PART III: LIFE in CHRIST
Beatitude and Freedom

§1691
§1748

 

 Duccio, Emmaus


PART THREE:

PARS TERTIA

LIFE IN CHRIST

VITA IN CHRISTO

1691 “Christian, recognize your dignity and, now that you share in God’s own nature, do not return to your former base condition by sinning. Remember who is your head and of whose body you are a member. Never forget that you have been rescued from the power of darkness and brought into the light of the Kingdom of God.”1

1691 « Agnosce, o christiane, dignitatem tuam, et divinae consors factus naturae, noli in veterem vilitatem degeneri conversatione recidere. Memento cuius Capitis et cuius sis corporis membrum. Reminiscere quia erutus de potestate tenebrarum, traslatus es in Dei lumen et Regnum ».1

1692 The Symbol of the faith confesses the greatness of God’s gifts to man in his work of creation, and even more in redemption and sanctification. What faith confesses, the sacraments communicate: by the sacraments of rebirth, Christians have become “children of God,”2 “partakers of the divine nature.”3 Coming to see in the faith their new dignity, Christians are called to lead henceforth a life “worthy of the gospel of Christ.”4 They are made capable of doing so by the grace of Christ and the gifts of his Spirit, which they receive through the sacraments and through prayer.

1692 Symbolum fidei magnitudinem est professum donorum quae Deus homini largitus est in Suae creationis opere et adhuc magis per Redemptionem et sanctificationem. Quod fides confitetur, sacramenta communicant: christiani per sacramenta quae efficiunt ut ipsi renascantur, facti sunt « filii Dei » (1 Io 3,1),2 « divinae consortes naturae » (2 Pe 1,4). Christiani, suam novam dignitatem fide agnoscentes, vocantur ut posthac digne Evangelio Christi conversentur.3 Per sacramenta et orationem, gratiam Christi accipiunt et Eius Spiritus dona quae eos ad hoc efficiunt capaces.

1693 Christ Jesus always did what was pleasing to the Father,5 and always lived in perfect communion with him. Likewise Christ’s disciples are invited to live in the sight of the Father “who sees in secret,”6 in order to become “perfect as your heavenly Father is perfect.”7

1693 Christus Iesus semper fecit id quod Patri placebat.4 Semper in perfecta communione vixit cum Illo. Eodem modo, discipuli Eius invitantur ad vivendum ante conspectum Patris « qui videt in abscondito » (Mt 6,6), ut « perfecti, sicut Pater [...] caelestis perfectus est » (Mt 5,47) efficiantur.

1694 Incorporated into Christ by Baptism, Christians are “dead to sin and alive to God in Christ Jesus” and so participate in the life of the Risen Lord.8 Following Christ and united with him,9 Christians can strive to be “imitators of God as beloved children, and walk in love”10 by conforming their thoughts, words and actions to the “mind . . . which is yours in Christ Jesus,”11 and by following his example.12

1694 Christiani, Christo per Baptismum incorporati,5 mortui sunt peccato, viventes autem Deo in Christo Iesu,6 vitam sic Resuscitati participantes.7 Christum sequentes Eique coniuncti,8 christiani conari possunt imitatores esse Dei, sicut filii carissimi et ambulare in dilectione,9 suas cogitationes, sua verba suasque actiones sic conformantes, ut hoc sentiant in se, quod et in Christo Iesu10 Eiusque sectentur exempla.11

1695 “Justified in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and in the Spirit of our God,”13 “sanctified . . . (and) called to be saints,”14 Christians have become the temple of the Holy Spirit.15 This “Spirit of the Son” teaches them to pray to the Father16 and, having become their life, prompts them to act so as to bear “the fruit of the Spirit”17 by charity in action. Healing the wounds of sin, the Holy Spirit renews us interiorly through a spiritual transformation.18 He enlightens and strengthens us to live as “children of light” through “all that is good and right and true.”19

1695 Christiani, « iustificati [...] in nomine Domini Iesu Christi et in Spiritu Dei nostri » (1 Cor 6,11), sanctificati et vocati sancti,12 « templum [...] Spiritus Sancti » (1 Cor 6,19) sunt effecti. Hic « Spiritus Filii » eos Patrem docet orare13 et, vita factus eorum, eos agere facit,14 ut fructus Spiritus ferant15 per actuosam caritatem. Spiritus Sanctus, peccati sanans vulnera, nos spirituali transformatione renovat interius,16 Ipse nos illuminat et roborat ut tamquam « filii lucis » (Eph 5,8) vivamus « in omni bonitate et iustitia et sanctitate » (Eph 5,9).

