, which results from abandonment or neglect on the part of children and relations. There is also suffering caused by ill-health, by the gradual loss of strength, by the humiliation of having to depend on others, by the sorrow of feeling that one is perhaps a burden to one's loved ones, and by the approach of the end of life. These are the circumstances in which, as the Synod Fathers suggested, it is easier to help people understand and live the lofty aspects of the spirituality of marriage and the family, aspects which take their inspiration from the value of Christ's Cross and Resurrection, the source of sanctification and profound happiness in daily life, in the light of the great eschatological realities of eternal life.

Pariter ab Ecclesia neglegi nequit tempus aetate provectorum omnibus cum bonis suis malisque rationibus, cuius modi sunt: altior perceptio amoris coniugalis, qui magis semper purificatur et nobilitatur longa neque umquam interrupta fidelitate; voluntas dicandi aliorum servitio, etsi nova forma, bonitatem sapientiamque per annos adeptam necnon vires, quae supersunt; gravans solitudo saepius animae et affectionis quam corporis propter aliquam fortasse desertionem vel curam a filiis et familiaribus haud sufficienter impensam; dolor et aegrotationes vel ex progrediente virium deminutione vel ex deiectione ex eo orta quod quis ex aliis pendet vel ex acerbo sensu, quo quis se videt pondus suis esse forsitan caris, ex accessu postremorum temporum vitae. Hae quidem occasiones sunt, quibus — sicut Synodi Patres significaverunt — facilius illuminari possunt ac vivendo exprimi excellentes illae rationes spiritualitatis matrimonialis ac familiaris, quae ex praestantia manant Crucis et resurrectionis Christi, fontis videlicet sanctificationis magnaeque laetitiae in cotidiana vita, praelucentibus magnis veritatibus eschatologicis vitae aeternae.

In all these different situations let prayer, the source of light and strength and the nourishment of Christian hope, never be neglected.

His omnibus variis in rebus precatio ne umquam praetermittatur, origo id est solacii ac virium necnon spei christi anae alimentum.

Mixed Marriages

 

78. The growing number of mixed marriages between Catholics and other baptized persons also calls for special pastoral attention in the light of the directives and norms contained in the most recent documents of the Holy See and in those drawn up by the Episcopal Conferences, in order to permit their practical application to the various situations.

78. Augescens usque matrimonio rum mixtorum numerus inter catholicos et baptizatos christianos non catholicos, sicut inter catholicos quoque et non baptizatos similiter peculiarem diligentiam pastoralem postulat secundum directorias rationes et normas, quae in recentioribus continentur documentis Apostolicae Sedis et Conferentiarum episcopalium, ut variis locorum condicionibus recte possint applicari.

Couples living in a mixed marriage have special needs, which can be put under three main headings.

Coniuges, qui in matrimonio mixto versantur, prae se ferunt proprias necessitates, quae ad tria capita praecipua redigi possunt.

In the first place, attention must be paid to the obligations that faith imposes on the Catholic party with regard to the free exercise of the faith and the consequent obligation to ensure, as far as is possible, the Baptism and upbringing of the children in the Catholic faith.[178]

Imprimis ante oculos constituenda sunt catholicae parti officia ex fide manantia, quod spectat ad liberam huius exercitationem munusque inde consecutum curandi pro viribus ut filii in catholica fide baptizentur educenturque (178).

There must be borne in mind the particular difficulties inherent in the relationships between husband and wife with regard to respect for religious freedom: this freedom could be violated either by undue pressure to make the partner change his or her beliefs, or by placing obstacles in the way of the free manifestation of these beliefs by religious practice.

Recordari porro oportet de peculiaribus difficultatibus, cohaerentibus cum ipsa ratione necessitudinis inter maritum et uxorem, quod ad libertatem religiosam attinet utriusque, quae violari potest sive iniustis sollicitationibus eo spectantibus ut conubii comparticeps proprium religionis mutet institutum, sive impedimentis allatis liberae eius ostensioni in eiusdem religionis exercitatione.

With regard to the liturgical and canonical form of marriage, Ordinaries can make wide use of their faculties to meet various necessities.

De forma autem liturgica et canonica matrimonii licet Ordinariis abundanter uti facultatibus propriis, ut variis necessitatibus occurrant.

In dealing with these special needs, the following points should be kept in mind:

Cum autem peculiares hae necessitates pertractantur, haec sunt consideranda:

In the appropriate preparation for this type of marriage, every reasonable effort must be made to ensure a proper understanding of Catholic teaching on the qualities and obligations of marriage, and also to ensure that the pressures and obstacles mentioned above will not occur.

— in praeparatione, ad ipsum hoc genus matrimonium instituenda, omnia rationabiliter conanda sunt ut catholica doctrina de matrimonii proprietatibus et postulationibus perdoceatur utque etiam caveatur ne in posterum tempus incidant sollicitationes illae et obstacula, de quibus modo est dictum;

It is of the greatest importance that, through the support of the community, the Catholic party should be strengthened in faith and positively helped to mature in understanding and practicing that faith, so as to become a credible witness within the family through his or her own life and through the quality of love shown to the other spouse and the children.

— summi refert ut, adstipulante communi tate, pars catholica corroboretur in fide sua ac reapse adiuvetur ad maturum eius intellectum usumque consequendum ut intra familiam credibilis testis fiat per vitam ipsam et qualitatem amoris erga alterum coniugem ac liberos.

Marriages between Catholics and other baptized persons have their own particular nature, but they contain numerous elements that could well be made good use of and developed, both for their intrinsic value and for the contribution that they can make to the ecumenical movement. This is particularly true when both parties are faithful to their religious duties. Their common Baptism and the dynamism of grace provide the spouses in these marriages with the basis and motivation for expressing their unity in the sphere of moral and spiritual values.

Mixta inter catholicos aliosque baptizatos matrimonia, quamvis singularem exhibeant speciem, plures tamen ostendunt rationes, quas utile est probe fovere et provehere tum propter interius ipsarum momentum tum propter vim, quam motui oecumenico tribuere valent. Hoc potissimum patet quoties ambo coniuges fideles sunt religiosis officiis suis. Communis enim baptismus ac dynamica gratiae virtus suppeditant coniugibus horum matrimoniorum principium et causam communicandae eorum coniunctionis in bonorum moralium spiritaliumque provincia.

For this purpose, and also in order to highlight the ecumenical importance of mixed marriages which are fully lived in the faith of the two Christian spouses, an effort should be made to establish cordial cooperation between the Catholic and the non-Catholic ministers from the time that preparations begin for the marriage and the wedding ceremony, even though this does not always prove easy.

Eius rei gratia atque etiam ut evidenter eluceat oecumenicum pondus talis matrimonii mixti, quod in binorum coniugum christianorum fide plene transigitur, inquiri debet — licet hoc non semper facile sit factu — benigna adiutrix opera inter ministrum catholicum et non catholicum iam inde a primo tempore praeparationis ad matrimonium ipsarumque nuptiarum.

With regard to the sharing of the non-Catholic party in Eucharistic Communion, the norms issued by the Secretariat for Promoting Christian Unity should be followed.[179]

Quod porro coniugis non catholici participationem respicit eucharisticae Communionis, regulae observentur a Secretariatu ad Christianorum unitatem fovendam editae (179).