1696 The way of Christ “leads to life”; a contrary way “leads to destruction.”20 The Gospel parable of the two ways remains ever present in the catechesis of the Church; it shows the importance of moral decisions for our salvation: “There are two ways, the one of life, the other of death; but between the two, there is a great difference.”21

1696 Via Christi « ducit ad vitam » (Mt 7,14), contraria autem via « ducit ad perditionem » (Mt7,13).17 Evangelica duplicis viae parabola in Ecclesiae catechesi semper manet praesens. Ipsa decisionum moralium momentum pro nostra salute significat. « Duae viae sunt, altera vitae et altera mortis, sed multum interest inter duas vias ».18

1697 Catechesis has to reveal in all clarity the joy and the demands of the way of Christ.22 Catechesis for the “newness of life”23 in him should be:
-a catechesis of the Holy Spirit, the interior Master of life according to Christ, a gentle guest and friend who inspires, guides, corrects, and strengthens this life;
-a catechesis of grace, for it is by grace that we are saved and again it is by grace that our works can bear fruit for eternal life;
-a catechesis of the beatitudes, for the way of Christ is summed up in the beatitudes, the only path that leads to the eternal beatitude for which the human heart longs;
-a catechesis of sin and forgiveness, for unless man acknowledges that he is a sinner he cannot know the truth about himself, which is a condition for acting justly; and without the offer of forgiveness he would not be able to bear this truth;
-a catechesis of the human virtues which causes one to grasp the beauty and attraction of right dispositions towards goodness;
-a catechesis of the Christian virtues of faith, hope, and charity, generously inspired by the example of the saints; -a catechesis of the twofold commandment of charity set forth in the Decalogue;
-an ecclesial catechesis, for it is through the manifold exchanges of “spiritual goods” in the “communion of saints” that Christian life can grow, develop, and be communicated.

1697 In catechesi oportet tota claritate gaudium et exigentias viae ostendere Christi.19 Catechesis de « novitate vitae » (Rom 6,4) in Illo erit:

catechesis de Spiritu Sancto, Magistro interiore vitae secundum Christum, dulci hospite et amico qui hanc vitam inspirat, ducit, corrigit et roborat;

catechesis de gratia, quia gratia salvati sumus et etiam gratia possunt opera nostra fructum ferre in vitam aeternam;

catechesis de beatitudinibus, quia Christi via summatim in beatitudinibus comprehenditur, unico itinere ad aeternam felicitatem quam cor appetit hominis;

catechesis de peccato et venia, quia homo, quin se peccatorem agnoscat, de se ipso cognoscere nequit veritatem, quae ad iuste operandum est condicio, atque, quin ei offerretur venia, hanc veritatem tolerare nequiret;

catechesis de humanis virtutibus, quae faciat ut pulchritudo et allectatio percipiantur rectarum ad bonum dispositionum;

catechesis de christianis virtutibus fidei, spei et caritatis, quae summopere sanctorum inspiratur exemplo;

catechesis de duplici caritatis praecepto in Decalogo explicato;

catechesis ecclesialis, quia vita christiana solum in multiplici « bonorum spiritualium » commutatione in « communione sanctorum » crescere, expandi et communicari potest.

1698 The first and last point of reference of this catechesis will always be Jesus Christ himself, who is “the way, and the truth, and the life.”24 It is by looking to him in faith that Christ’s faithful can hope that he himself fulfills his promises in them, and that, by loving him with the same love with which he has loved them, they may perform works in keeping with their dignity:

1698 Primus et ultimus talis catechesis respectus semper Ipse erit Iesus Christus qui est « via et veritas et vita » (Io 14,6). Christifideles, in Eum fide respicientes, sperare possunt Ipsum in eis Suas impleturum esse promissiones, atque Eum amantes amore quo Ipse illos amavit, opera esse facturos quae eorum correspondent dignitati:

I ask you to consider that our Lord Jesus Christ is your true head, and that you are one of his members. He belongs to you as the head belongs to its members; all that is his is yours: his spirit, his heart, his body and soul, and all his faculties. You must make use of all these as of your own, to serve, praise, love, and glorify God. You belong to him, as members belong to their head. and so he longs for you to use all that is in you, as if it were his own, for the service and glory of the Father.25

« Te rogo ut cogites [...] Dominum nostrum Iesum Christum tuum esse verum Caput, et te unum ex Eius membris. [...] Ipse tibi est sicut membris caput; omnia Sua, tua sunt: Eius spiritus, cor, corpus, anima omnesque facultates [...], quibus omnibus tibi utendum est quasi tibi propria sint ut Deo servias, Deum laudes, ames et glorifices. Tu autem Ipsi es sicut membrum capiti, quapropter vehementer Ipse optat omnibus tuis facultatibus uti, quasi Eius sint, ad Patri Suo serviendum Eumque glorificandum ».20

For to me, to live is Christ.26

« Mihi [...] vivere Christus est » (Phil 1,21).


 

 

1 St. Leo the Great Sermo 22 in nat. Dom., 3: PL 54, 192C.
2  Jn 1:12; 1  Jn 3:1[ETML:C/].
3  2 Pet 1:4.
4  Phil 1:27.
5 Cf.  Jn 8:29.
6  Mt 6:6[ETML:C/].
7  Mt 5:48.
8  Rom 6:11 and cf.  6:5; cf.  Col 2:12.
9 Cf.  Jn 15:5.
10  Eph 5:1-2.
11  Phil 2:5.
12 Cf.  Jn 13:12-16.
13  2 Cor 6:11.
14  1 Cor 1:2.
15 Cf.  1 Cor 6:19.
16 Cf.  Gal 4:6.
17  Gal 5:22, 25.
18 Cf.  Eph 4:23.
19  Eph 5:8, 9.
20  Mt 7:13; cf.  Deut 30: 15-20.
21 Didache 1, 1: SCh 248, 140.
22 Cf. John Paul II, CT 29.
23  Rom 6:4.
24  Jn 14:6.
25 St. John Eudes, Tract. de admirabili corde Jesu, 1, 5.
26  Phil 1:21.

 

SECTION ONE

SECTIO PRIMA

MAN’S VOCATION LIFE IN THE SPIRIT

VOCATIO HOMINIS:
VITA IN SPIRITU

1699 Life in the Holy Spirit fulfills the vocation of man (chapter one). This life is made up of divine charity and human solidarity (chapter two). It is graciously offered as salvation (chapter three).

1699 Vita in Spiritu Sancto vocationem adimplet hominis (caput primum). Ea in caritate divina et solidarietate consistit humana (caput secundum). Ipsa ut salus conceditur gratuito (caput tertium).


 

 

CHAPTER ONE

CAPUT PRIMUM

THE DIGNITY OF THE HUMAN PERSON

PERSONAE HUMANAE DIGNITAS

1700 The dignity of the human person is rooted in his creation in the image and likeness of God (article 1); it is fulfilled in his vocation to divine beatitude (article 2). It is essential to a human being freely to direct himself to this fulfillment (article 3). By his deliberate actions (article 4), the human person does, or does not, conform to the good promised by God and attested by moral conscience (article 5). Human beings make their own contribution to their interior growth; they make their whole sentient and spiritual lives into means of this growth (article 6). With the help of grace they grow in virtue (article 7), avoid sin, and if they sin they entrust themselves as did the prodigal son1 to the mercy of our Father in heaven (article 8). In this way they attain to the perfection of charity.

1700 Personae humanae dignitas in eius radicatur creatione ad imaginem et similitudinem Dei (articulus primus); ipsa in sua ad divinam beatitudinem vocatione adimpletur (articulus secundus). Hominis est ad talem adimpletionem se libere dirigere (articulus tertius). Persona humana, per suos actus deliberatos (articulus quartus), ad bonum conformatur vel non conformatur, quod Deus promisit quodque conscientia testatur moralis (articulus quintus). Homines se ipsos aedificant et intus crescunt: e tota sua vita sensibili et spirituali materiam faciunt sui incrementi (articulus sextus). Cum gratiae adiutorio crescunt in virtute (articulus septimus), peccatum vitant et, si illud commiserunt, se, sicut filius prodigus,21 Patris nostri coelestis misericordiae committunt (articulus octavus). Sic ad perfectionem accedunt caritatis.