Today in many parts of the world marriages between Catholics and non-baptized persons are growing in numbers. In many such marriages the non-baptized partner professes another religion, and his beliefs are to be treated with respect, in accordance with the principles set out in the Second Vatican Council's Declaration Nostra aetate on relations with non-Christian religions.

In variis orbis terrarum partibus augescens numerus matrimoniorum, quae inter catholicos et non baptizatos contrahuntur, animadvertitur In multis ex his coniux non baptizatus aliam profitetur religionem; quae is hac in re sentit, ea sunt reverenter observanda secundum Concilii Oecumenici Vaticani Secundi Declarationem Nostra aetate de Ecclesiae habitudine ad religiones non christianas.

But in many other such marriages, particularly in secularized societies, the non- baptized person professes no religion at all. In these marriages there is a need for Episcopal Conferences and for individual Bishops to ensure that there are proper pastoral safeguards for the faith of the Catholic partner and for the free exercise of his faith, above all in regard to his duty to do all in his power to ensure the Catholic baptism and education of the children of the marriage. Likewise the Catholic must be assisted in every possible way to offer within his family a genuine witness to the Catholic faith and to Catholic life.

Verumtamen in haud paucis eiusmodi matrimoniis, maxime intra societates saeculari nota insignes, coniux non baptizatus nullam prorsus religionem profitetur. Ad haec quod attinet conubia, necesse est ut Conferentiae episcopales et episcopi singuli congruentibus consiliis pastoralibus utantur eo pertinentibus ut defensioni fidei coniugis catholici ac tuitioni liberae exercitationis eiusdem fidei prospiciatur, praesertim quod ad officium spectat faciendi, quantum potest, ut filii baptizentur et secundum religion em cathoJicam educentur. Praeterea coniux quoquo modo adiuvandus est ad implendum officium intra familiam ipsam sincerum testimonium fidei vitaeque catholicae perhibendi.

 

 

Pastoral Action in Certain Irregular Situations  

 

 

79. In its solicitude to protect the family in all its dimensions, not only the religious one, the Synod of Bishops did not fail to take into careful consideration certain situations which are irregular in a religious sense and often in the civil sense too. Such situations, as a result of today's rapid cultural changes, are unfortunately becoming widespread also among Catholics with no little damage to the very institution of the family and to society, of which the family constitutes the basic cell.

79. Diligenter studens familiam omni eius in parte non solum religiosa tutari, Synodus Episcoporum non omisit attento animo perpendere quasdam condiciones ratione religiosa et crebro etiam civili abnormes, quae — velocibus in hodiernis cultus hum ani inmutationibus — pro dolor, etiam inter catholicos increbrescunt, non parvo detrimento ipsi instituto familiari societatique illato, cuius hoc est veluti primaria cellula.

 

 

a) Trial Marriages

 

 

 

80. A first example of an irregular situation is provided by what are called "trial marriages," which many people today would like to justify by attributing a certain value to them. But human reason leads one to see that they are unacceptable, by showing the unconvincing nature of carrying out an "experiment" with human beings, whose dignity demands that they should be always and solely the term of a self-giving love without limitations of time or of any other circumstance.

80. Prima condicio aliqua abnormis proficiscitur ex illo matrimonio, quod « experimenti causa initum » appellant et quod plures hodie defendere velint certam ei praestantiam assignantes. At iam ipsa humana ratio suadet accipi illud non posse, cum indicet quantillum deceai fieri « experimentum » de personis humanis, quarum potius postulat dignitas ut semper et solae sint illae finis, ad quem amor se invicem tradendi sine ullis neque temporis neque alterius rei terminis contendat.

The Church, for her part, cannot admit such a kind of union, for further and original reasons which derive from faith. For, in the first place, the gift of the body in the sexual relationship is a real symbol of the giving of the whole person: such a giving, moreover, in the present state of things cannot take place with full truth without the concourse of the love of charity, given by Christ. In the second place, marriage between two baptized persons is a real symbol of the union of Christ and the Church, which is not a temporary or "trial" union but one which is eternally faithful. Therefore between two baptized persons there can exist only an indissoluble marriage.

Ecclesia sua vicissim ex parte tolerare non potest tale coniunctionis genus propter alias singulares rationes ex fide manantes. Hinc enim donum corporis in consortio sexuali reale signum est donationis totius personae: quae tamen donatio in hac quae viget salutis oeconomia, plena ex veritate effici nequit nisi caritatis amor, a Christo praebitus, concurrat. Illinc autem matrimonium duorum baptizatorum reale est symbolum unitatis Christi cum Ecclesia, quae neque temporaria est neque « ad experim en tum », sed in sem pi tern um fidelis; inter duos igitur baptizatos exsistere non potest matrimonium nisi indissolubile.

Such a situation cannot usually be overcome unless the human person, from childhood, with the help of Christ's grace and without fear, has been trained to dominate concupiscence from the beginning and to establish relationships of genuine love with other people. This cannot be secured without a true education in genuine love and in the right use of sexuality, such as to introduce the human person in every aspect, and therefore the bodily aspect too, into the fullness of the mystery of Christ.

Haec rerum condicio plerumque vinci non potest nisi persona humana iam ab infantia gratiae Christi auxilio et sine timore sic est educata ut nascenti dominaretur concupiscentiae cum aliisque contraheret germani amoris necessitudines. Id quod non impetratur sine institutione solid a in sincero amore ac recto usu sexualitatis, quae ad plenitudinem Christi mysterii adducat personam humanam secundum omnes eius rationes et ideo etiam secundum eas quae corpus attingunt.

It will be very useful to investigate the causes of this phenomenon, including its psychological and sociological aspect, in order to find the proper remedy.

Valde quidem proderit inquirere in huius rei causas atque etiam in ipsius rationem psychologicam ac sociologicam ut idoneum tandem inveniatur remedium.

 

 

b) De Facto Free Unions

 

 

 

81. This means unions without any publicly recognized institutional bond, either civil or religious. This phenomenon, which is becoming ever more frequent, cannot fail to concern pastors of souls, also because it may be based on widely varying factors, the consequences of which may perhaps be containable by suitable action.

81. Exstant pariter liberae illnctiones, sine ullo nempe institutionali vinculo publice agnito aut civili aut religioso. Fieri non potest quin haec etiam res — ipsa quoque usque magis invalescens — considerationem pastorum animarum ad se convertat oportet etiam eo quod subesse illi possunt rationes inter se valde diversae, quae si inspiciantur, fortasse earum consectaria possunt cohiberi.

Some people consider themselves almost forced into a free union by difficult economic, cultural or religious situations, on the grounds that, if they contracted a regular marriage, they would be exposed to some form of harm, would lose economic advantages, would be discriminated against, etc. In other cases, however, one encounters people who scorn, rebel against or reject society, the institution of the family and the social and political order, or who are solely seeking pleasure. Then there are those who are driven to such situations by extreme ignorance or poverty, sometimes by a conditioning due to situations of real injustice, or by a certain psychological immaturity that makes them uncertain or afraid to enter into a stable and definitive union. In some countries, traditional customs presume that the true and proper marriage will take place only after a period of cohabitation and the birth of the first child.