 

 

1  Lk 15:11-32.

 


 

 

Article 1

ARTICULUS 1

MAN: THE IMAGE OF GOD

HOMO IMAGO DEI

1701 “Christ, . . . in the very revelation of the mystery of the Father and of his love, makes man fully manifest to himself and brings to light his exalted vocation.”2 It is in Christ, “the image of the invisible God,”3 that man has been created “in the image and likeness” of the Creator. It is in Christ, Redeemer and Savior, that the divine image, disfigured in man by the first sin, has been restored to its original beauty and ennobled by the grace of God.4

1701 « Christus, [...] in ipsa revelatione mysterii Patris Eiusque amoris, hominem ipsi homini plenissime manifestat eique altissimam eius vocationem patefacit ».22 In Christo, « qui est imago Dei invisibilis » (Col 1,15),23 homo « ad imaginem et similitudinem » Creatoris creatus est. In Christo, Redemptore et Salvatore, imago divina, in homine deformata primo peccato, in sua originali pulchritudine est restaurata et gratia Dei nobilitata.24

1702 The divine image is present in every man. It shines forth in the communion of persons, in the likeness of the union of the divine persons among themselves (cf chapter two).

1702 Imago divina in unoquoque homine est praesens. In personarum communione resplendet, ad similitudinem unitatis Personarum divinarum inter Se (cf Caput secundum).

1703 Endowed with “a spiritual and immortal” soul,5 The human person is “the only creature on earth that God has willed for its own sake.”6 From his conception, he is destined for eternal beatitude.

1703 Persona humana, dotata anima spirituali et immortali,25 « in terris sola creatura est quam Deus propter seipsam voluerit ».26 Inde a conceptione sua ad aeternam destinatur beatitudinem.

1704 The human person participates in the light and power of the divine Spirit. By his reason, he is capable of understanding the order of things established by the Creator. By free will, he is capable of directing himself toward his true good. He finds his perfection “in seeking and loving what is true and good.”7

1704 Persona humana lucem et robur Spiritus divini participat. Ratione capax est ordinem rerum a Creatore stabilitum intelligendi. Sua voluntate capax est se ipsam dirigendi ad suum verum bonum. Suam invenit perfectionem vera bonaque inquirendo et diligendo.27

1705 By virtue of his soul and his spiritual powers of intellect and will, man is endowed with freedom, an “outstanding manifestation of the divine image.”8

1705 Homo, propter suam animam suasque spirituales intellectus et voluntatis potentias, dotatus est libertate quae « eximium est divinae imaginis [...] signum ».28

1706 By his reason, man recognizes the voice of God which urges him “to do what is good and avoid what is evil.”9 Everyone is obliged to follow this law, which makes itself heard in conscience and is fulfilled in the love of God and of neighbor. Living a moral life bears witness to the dignity of the person.

1706 Ratione sua, homo vocem cognoscit Dei quae eum urget « ad bonum [...] faciendum ac malum vitandum ».29 Unusquisque tenetur hanc sequi legem quae in conscientia resonat et quae in amore Dei et proximi impletur. Vitae moralis exercitium personae humanae dignitatem testatur.

1707 “Man, enticed by the Evil One, abused his freedom at the very beginning of history.”10 He succumbed to temptation and did what was evil. He still desires the good, but his nature bears the wound of original sin. He is now inclined to evil and subject to error:
Man is divided in himself. As a result, the whole life of men, both individual and social, shows itself to be a struggle, and a dramatic one, between good and evil, between light and darkness.11

1707 « Homo tamen, suadente Maligno, inde ab exordio historiae, libertate sua abusus est ».30Tentationi occubuit et malum commisit. Boni conservat desiderium, sed eius natura vulnus peccati originalis fert. Factus est ad malum proclivis et errori subiectus:
« Ideo in seipso divisus est homo. Quapropter tota vita hominum, sive singularis sive collectiva, ut luctationem et quidem dramaticam se exhibet inter bonum et malum, inter lucem et tenebras ».
31

1708 By his Passion, Christ delivered us from Satan and from sin. He merited for us the new life in the Holy Spirit. His grace restores what sin had damaged in us.

1708 Passione Sua, Christus nos a Satana et a peccato liberavit. Nobis vitam novam in Spiritu Sancto promeruit. Eius gratia id restaurat quod peccatum in nobis detriverat.

1709 He who believes in Christ becomes a son of God. This filial adoption transforms him by giving him the ability to follow the example of Christ. It makes him capable of acting rightly and doing good. In union with his Savior, the disciple attains the perfection of charity which is holiness. Having matured in grace, the moral life blossoms into eternal life in the glory of heaven.

1709 Qui in Christum credit, filius Dei fit. Haec filialis adoptio eum transformat, ei conferens ut Christi exemplum sequatur. Ipsa eum capacem reddit recte agendi et bonum exercendi. Discipulus, suo unitus Salvatori, caritatis assequitur perfectionem, nempe sanctitatem. Vita moralis, maturata in gratia, in vitam expanditur aeternam in coeli gloria.


 

 

2 GS 22.
3  Col 1:15; cf.  2 Cor 4:4.
4 Cf. GS 22.
5 GS 14 # 2.
6 GS 24 # 3.
7 GS 15 # 2.
8 GS 17.
9 GS 16.
10 GS 13 # 1.
11 GS 13 # 2.

 

IN BRIEF

Compendium

1710 “Christ . . . makes man fully manifest to man himself and brings to light his exalted vocation” (GS 22 # 1).

1710 « Christus [...] hominem ipsi homini plenissime manifestat eique altissimam eius vocationem patefacit ».32

1711 Endowed with a spiritual soul, with intellect and with free will, the human person is from his very conception ordered to God and destined for eternal beatitude. He pursues his perfection in “seeking and loving what is true and good” (GS 15 # 2).

1711 Persona humana, dotata anima spirituali, intellectu et voluntate, inde a sua conceptione, ad Deum ordinatur et ad beatitudinem destinatur aeternam. Suam persequitur perfectionem, vera bonaque inquirendo et diligendo.33

1712 In man, true freedom is an “outstanding manifestation of the divine image” (GS 17).

1712 « Vera [...] libertas eximium est divinae imaginis in homine signum ».34

1713 Man is obliged to follow the moral law, which urges him “to do what is good and avoid what is evil” (cf GS 16). This law makes itself heard in his conscience.

1713 Homo legem moralem sequi tenetur, quae illum « ad bonum [...] faciendum ac malum vitandum »35 urget. Haec lex in eius conscientia resonat.

1714 Man, having been wounded in his nature by original sin, is subject to error and inclined to evil in exercising his freedom.

1714 Homo in natura sua a peccato originali vulneratus, errori est subiectus et ad malum in suae libertatis exercitio inclinatus.

1715 He who believes in Christ has new life in the Holy Spirit. the moral life, increased and brought to maturity in grace, is to reach its fulfillment in the glory of heaven.

1715 Qui in Christum credit, novam in Spiritu Sancto habet vitam. Vita moralis quae in gratia crescit et maturescit, in coeli gloria perfici debet.

Article 2

ARTICULUS 2

OUR VOCATION TO BEATITUDE

NOSTRA AD BEATITUDINEM VOCATIO

I. The Beatitudes

I. Beatitudines

1716 The Beatitudes are at the heart of Jesus’ preaching. They take up the promises made to the chosen people since Abraham. the Beatitudes fulfill the promises by ordering them no longer merely to the possession of a territory, but to the Kingdom of heaven:

1716 Beatitudines in corde sunt praedicationis Iesu. Earum annuntiatio promissiones populo electo inde ab Abraham factas assumit iterum. Ipsa eas perficit, illas ordinando non amplius ad mere quadam fruendum terra, sed ad Regnum coelorum:

Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
Blessed are those who mourn, for they shall be comforted.
Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth.
Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness, for they shall be satisfied.
Blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain mercy.
Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God.
Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called sons of God.
Blessed are those who are persecuted for righteousness’ sake, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
Blessed are you when men revile you and persecute you and utter all kinds of evil against you falsely on my account.
Rejoice and be glad, for your reward is great in heaven.12