Aliqui enim se arbitrantur ad illud fere impelli difficilibus condicionibus — oeconomicis, culturalibus, religiosis — quatenus matrimonium ad normam contrahentes exponantur damnis, amissioni oeconomicarum commoditatum, iniustis discriminibus et similibus rebus. In aliis, contra, deprehenditur affectio quaedam despicientiae, reclamationis vel repudiationis societatem, institutum familiare, ordinem socialem-politicum respicientium aut solius voluptatum cupidinis. Alii denique compelluntur extrema quadam ignorantia et paupertate, interdum etiam rerum statu enato ex verae iniustitiae condicionibus aut immaturitate psychologica, un de incerti sunt illi timentque vinculum sibi firmum ac perpetuum imponere. Nonnullis in regionibus traditi mores efficiunt ut verum ac proprium matrimonium dumtaxat post cohabitationis aliquod tempus primumque natum filium ineatur.

Each of these elements presents the Church with arduous pastoral problems, by reason of the serious consequences deriving from them, both religious and moral (the loss of the religious sense of marriage seen in the light of the Covenant of God with His people; deprivation of the grace of the sacrament; grave scandal), and also social consequences (the destruction of the concept of the family; the weakening of the sense of fidelity, also towards society; possible psychological damage to the children; the strengthening of selfishness).

Harum rationum unaquaeque Ecclesiae arduas ponit quaestiones pastorales propter graves consecutiones inde defluentes tum religiosas hun morales (quales sunt amissio religiosi sensus, ad matrimonium quod attinet — quatenus instar Foederis Dei cum eius Populo initi consideratur —; gratiae Sacramenti privatio: scandalum grave), tum etiam sociales (ut sunt deletio notionis familiae; imminutio fidelitatis sensus etiam erga societatem; animi fortasse vulnera in filiis; nimii sui ipsius amoris affirmatio).

The pastors and the ecclesial community should take care to become acquainted with such situations and their actual causes, case by case. They should make tactful and respectful contact with the couples concerned, and enlighten them patiently, correct them charitably and show them the witness of Christian family life, in such a way as to smooth the path for them to regularize their situation. But above all there must be a campaign of prevention, by fostering the sense of fidelity in the whole moral and religious training of the young, instructing them concerning the conditions and structures that favor such fidelity, without which there is no true freedom; they must be helped to reach spiritual maturity and enabled to understand the rich human and supernatural reality of marriage as a sacrament.

Pastores curabunt et ecclesialis communitas ut singulis in casibus has condiciones cognoscant verasque earum causas ut cum prudentia et observantia adeant conviventes, ut operentur patienti cum illuminatione, amanti cum correctione, testificatione christianae familiae, quae viam iis expedire possit ad eiusmodi statum ad regulam dirigendum. Ante omnia vero huic difficultati praecaveatur sensu fidelitatis excolendo per omnem moralem religiosamque iuvenum educationem, erudiendis illis de condicionibus ac structuris illi fidelitati faventibus, sine qua nulla datur vera libertas, adiuvanclis iis ut spiritualiter maturescant, dum iis verae divitiae humanae et supernaturales matrimonii sacramenti aperiuntur.

The People of God should also make approaches to the public authorities, in order that the latter may resist these tendencies which divide society and are harmful to the dignity, security and welfare of the citizens as individuals, and they must try to ensure that public opinion is not led to undervalue the institutional importance of marriage and the family. And since in many regions young people are unable to get married properly because of extreme poverty deriving from unjust or inadequate social and economic structures, society and the public authorities should favor legitimate marriage by means of a series of social and political actions which will guarantee a family wage, by issuing directives ensuring housing fitting for family life and by creating opportunities for work and life.

Apud publicas pariter auctoritates enitatur Populus Dei ut illae obsistentes his motibus, ipsam societatem dissolventibus ac dignitati et saluti et prosperitati singulorum civium nocentibus, contendant ne publica opinio inducatur ad minoris aestimandum pondus ipsum instituti matrimonii et familiae. Et quoniam pluribus locis ob permagnam egestatem a structuris socialibus-oeconomicis aut iniustis aut non sufficientibus profectam, iuvenes matrimonium contrahere nequeunt, sicut convenit, societas publicaeque auctoritates prospiciant legitimo matrimonio, praestantes mercedem familiarem, ferentes decreta de habitatione vitae familiari idonea, aptas opportunitates operis ac vitae praebentes.

 

 

c) Catholics in Civil Marriages

 

 

 

82. There are increasing cases of Catholics who for ideological or practical reasons, prefer to contract a merely civil marriage, and who reject or at least defer religious marriage. Their situation cannot of course be likened to that of people simply living together without any bond at all, because in the present case there is at least a certain commitment to a properly-defined and probably stable state of life, even though the possibility of a future divorce is often present in the minds of those entering a civil marriage. By seeking public recognition of their bond on the part of the State, such couples show that they are ready to accept not only its advantages but also its obligations. Nevertheless, not even this situation is acceptable to the Church.

82. Frequentius usque evenit ut catholici, rationibus ideologicis vel practicis impulsi, solum civile matrimonium contrahere malint, reiecto vel saltem dilato religioso. Eorum autem status aequari simpliciter non potest conclicioni conviventium nullo vinculo iunctorum, cum apud eos saltem certum quoddam officium reperiatur definitum et verisimiliter stabilem vitae cursum tenendi, quamvis hac in re saepe et praevideatur facultas divortii fortasse faciendi. Cum coniuges velint ut a Civitate vinculum pub lice agnoscatur, demonstrant paratos se esse una cum commodis etiam obligationes suscipere. Nihilo setius ne haec quidem condicio accipi ab Ecclesia potest.

The aim of pastoral action will be to make these people understand the need for consistency between their choice of life and the faith that they profess, and to try to do everything possible to induce them to regularize their situation in the light of Christian principle. While treating them with great charity and bringing them into the life of the respective communities, the pastors of the Church will regrettably not be able to admit them to the sacraments.

Illuc igitur pastoralis industria tendat ut penitus comprehendatur necessitas cohaerentiae inter vitae electionem et fidem, quam quis profitetur; et quantum fieri poterit, conabitur tales adducere homines ut statum suum secundum christiana principia ad regulam dirigant. Quamtumvis magna cum caritate eos tractent atque studio in propriarum communitatum vitam inflamment, Ecclesiae pastoribus, pro dolor, non licet eos ad sacramenta admittere.

 

 

d) Separated or Divorced Persons Who Have Not Remarried

 

 

 

83. Various reasons can unfortunately lead to the often irreparable breakdown of valid marriages. These include mutual lack of understanding and the inability to enter into interpersonal relationships. Obviously, separation must be considered as a last resort, after all other reasonable attempts at reconciliation have proved vain.

83. Causae variae, cuius generis sunt mutuae contentiones aut nulla facultas se aperiendi veris necessitudinis rationibus inter personas intercedentibus hisque similes, acerbe validum matrimonium ad disruptionem saepe insanabilem possunt adducere. Ut patet, separatio habenda est extremum remedium, cum omnis alius conatus fuerit vanus.

Loneliness and other difficulties are often the lot of separated spouses, especially when they are the innocent parties. The ecclesial community must support such people more than ever. It must give them much respect, solidarity, understanding and practical help, so that they can preserve their fidelity even in their difficult situation; and it must help them to cultivate the need to forgive which is inherent in Christian love, and to be ready perhaps to return to their former married life.

Solitudo aliaeque difficultates crebro sunt sors coniugis separati, praesertim si innocens est. Tunc magis quam alias ecclesialis communitas coniugem debet sustinere eique tribuere existimationem et animorum coniunctionem, consensionem et solida auxilia ut in rebus adversis, in quibus versatur, fidelitatem valeat servare; debet insuper coniugem adiuvare ut praescriptam virtu tern veniae colat, propriam christiani amoris, necnon voluntatem promptam ad resumen dam fortasse superiorem vitam coniugalem.