« Beati pauperes spiritu, quoniam ipsorum est Regnum caelorum.
Beati, qui lugent, quoniam ipsi consolabuntur.
Beati mites, quoniam ipsi possidebunt terram.
Beati, qui esuriunt et sitiunt iustitiam, quoniam ipsi saturabuntur.
Beati misericordes, quia ipsi misericordiam consequentur.
Beati mundo corde, quoniam ipsi Deum videbunt.
Beati pacifici, quoniam filii Dei vocabuntur.
Beati, qui persecutionem patiuntur propter iustitiam, quoniam ipsorum est Regnum caelorum.
Beati estis cum maledixerint vobis et persecuti vos fuerint et dixerint omne malum adversum vos, mentientes, propter me. Gaudete et exsultate, quoniam merces vestra copiosa est in caelis » (Mt 5,3-12).

1717 The Beatitudes depict the countenance of Jesus Christ and portray his charity. They express the vocation of the faithful associated with the glory of his Passion and Resurrection; they shed light on the actions and attitudes characteristic of the Christian life; they are the paradoxical promises that sustain hope in the midst of tribulations; they proclaim the blessings and rewards already secured, however dimly, for Christ’s disciples; they have begun in the lives of the Virgin Mary and all the saints.

1717 Beatitudines vultum depingunt Iesu Christi Eiusque caritatem describunt; vocationem exprimunt fidelium gloriae passionis Eius et Resurrectionis consociatorum; actiones et habitudines vitae christianae peculiares illustrant; inopinabiles sunt promissiones quae spem in tribulationibus sustinent; discipulis benedictiones annuntiant et retributiones iam subobscure asseveratas; in Virginis Mariae et omnium sanctorum vita inaugurantur.

II. The Desire for Happiness

II. Felicitatis desiderium

1718 The Beatitudes respond to the natural desire for happiness. This desire is of divine origin: God has placed it in the human heart in order to draw man to the One who alone can fulfill it:

1718 Beatitudines naturali felicitatis respondent desiderio. Hoc desiderium originis est divinae; Deus illud in hominis posuit corde ut illum attrahat ad Se qui solus illud potest implere:

We all want to live happily; in the whole human race there is no one who does not assent to this proposition, even before it is fully articulated.13

« Beate certe omnes vivere volumus neque quisquam est in hominum genere, qui non huic sententiae, antequam plane sit emissa, consentiat ».36

How is it, then, that I seek you, Lord? Since in seeking you, my God, I seek a happy life, let me seek you so that my soul may live, for my body draws life from my soul and my soul draws life from you.14

« Quomodo ergo Te quaero, Domine? Cum enim Te, Deum meum, quaero, vitam beatam quaero. Quaeram Te, ut vivat anima mea. Vivit enim corpus meum de anima mea et vivit anima mea de Te ».37

God alone satisfies.15

« Deus enim solus satiat ».38

1719 The Beatitudes reveal the goal of human existence, the ultimate end of human acts: God calls us to his own beatitude. This vocation is addressed to each individual personally, but also to the Church as a whole, the new people made up of those who have accepted the promise and live from it in faith.

1719 Beatitudines scopum detegunt exsistentiae humanae, ultimum actuum humanorum finem: Deus nos ad Suam propriam vocat beatitudinem. Haec vocatio ad unumquemque dirigitur personaliter, sed etiam ad totam Ecclesiam, novum populum eorum qui Promissionem acceperunt et in eius fide vivunt.

 

 

13 St. Augustine, De moribus eccl. 1, 3, 4: PL 32,1312.
14 St. Augustine, Conf. 10, 20: PL 32, 791.
15 St. Thomas Aquinas, Expos. in symb. apost. I.

 

III. Christian Beatitude

III. Beatitudo christiana

1720 The New Testament uses several expressions to characterize the beatitude to which God calls man:
- the coming of the Kingdom of God;16
- the vision of God: “Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God”17
- entering into the joy of the Lord;18
- entering into God’s rest:19

1720 Novum Testamentum, ut beatitudinem insigniat, ad quam Deus hominem vocat, pluribus utitur expressionibus: Adventu Regni Dei;39 visione Dei: « Beati mundo corde, quoniam ipsi Deum videbunt » (Mt 5,8);40 ingressu in gaudium Domini;41 ingressu in requiem Dei:42

There we shall rest and see, we shall see and love, we shall love and praise. Behold what will be at the end without end. For what other end do we have, if not to reach the kingdom which has no end?20

« Ibi vacabimus et videbimus, videbimus et amabimus, amabimus et laudabimus. Ecce quod erit in fine sine fine. Nam quis alius noster est finis nisi pervenire ad Regnum, cuius nullus est finis? ».43

1721 God put us in the world to know, to love, and to serve him, and so to come to paradise. Beatitude makes us “partakers of the divine nature” and of eternal life.21 With beatitude, man enters into the glory of Christ22 and into the joy of the Trinitarian life.

1721 Deus enim nos posuit in mundo ut Ipsum cognoscamus, Ipsi serviamus Ipsumque amemus atque ut sic ad paradisum perveniamus. Beatitudo nos efficit « divinae consortes naturae » (2 Pe1,4) et vitae aeternae.44 Cum ea homo gloriam ingreditur Christi45 et fruitionem vitae trinitariae.

1722 Such beatitude surpasses the understanding and powers of man. It comes from an entirely free gift of God: whence it is called supernatural, as is the grace that disposes man to enter into the divine joy.

1722 Talis beatitudo intelligentiam superat et solas vires humanas. E dono Dei oritur gratuito. Propterea supernaturalis dicitur, sicut gratia quae hominem disponit ad divinam ingrediendam fruitionem.

“Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God.”

« “Beati mundo corde, quoniam ipsi Deum videbunt”.

It is true, because of the greatness and inexpressible glory of God, that “man shall not see me and live,” for the Father cannot be grasped. But because of God’s love and goodness toward us, and because he can do all things, he goes so far as to grant those who love him the privilege of seeing him.... For “what is impossible for men is possible for God.”23

Sed secundum magnitudinem quidem Eius et inenarrabilem gloriam “nemo videbit Deum et vivet”, incapabilis enim Pater, secundum autem dilectionem et humanitatem et quod omnia possit, etiam hoc concedit his qui Se diligunt, id est videre Deum [...]: quoniam “quae impossibilia sunt apud homines possibilia apud Deum” ».46

1723 The beatitude we are promised confronts us with decisive moral choices. It invites us to purify our hearts of bad instincts and to seek the love of God above all else. It teaches us that true happiness is not found in riches or well-being, in human fame or power, or in any human achievement - however beneficial it may be - such as science, technology, and art, or indeed in any creature, but in God alone, the source of every good and of all love:

1723 Promissa beatitudo nos collocat ante electiones morales decisivas. Nos invitat ad cor nostrum a malis purificandum instinctibus et ad amorem Dei super omnia quaerendum. Nos docet veram felicitatem in divitiis vel commoditate non residere neque in gloria humana vel potentia, neque in ullo humano opere, etiamsi perutile sit, sicut scientiae, technicae et artes, neque in ulla creatura, sed in solo Deo, omnis boni et omnis amoris fonte:

All bow down before wealth. Wealth is that to which the multitude of men pay an instinctive homage. They measure happiness by wealth; and by wealth they measure respectability.... It is a homage resulting from a profound faith ... that with wealth he may do all things. Wealth is one idol of the day and notoriety is a second.... Notoriety, or the making of a noise in the world - it may be called “newspaper fame” - has come to be considered a great good in itself, and a ground of veneration.24

« Divitiae magna divinitas sunt hodierna; illis multitudo, tota hominum massa, obsequium tribuit spontaneum. Beatitudinem metiuntur secundum fortunam, et secundum fortunam etiam honorabilitatem metiuntur. [...] Hoc oritur e nostra convictione [...] iuxta quam omnia sunt cum divitiis possibilia. Divitiae sunt igitur unum ex hodiernis idolis famaque aliud est. [...] Fama, cognosci et in mundo rumorem facere ad id pervenit ut bonum in se ipsa consideretur, bonum excelsum, obiectum, et ipsa, verae venerationis. [...] Id appellari posset ephemeridum fama ».47

1724 The Decalogue, the Sermon on the Mount, and the apostolic catechesis describe for us the paths that lead to the Kingdom of heaven. Sustained by the grace of the Holy Spirit, we tread them, step by step, by everyday acts. By the working of the Word of Christ, we slowly bear fruit in the Church to the glory of God.25