The situation is similar for people who have undergone divorce, but, being well aware that the valid marriage bond is indissoluble, refrain from becoming involved in a new union and devote themselves solely to carrying out their family duties and the responsibilities of Christian life. In such cases their example of fidelity and Christian consistency takes on particular value as a witness before the world and the Church. Here it is even more necessary for the Church to offer continual love and assistance, without there being any obstacle to admission to the sacraments.

Consimilis est casus coniugis, qui divortium pertulit sed, probe comprehensam habens validi vinculi matrimonialis indissolubilitatem, non se patitur nova coniunctione implicari sed, contra, dumtaxat suis officiis in familia satisfacere vitaeque christianae obligationibus studet. Exemplum itaque eius fidelitatis et constantiae christianae accipit vim peculiarem testificationis coram mundo et Ecclesia et ideoque ab Ecclesia poscit operam magis necessariam et continuam amoris et auxilii, omni submoto obstaculo accession is ad sacramenta.

84 Divorced and Remarried  
e) Divorced Persons Who Have Remarried

 

 

 

84. Daily experience unfortunately shows that people who have obtained a divorce usually intend to enter into a new union, obviously not with a Catholic religious ceremony. Since this is an evil that, like the others, is affecting more and more Catholics as well, the problem must be faced with resolution and without delay. The Synod Fathers studied it expressly. The Church, which was set up to lead to salvation all people and especially the baptized, cannot abandon to their own devices those who have been previously bound by sacramental marriage and who have attempted a second marriage. The Church will therefore make untiring efforts to put at their disposal her means of salvation.

84. Cotidianum rerum experimentum pro dolor docet eum qui divortium fecerit, plerumque animo intendere novam transire ad convivendi societatem, sine ritu religioso catholicorum, ut patet. Cum de malo agatur, quod, sicut et alia, latius usque inficiat etiam greges catholicos, haec difficultas est cum cura et sine ulla mora omnino aggredienda. Synodi Patres eam data opera investigaverunt. Nam Ecclesia, idcirco instituta ut ad salutem omnes homines imprimisque baptizatos perduceret, non potest sibimet ipsis illos derelinquere, qui — iam sacramentali vinculo matrimonii coniuncti — transire conati sunt ad nuptias novas. Nitetur propterea neque umquam defessa curabit Ecclesia ut iis praesto sint salutis instrumenta.

Pastors must know that, for the sake of truth, they are obliged to exercise careful discernment of situations. There is in fact a difference between those who have sincerely tried to save their first marriage and have been unjustly abandoned, and those who through their own grave fault have destroyed a canonically valid marriage. Finally, there are those who have entered into a second union for the sake of the children's upbringing, and who are sometimes subjectively certain in conscience that their previous and irreparably destroyed marriage had never been valid.

Noverint pastores ex veritatis amore se bene distinguere debere inter vadas rei condiciones. Etenim aliquid interest inter eos qui sincero animo contenderunt primum matrimonium servare quique prorsus iniuste sunt deserti, atque eos qui sua gravi culpa matrimonium canonice validum everterunt. Sunt denique alii, qui novam inierunt convivendi societatem educationis filiorum gratia atque interdum certi sua in intima conscientia sunt superius matrimonium iam irreparabiliter disruptum numquam validum fuisse.

Together with the Synod, I earnestly call upon pastors and the whole community of the faithful to help the divorced, and with solicitous care to make sure that they do not consider themselves as separated from the Church, for as baptized persons they can, and indeed must, share in her life.

They should be encouraged[:]

Una cum Synodo vehementer cohortamur pastores totamque fidelium communitatem ut divortio digressos adiuvent, caventes sollicita cum caritate ne illos ab Ecclesia seiunctos arbitrentur, quoniam iidem possllnt, immo debent ut baptizati vitam ipsius participare.

Hortandi praeterea sunt

to listen to the word of God,

to attend the Sacrifice of the Mass,

to persevere in prayer,

to contribute to works of charity and to community efforts in favor of justice,

to bring up their children in the Christian faith,

to cultivate the spirit and practice of penance

and thus implore, day by day, God's grace.

 ut verbum Dei exaudiant,

sacrificio Missae intersint,

preces fundere perseverent,

opera carita tis necnon incepta communitatis pro iustitia adiuvent,

filios in christiana fide instituant,

spiritum et opera paenitentiae colant

ut cotidie sic Dei gratiam implorent.

Let the Church pray for them, encourage them and show herself a merciful mother, and thus sustain them in faith and hope. Pro illis Ecclesia precetur, eos confirmet, matrem se exhibeat iis misericordem itaque in fide eos speque sustineat.
However, the Church reaffirms her practice, which is based upon Sacred Scripture, of not admitting to Eucharistic Communion divorced persons who have remarried. They are unable to be admitted thereto from the fact that their state and condition of life objectively contradict that union of love between Christ and the Church which is signified and effected by the Eucharist. Besides this, there is another special pastoral reason: if these people were admitted to the Eucharist, the faithful would be led into error and confusion regarding the Church's teaching about the indissolubility of marriage.

Nihilominus Ecclesia inculcat consuetudinem suam, in Sacris ipsis Litteris innixam, non admittendi ad eucharisticam communion em fideles, qui post divortium factum novas nuptias inierunt. Ipsi namque impediunt ne admittantur, cum status eorum et condicio vitae obiective dissideant ab illa amoris coniunctione inter Christum et Ecclesiam, quae Eucharistia significatur atque peragitur. Restat praeterea alia peculiaris ratio pastoralis: si homines illi ad Eucharistiam admitterentur, in errorem turbationemque inducerentur tideles de Ecclesiae doctrina super indissolubilitate matrimonii.

Reconciliation in the sacrament of Penance which would open the way to the Eucharist, can only be granted to those who, repenting of having broken the sign of the Covenant and of fidelity to Christ, are sincerely ready to undertake a way of life that is no longer in contradiction to the indissolubility of marriage. This means, in practice, that when, for serious reasons, such as for example the children's upbringing, a man and a woman cannot satisfy the obligation to separate, they "take on themselves the duty to live in complete continence, that is, by abstinence from the acts proper to married couples."[180]

Porro reconciliatio in sacramento paenitentiae — quae ad Eucharistiae sacramentum aperit viam — illis unis concedi potest, qui dolentes quod signum violaverint Foederis et fidelitatis Christi, sincere parati sunt vitae formam iam non amplius adversam matrimonii indissolubitati suscipere. Hoc poscit rever a ut, quoties vir ac mulier gravibus de causis — verbi gratia, ob liberorum educationem — non valeant necessitati separationis satisfacere, « officium in se suscipiant omnino continenter vivendi, scilicet se abstinendi ab aetibus, qui solis coniugibus competunt » (180).

Similarly, the respect due to the sacrament of Matrimony, to the couples themselves and their families, and also to the community of the faithful, forbids any pastor, for whatever reason or pretext even of a pastoral nature, to perform ceremonies of any kind for divorced people who remarry. Such ceremonies would give the impression of the celebration of a new sacramentally valid marriage, and would thus lead people into error concerning the indissolubility of a validly contracted marriage.

Observantia similiter erga matrimonii sacramentum, tum etiam erga coniuges eorumque familiares necnon erg a ipsam fidelium communitatem, vetat quemlibet pastorem ullam propter causam vel praetextum etiam pastoralem ne pro divortio digressis, qui novas nuptias inierunt, ritus cuiusvis generis faciant; hi enim ostenderent novas nuptias sacramentales validas celebrari ac proinde errorem inicerent de indissolubilitate prioris matrimonii valide contracti.

By acting in this way, the Church professes her own fidelity to Christ and to His truth. At the same time she shows motherly concern for these children of hers, especially those who, through no fault of their own, have been abandoned by their legitimate partner.

Hoc quidem pacto agens, Ecclesia profitetur fidelitatem suam in Christum eiusque veritatem; simul vero materno affectu se gerit erga hos filios suos, potissimum eos qui nulla propria intercedente culpa a proprio derelicti sunt legitimo coniuge.

With firm confidence she believes that those who have rejected the Lord's command and are still living in this state will be able to obtain from God the grace of conversion and salvation, provided that they have persevered in prayer, penance and charity.

Firma insuper cum fiducia Ecclesia credit quotquot a mandato Domini recesserint in eoque etiamnunc statu vivant, a Deo gratiam conversionis ac salutis assequi posse, si in precatione, paenitentia, caritate perseveraverint.

Those Without a Family

 

85. I wish to add a further word for a category of people whom, as a result of the actual circumstances in which they are living, and this often not through their own deliberate wish, I consider particularly close to the Heart of Christ and deserving of the affection and active solicitude of the Church and of pastors.

85. Verba denique adiungere cupimus de hominum ordine, quos ob concreta, in quibus degunt, adiuncta — ac saepius praeter meditatam suam voluntatem — nos peculiari ratione prope esse Cor Christi putamus ac dignos affectione actuosaque cura Ecclesiae atque pastorum.

There exist in the world countless people who unfortunately cannot in any sense claim membership of what could be called in the proper sense a family. Large sections of humanity live in conditions of extreme poverty, in which promiscuity, lack of housing, the irregular nature and instability of relationships and the extreme lack of education make it impossible in practice to speak of a true family. There are others who, for various reasons, have been left alone in the world. And yet for all of these people there exists a "good news of the family."

Plurimi in orbe terrarum inveniuntur homines, qui pro dolor nullo modo referri possunt ad eam quam sensu proprio definimus, familiam. Amplissimi numeri hominum in condicionibus immensae egestatis versantur, ubi promiscuum virorum mulierumque commercium, paucitas habitationum, abnormes et in stabiles necessitudines, summa penuria bonorum animi culturae non sinunt reapse ut de vera familia loqui possimus. Alii deinde sunt, qui variis de causis inter homines soli manserunt. Verumtamen pro illis quoque est « bonus de familia nuntius ».

On behalf of those living in extreme poverty, I have already spoken of the urgent need to work courageously in order to find solutions, also at the political level, which will make it possible to help them and to overcome this inhuman condition of degradation.

Pro iis qui extremam patiuntur paupertatem, iam locuti sumus affirmantes necesse prorsus esse ut opera fortiter navetur solutionibus reperiendis, etiam in ordine politico, quae eos adiuvent facientes ut inhumanam hanc abiectionis condicionem supervadant.

It is a task that faces the whole of society but in a special way the authorities, by reason of their position and the responsibilities flowing therefrom, and also families, which must show great understanding and willingness to help.

Hoc munus coniuncte universam premit societatem, verum maxime ipsas auctoritates propter obligationem earum atque sequentia inde officia, tum familias etiam, quas prae se ferre oportet magnam humanitatem subveniendique voluntatem.

For those who have no natural family the doors of the great family which is the Church-the Church which finds concrete expression in the diocesan and the parish family, in ecclesial basic communities and in movements of the apostolate-must be opened even wider. No one is without a family in this world: the Church is a home and family for everyone, especially those who "labor and are heavy laden."[181]

Illis tandem, qui naturali carent familia latius etiam pandendae sunt portae grandioris familiae, quae Ecclesia est quaeque formam induit quasi corporatam in dioecesana et parocciali familia, in communitatibus ecclesialibus, quae a « basi » appellantur, vel in apostolicis motibus. Nemo hoc in mundo familia privatur: omnibus enim Ecclesia est domus atque familia, iis potissimum, qui « laborant et onerati sunt » (181).

CONCLUSION

 

86. At the end of this Apostolic Exhortation my thoughts turn with earnest solicitude:

Dum huius Adhortationis Apostolicae finem facimus, animus noster cum sollicitudine convertitur

to you, married couples, to you, fathers and mothers of families;

ad vos, coniuges, ad vos patres matresque familias;

to you, young men and women, the future and the hope of the Church and the world, destined to be the dynamic central nucleus of the family in the approaching third millennium;

ad vos, utriusque sexus adulescentes, in quibus sors futura et spes Ecclesiae ac mundi resident quique praecipuum eritis columen, dynamica virtute praeditum, familiae in tertio millennio, quod iam appropinquat;

to you, venerable and dear Brothers in the Episcopate and in the priesthood, beloved sons and daughters in the religious life, souls consecrated to the Lord, who bear witness before married couples to the ultimate reality of the love of God;

ad vos, venerandi dilectique Fratres in Episcopatu et in sacerdotio; cari nobis filii religiosi et religiosae, Domino consecrati, qui coniugibus supremam veritatem amoris in Deum testificamini;

to you, upright men and women, who for any reason whatever give thought to the fate of the family.

ad vos, universi homines integrae mentis, qui quovis nomine de sorte familiae esbs solliciti.

The future of humanity passes by way of the family.

Sors futura hominum generis e familia pendet!

It is therefore indispensable and urgent that every person of good will should endeavor to save and foster the values and requirements of the family.

Est ergo omnino necessarium et urgetur ut quivis homo bonae voluntatis officio se astringat praestantia bona et postulata familiae servandi atque provehendi.

I feel that I must ask for a particular effort in this field from the sons and daughters of the Church. Faith gives them full knowledge of God's wonderful plan: they therefore have an extra reason for caring for the reality that is the family in this time of trial and of grace.

Ad hoc quod attinet, peculiaris opera nobis poscenda esse videtur ab Ecclesiae filiis. Qui, in fide admirabile consilium Dei perspicientes, ampliorem habent rationem cur familiae, qualis est reapse, consulant hisce temporibus angustiarum et gratiae.

They must show the family special love. This is an injunction that calls for concrete action.

Hi amore ferantur praesertim oportet in familiam. Hoc iis datur mandatum certum atque severum.

Loving the family means being able to appreciate its values and capabilities, fostering them always. Loving the family means identifying the dangers and the evils that menace it, in order to overcome them. Loving the family means endeavoring to create for it an environment favorable for its development. The modern Christian family is often tempted to be discouraged and is distressed at the growth of its difficulties; it is an eminent form of love to give it back its reasons for confidence in itself, in the riches that it possesses by nature and grace, and in the mission that God has entrusted to it. "Yes indeed, the families of today must be called back to their original position. They must follow Christ."[182]

Familiam diligere idem valet ac praestantia bona eius et facultates existimare eaque semper promovere. Amare familiam idem est ac pericula dignoscere et mala, quae ei impendent, eo consilio ut possint superari. Amare familiam idem est ac coniti ut eae condiciones et adiuncta efficiantur, quae eius incrementum et profectum foveant. Estque insuper praecellens ratio amoris, si familiae christianae nostrae aetatis, saepe animi demissione et angore temptatae propter au etas difficultates, iterum praebeantur causae fiduciae, quam in se ipsa collocet, in propriis praesidiis naturae et gratiae, in missione, quam Deus ei tradidit. « Necesse est familiae aetatis nostrae ad pristinum statum revocentur! Necesse est Christum consectentur! » (182).

Christians also have the mission of proclaiming with joy and conviction the Good News about the family, for the family absolutely needs to hear ever anew and to understand ever more deeply the authentic words that reveal its identity, its inner resources and the importance of its mission in the City of God and in that of man.

Est etiam munus christianorum afferre cum gaudio animique sententia « bonum nuntium» de familia, cui modo pernecessario opus est ut iterum iterumque audiat et penitius usque comprehendat germana verba, quae eius identitatem, interiora adminicula, momentum eius missionis in Civitate hominum ac Dei commonstrent.

The Church knows the path by which the family can reach the heart of the deepest truth about itself. The Church has learned this path at the school of Christ and the school of history interpreted in the light of the Spirit. She does not impose it but she feels an urgent need to propose it to everyone without fear and indeed with great confidence and hope, although she knows that the Good News includes the subject of the Cross. But it is through the Cross that the family can attain the fullness of its being and the perfection of its love.

Ecclesia compertam habet viam, qua familia in ipsas altae veritatis suae penetret medullas. Hanc autem veritatem, quam Ecclesia in schola Christi et in disciplina historiae, Spiritus luce affulgente explicata, didicit, ea non quidem imponit, sed indeficienter impellitur, ut eam cunctis sine timore proponat, quin immo magna cum spe exhibeat, probe sciens « bonum nuntium» continere etiam crucis veluti loquelam. Sed per crucem familia ad plenitudinem eius, quod est « esse » ipsius, et ad perfectionem sui amoris potest pervenire.

Finally, I wish to call on all Christians to collaborate cordially and courageously with all people of good will who are serving the family in accordance with their responsibilities. The individuals and groups, movements and associations in the Church which devote themselves to the family's welfare, acting in the Church's name and under her inspiration, often find themselves side by side with other individuals and institutions working for the same ideal. With faithfulness to the values of the Gospel and of the human person and with respect for lawful pluralism in initiatives this collaboration can favor a more rapid and integral advancement of the family.

Cupimus denique omnes christianos rogare ut ex animo et fortiter cum universis hominibus bonae voluntatis cooperentur, qui ex officio conscientiae servitio familiae mancipantur. Quicumque eius bono in Ecclesiae gremio se devovent, eius nomine atque ab ea inducti, sive sunt singuli sive coetus, sive motus vel consociationes, saepe iuxta se diversos homines vel instituta inveniunt, qui eundem praeclarum finem persequuntur. Haec cooperato velociorem plenioremque promotionem familiae poterit fovere, dummodo fidelitas erga praestantia bona Evangelii et hominis servetur atque legitimi pluralismi, qui dicitur, inceptorum ratio habeatur.

And now, at the end of my pastoral message, which is intended to draw everyone's attention to the demanding yet fascinating roles of the Christian family, I wish to invoke the protection of the Holy Family of Nazareth.

Nunc vero nuntium hunc pastoralem concludentes, qui eo nempe pertinet ut omnium animi excitentur ad attente considerandas quaestiones de familia christiana — graves quidem sed etiam allicientes — praesiclium cupimus sanctae implorare Nazarethanae Familiae.

Through God's mysterious design, it was in that family that the Son of God spent long years of a hidden life. It is therefore the prototype and example for all Christian families. It was unique in the world. Its life was passed in anonymity and silence in a little town in Palestine. It underwent trials of poverty, persecution and exile. It glorified God in an incomparably exalted and pure way. And it will not fail to help Christian families-indeed, all the families in the world-to be faithful to their day-to-day duties, to bear the cares and tribulations of life, to be open and generous to the needs of others, and to fulfill with joy the plan of God in their regard.

Arcano enim Dei consilio plures annos in ea Dei Filius absconditus vixit: est proincle ipsa christianarum exemplar familiarum omnium et quasi primigena species. Illa insuper Familia, in orbe terrarum sane unica, vitam sine nomine tacitamque traduxit parvo in Palaestinae oppido; perpessa illa est egestatem et vexationem et exilium; Deum autem ratione incomparabiliter sublimi candidaque honoravit. Non poterit igitur ea christianas familias immo vero universas mundi familias non adiuvare ut fideliter sua cotidiana officia expleant, ut angores vitae resque adversas perferant, ut magno animo necessitatibus consulant aliorum, ut laetae Dei consilia de se ipsis exsequantur.

St. Joseph was "a just man," a tireless worker, the upright guardian of those entrusted to his care. May he always guard, protect and enlighten families.

« Vir iustus » Sanctus Ioseph, opifex indefessus integerrimusque pignorum sibi creditorum custos, tueatur eas ac defendat semperque illuminet.

May the Virgin Mary, who is the Mother of the Church, also be the Mother of "the Church of the home." Thanks to her motherly aid, may each Christian family really become a "little Church" in which the mystery of the Church of Christ is mirrored and given new life. May she, the Handmaid of the Lord, be an example of humble and generous acceptance of the will of God. May she, the Sorrowful Mother at the foot of the Cross, comfort the sufferings and dry the tears of those in distress because of the difficulties of their families.

Virgo Maria, ut Ecclesiae ipsius est Mater, ita pariter « Ecclesiae domesticae » esto Mater et per materna eius subsiclia unaquaeque christiana familia fiat reapse « ecclesiola », in qua mysterium Ecclesiae Christi eluceat et vitae usu exprimatur. Sit Ea, Domini ancilla, exemplum animi humiliter alacriterque voluntatem Dei amplectentis. Adsit Ea, perdolens sub Cruce Mater, ut aerumnas leniat lacrimasque abstergeat eo rum omnium, qui ob suarum familiarum difficultates affliguntur.

May Christ the Lord, the Universal King, the King of Families, be present in every Christian home as He was at Cana, bestowing light, joy, serenity and strength. On the solemn day dedicated to His Kingship I beg of Him that every family may generously make its own contribution to the coming of His Kingdom in the world-"a kingdom of truth and life, a kingdom of holiness and grace, a kingdom of justice, love, and peace," [183] towards which history is journeying.

Christus Dominus, universorum Rex atque familiarum Rex, praesens sicut Canae adstet omni in christiana domo ut lucem ibi ac laetitiam dispenset, tranquillitatem ac fortitudinem. Ab Ipso expetimus, sollemni Regiae Maiestatis eius die, ut quaeque familia noverit suas proprias conferre partes ut adveniat inter homines illius Regnum, « Regnum veritatis et vitae, Regnum sanctitatis et gratiae, Regnum iustitiae, amoris et pacis » (183), ad quod omne progreditur hominum genus.

   
I entrust each family to Him, to Mary, and to Joseph. To their hands and their hearts I offer this Exhortation: may it be they who present it to you, venerable Brothers and beloved sons and daughters, and may it be they who open your hearts to the light that the Gospel sheds on every family.

Ei demum et Mariae et Ioseph singulas commendamus familias. Eorum etiam curae cordi que hanc committimus Adhortationem: ipsi vobis, Venerabiles Fratres ac dilecti Filii, porrigant eam vestrosque recludant animos lumini illi, quod super omnem familiam Evangelium diffundit.

I assure you all of my constant prayers and I cordially impart the apostolic blessing to each and every one of you, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit.

Universis denique et singulis, dum preces nos fusuros pollicemur, Benedictionem Apostolicam ex animo impertimus in nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti.

 

Given in Rome, at St. Peter's, on the twenty-second day of November, the Solemnity of our Lord Jesus Christ, Universal King, in the year 1981, the fourth of the Pontificate.

Datum Romae, apud Sanctum Petrum, die XXII mensis Novembris, in Sollemnitate Domini Nostri Iesu Christi universorum Regis, anno MCMLXXXI, Pontificatus nostri quarto.

   
 

IOANNES PAULUS PP. II

 

 

 

 

 TABLE of CONTENTS

INDICE

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

THE LIFE of ANTONY
(Chapters 1-7: Antony the young ascetic)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PROLOGUE ΠΡOOIMION

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

CHAPTER 1. Of the vigils which we endured. 1. De uigiliis quas pertulimus.

 

 

   
   

 

 

 

   
   

NOTES

[1] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World Gaudium et spes, 52.

[2] Cf. John Paul II, Homily for the Opening of the Sixth Synod of Bishops (Sept. 26, 1980), 2: AAS 72 (1980), 1008.

[3] Cf. Gen 1-2.

[4] Cf. Eph 5.

[5] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World Gaudium et spes, 47; John Paul II, Letter Appropinquat iam, 1 (August 15, 1980): AAS 72 (1980), 791.

[6] Cf. Mt 19: 4.

[7] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World Gaudium et spes, 47.

[8] Cf. John Paul II, Address to Council of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops (Feb. 23, 1980): Insegnamenti di Giovanni Paolo II) III, I (1980), 472-476.

[9] Cf. Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World Gaudium et spes, 4.

[10] Cf. Second Vatican Council, Lumen gentium, 12.

[11] Cf. 1 Jn 2: 20.

[12] Second Vatican Council, Lumen gentium, 35.

[13] Cf. Second Vatican Council, Lumen gentium, 12; Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Declaration Mysterium Ecclesiae, 2: AAS 65 (1973), 398-400.

[14] Cf. Second Vatican Council, Lumen gentium, 12; Dei Verbum, 10.

[15] Cf. Cf. John Paul II, Homily for the Opening of the Sixth Synod of Bishops, 3 (26 de septiembre del 1980): AAS 72 (1980), 1008.

[16] Cf. St. Augustine, De Civitate Dei, XIV, 28; CSEL 40, II, 56-57.

[17] Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World Gaudium et spes, 15.

[18] Cf. Ef 3: 8; Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World Gaudium et spes, 44;  Ad gentes, 15, 22.

[19] Cf. Mt 19: 4-6.

[20] Cf. Gn 1: 26-27.

[21] 1 Jn 4: 8.

[22] Cf. Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World Gaudium et spes, 12.

[23] Ibid., 48.

[24] Cf. e.g. Hos, 2: 21; Jer 3: 6-13; Is 54.

[25] Cf. Ez 16: 25.

[26] Cf. Hos 3.

[27] Cf. Gn 2: 24; Mt 19: 5.

[28] Cf. Efh 5: 32-33.

[29] Tertuliano, Ad uxorem, II, VIII, 6-8: CCL, I, 393.

[30] Cr. Concil of Trent., Sessio XXIV, Canon 1: I. D. Mansi, Sacrorum Conciliorum Nova et Amplissima Collectio, 33, 149-150.

[31] Cf. Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World Gaudium et spes, 48.

[32] John Paul II, Address to the delegates of the Centre de Liaison des Equipes de Recherche (Nov. 3, 1979), 3: Insegnamenti II, 2 (1979), 1038.

[33] Ibid., 4: 1. c., p. 1032.

[34] Cf. Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World Gaudium et spes, 50.

[35] Cf. Gn 2, 24.

[36] Eph 3, 15.

[37] Cf. Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World Gaudium et spes, 78.

[38] St. John Chrysostom, Virginity, X: PG 48: 540.

[39] Cf. Mt 22: 30.

[40] Cf 1 Cor 7: 32-35.

[41] Second Vatican Council Perfectae caritatis, 12.

[42] Cf. Pius XII, Encyclical Sacra Virginitas, II: AAS 46 (1954), 174 ff.

[43] Cf. Cf. John Paul II, Letter Novo Incipiente (April 8, 1979), 9 (April 8, 1979): AAS 71 (1979), 410-411.

[44] Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World Gaudium et spes, 48.

[45] John Paul II, Encyclical  Redemptor hominis, 10: AAS 71 (1979) 274.

[46] Mt 19: 6; cf. Gn 2: 24.

[47] Cf. John Paul II, Address to Married People at Kinshasa (May 3, 1980) 4:  AAS 72 (1980), 426-427.

[48] Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World Gaudium et spes, 49; cf. John Paul II, Address at Kinshasa 4: loc. cit.

[49] Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World Gaudium et spes, 48.

[50] Cf. Eph 5: 25.

[51] Cf. Mt 19: 8.

[52] Rv 3: 14.

[53] Cf. 2 Cor 1: 20.

[54] Cf. Jn 13: 1.

[55] Mt 19: 6.

[56] Rom 8: 29.

[57] St. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologiae, II-II, q. 14, art. 2, ad 4.

[58] Second Vatican Council, Lumen gentium, 11; cf. Apostolicam actuositatem, 11.

[59] Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World Gaudium et spes, 52.

[60] Cf. Eph 6: 1-4; Col 3: 20-21.

[61] Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World Gaudium et spes, 48.

[62] Jn 17: 21.

[63] Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World Gaudium et spes, 24.

[64] Gn 1: 27.

[65] Gal 3: 26.28.

[66] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Laborem Exercens, 19: AAS 73 (1981), 625

[67] Gn 2: 18.

[68] Gn 2: 23.

[69] St. Ambrose, Exameron, V, 7, 19: CSEL 32, I, 154.

[70] Paul VI, Encyclical Humanae Vitae, 9: AAS 60 (1968), 486.

[71] Cf. Ef 5: 25.

[72] Cf. John Paul II, Homily to the Faithful of Terni (March 19, 1981), 3-5: AAS 73 (1981), 268-271.

[73] Cf. Eph 3: 15.

[74] Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World Gaudium et spes, 52.

[75] Lk 18: 16; cf. Mt 19: 14; Mc 18: 16.

[76] John Paul II, Address to the General Assembly of the United Nations (Oct. 2, 1979), 21: AAS 71(1979), 1159.

[77] Lk 2: 52.

[78] Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World Gaudium et spes, 48.

[79] John Paul II, Address to the Participants in the International Forum on Active Aging (Sept. 5, 1980), 5: Insegnamenti, III, 2 (1980), 539.

[80] Gn 1: 28.

[81] Cf. Gn 5: 1-3.

[82] Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World Gaudium et spes, 50.

[83] Propositio 21. Section 11 of the encyclical Humanae Vitae ends with the statement: "The church, calling people back to the observance of the norms of the natural law, as interpreted by her constant doctrine, teaches that each and every marriage act must remain open to the transmission of life (ut quilibet matrimonii usus ad vitam humanam procreandam per se destinatus permaneat)": AAS 60 (1968), 488.

[84] Cf. 2 Cor 1: 19; Rv 3: 14.

[85] Cf. The sixth Synod of Bishops' Message to Christian Families in the Modern World (Oct. 24, 1980), 5.

[86] Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World Gaudium et spes, 51.

[87] Encyclical Humanae Vitae, 7: AAS 60 (1968), 485.

[88] Ibid., 12: l.c., 488-489.

[89] Ibid., 14: l.c., 490.

[90] Ibid., 13: l.c., 489.

[91] Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World Gaudium et spes, 51.

[92] Encyclical  Humanae Vitae, 29: AAS 60 (1968), 501.

[93] Cf. Ibid., 25: l.c., 498-499.

[94] Ibid., 21: l.c., 496.

[95] John Paul II, Homily at the Close of the Sixth Synod of Bishops (Oct. 25, 1980), 8:  AAS 72 (1980), 1083.

[96] Encyclical, Humanae Vitae, 28: AAS 60 (1968), 501.

[97] Cf. John Paul II, Address to the Delegates of the Centre de Liaison des Equipes de Recherche (Nov. 3, 1979), 9: Insegnamenti, II, 2 (1979), 1035; and cf. Address to the Participants in the First Congress for the Family of Africa and Europe (Jan. 15, 1981): L'Osservatore Romano, Jan. 16, 1981.

[98] Encyclical Humanae Vitae, 25: AAS 60 (1968), 499.

[99] Gravissimum educationis, 3.

[100] Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World Gaudium et spes, 35.

[101] St. Thomas Aquinas, Summa contra gentiles, IV, 58.

[102] Gravissimum educationis, 2.

[103] Apostolic exhortation Evangelii nuntiandi, 71: AAS 68 (1976), 60 s.

[104] Gravissimum educationis, 3.

[105] Second Vatican Council Apostolicam actuositatem, 11.

[106] Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World Gaudium et spes, 52.

[107] Apostolicam actuositatem, 11.

[108] Rom 12: 13.

[109] Mt 10: 42.

[110] Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World Gaudium et spes, 30.

[111] Second Vatican Council Dignitatis humanae, 5.

[112] Cf. Propositio 42.

[113] Second Vatican Council Lumen gentium, 31.

[114] Second Vatican Council Lumen gentium, 11; Apostolicam actuositatem, 11; Pope John Paul II, Homily for the Opening of the Sixth Synod of Bishops (Sept. 26, 1980), 3: AAS 72 (1980) 1008.

[115] Second Vatican Council Lumen gentium, 11.

[116] Cf. Ibid., 41.

[117] Acts 4: 32

[118] Cf. Paul VI, Humanae Vitae, 9.

[119] Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World Gaudium et spes, 48.

[120] Second Vatican Council Dei Verbum, 1.

[121] Cf. Rom 16: 26.

[122] Cf. Paul VI, Humanae vitae, 25: AAS 60 (1968), 498.

[123] Evangelii nuntiandi, 71: AAS 68 (1976), 60 s.

[124] Cf. Address to the Third General Assembly of the Bishops of Latin America (Jan. 28, 1979), IV A: AAS 71(1979), 204.

[125] Second Vatican Council, Lumen gentium, 35.

[126] John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation Catechesi tradendae, 68: AAS 71 (1979), 1334.

[127] Cf. Ibid., 36: l.c., 1308.

[128] Cf. 1 Cor 12: 4-6; Eph 4: 12-13.

[129] Mc 16: 15.

[130] Lumen gentium, 11.

[131] Act 1: 8.

[132] Cf. 1 Pe 3: 1 s.

[133] Second Vatican Council Lumen gentium, 35; Apostolicam actuositatem, 11.

[134] Cf. Act 18; Rom 16: 3-4.

[135] Second Vatican Council Ad gentes, 39.

[136] Apostolicam actuositatem, 30.

[137] Lumen gentium, 10.

[138] Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World Gaudium et spes, 49.

[139] Ibid., 48.

[140] Lumen gentium, 41.

[141] Sacrosanctum Concilium, 59.

[142] Lumen gentium, 34.

[143] Lumen gentium, 34.

[144] Sacrosanctum Concilium, 78.

[145] Cf. Jn 19: 34.

[146] Section 25: AAS 60 (1968), 499.

[147] Eph 2: 4.

[148] Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Dives in misericordia, 13: AAS 72 (1980), 1218 s.

[149] 1 Pt 2: 5.

[150] Mt 18: 19-20.

[151] Gravissimum educationis, 3; cf. Pope John Paul II, Catechesi tradendae, 36: AAS 71 (1979), 1308.

[152] General Audience Address, Aug. 11, 1976: Insegnamenti di Paolo VI, XIV (1976), 640.

[153] Sacrosanctum Concilium, 12.

[154] Cf. Institutio Generalis de Liturgia Horarum, 27.

[155] Paul VI, Apostolic Exhortation Marialis cultus, 52-54: AAS 66 (1974), 160 s.

[156] Paul VI, John Paul II, Address at the Mentorella Shrine (Oct. 29, 1978): Insegnamenti di Giovanni Paolo II, I (1978), 78 s.

[157] Cf. Second Vatican Council Apostolicam actuositatem, 4.

[158] Cf. John Paul I, Address to the Bishops of the 12th Pastoral Region of the United States (Sept. 21, 1978): AAS 70 (1978), 767.

[159] Rom 8: 2.

[160] Rom 5: 5.

[161] Cf. Mk 10: 45.

[162] Lumen gentium, 36.

[163] Apostolicam actuositatem, 8.

[164] Cf. Synod of Bishops' Message to Christian Families (Oct. 24, 1980),12.

[165] Cf. John Paul II, Address to the Third General Assembly of the Bishops of Latin America (Jan. 28, 1979), IV A: AAS 71 (1979), 204.

[166] Sacrosanctum Concilium, 10.

[167] Cf. Ordo celebrandi matrimonium, 17.

[168] Sacrosanctum Concilium, 59.

[169] Perfectae caritatis, 12.

[170] John Paul II, Address to the Confederation of Family Advisory Bureaus of Christian Inspiration (Nov. 29, 1980), 3-4: Insegnamenti III, 2 (1980), 1453-1454.

[171] Paul VI, Message for the Third Social Communications Day (April 7,1969): AAS 61 (1969), 455.

[172] John Paul II, Message for the 1980 World Social Communications Day (May 1, 1980): Insegnamenti III, 1 (1980), 1042.

[173] John Paul II, Message for the 1981 World Social Communications Day (May 10, 1981), 5: L'Osservatore Romano, May 22, 1981.

[174] Ibid.

[175] Paul VI, Message for the Third Social Communications Day: AAS 61 (1969), 456.

[176] Ibid.

[177] John Paul II, Message for the 1980 World Social Communications Day, loc. sit., 1044.

[178] Cf. Paul VI, Motu Proprio Matrimonia Mixta, 4-5: AAS 62 (1970), 257-259; John Paul II, Address to the Participants in the Plenary Meeting of the Secretariat for Promoting Christian Unity (Nov. 13, 1981): L'Osservatore Romano, Nov. 14,1981.

[179] Instruction In Quibus Rerum Circumstantiis (June 15, 1972): AAS 64 (1972), 518-525; Note of Oct. 17, 1973; AAS 65 (1973), 616-619.

[180] John Paul II, Homily at the Close of the Sixth Synod of Bishops, 7 (Oct. 25, 1980): AAS 72 (1980), 1082.

[181] Cf. Mt 11: 28.

[182] John Paul II, Letter Appropinquat Iam (Aug. 15, 1980), 1: AAS 72 (1980), 791.

[183] The Roman Missal, Preface of Christ the King.