1724 Decalogus, sermo montanus et catechesis apostolica nobis describunt vias quae ad Regnum ducunt coelorum. Eis pedetentim per actus implicamur quotidianos, gratia Spiritus Sancti sustentos. Christi verbo fecundati, lente fructus ferimus in Ecclesia ad gloriam Dei.48


 

 

16 Cf.  Mt 4:17.
17  Mt 5:8; cf.  1 Jn 2;  1 Cor 13:12.
18  Mt 25:21-23.
19 Cf.  Heb 4:7-11.
20 St. Augustine, De civ. Dei 22, 30, 5: PL 41,804.
21  2 Pet 1:4; cf.  Jn 17:3.
22 Cf.  Rom 8:18.
23 St. Irenaeus, Adv. haeres. 4,20,5: PG 7/1, 1034-1035.
24 John Henry Cardinal Newman, “Saintliness the Standard of Christian
   Principle,” in Discourses to Mixed Congregations (London: Longmans, Green
   and Co., 1906) V, 89-90.
25 Cf. the parable of the sower:  Mt 13:3-23.

 

IN BRIEF

Compendium

1725 The Beatitudes take up and fulfill God’s promises from Abraham on by ordering them to the Kingdom of heaven. They respond to the desire for happiness that God has placed in the human heart.

1725 Beatitudines promissiones Dei inde ab Abraham factas assumunt et perficiunt, eas ad Regnum coelorum ordinando. Felicitatis respondent desiderio quod Deus in hominis posuit corde.

1726 The Beatitudes teach us the final end to which God calls us: the Kingdom, the vision of God, participation in the divine nature, eternal life, filiation, rest in God.

1726 Beatitudines nos finem ultimum docent ad quem Deus nos vocat: Regnum, visionem Dei, participationem divinae naturae, vitam aeternam, filiationem et in Deo requiem.

1727 The beatitude of eternal life is a gratuitous gift of God. It is supernatural, as is the grace that leads us there.

1727 Vitae aeternae beatitudo donum Dei est gratuitum; ipsa est supernaturalis sicut gratia quae ad illam ducit.

1728 The Beatitudes confront us with decisive choices concerning earthly goods; they purify our hearts in order to teach us to love God above all things.

1728 Beatitudines nos ante decisivas relate ad bona terrestria collocant electiones; ipsae nostrum purificant cor ad nos docendum Deum amare super omnia.

1729 The beatitude of heaven sets the standards for discernment in the use of earthly goods in keeping with the law of God.

1729 Coeli beatitudo determinat criteria ad usum bonorum terrestrium discernendum secundum Legem Dei.

Article 3

ARTICULUS 3

MAN’S FREEDOM

HOMINIS LIBERTAS

1730 God created man a rational being, conferring on him the dignity of a person who can initiate and control his own actions. “God willed that man should be ‘left in the hand of his own counsel,’ so that he might of his own accord seek his Creator and freely attain his full and blessed perfection by cleaving to him.”26

1730 Deus hominem creavit rationabilem, ei dignitatem conferens personae quae capax est suos incipiendi et dominandi actus. « Voluit enim Deus hominem “relinquere in manu consilii sui” (Eccli15,14), ita ut Creatorem suum sponte quaerat et libere ad plenam et beatam perfectionem Ei inhaerendo perveniat »:49

Man is rational and therefore like God; he is created with free will and is master over his acts.27

« Homo vero rationabilis, et secundum hoc similis Deo, liber in arbitrio factus et suae potestatis ».50


 

 

26 GS 17;  Sir 15:14.
27 St. Irenaeus, Adv. haeres. 4, 4, 3: PG 7/1, 983.

 

I. Freedom and Responsibility

I. Libertas et responsabilitas

1731 Freedom is the power, rooted in reason and will, to act or not to act, to do this or that, and so to perform deliberate actions on one’s own responsibility. By free will one shapes one’s own life. Human freedom is a force for growth and maturity in truth and goodness; it attains its perfection when directed toward God, our beatitude.

1731 Libertas est potestas, in ratione et voluntate radicata, agendi vel non agendi, hoc vel illud faciendi, actiones deliberatas sic per se ipsum ponendi. Per liberum arbitrium unusquisque de se ipso disponit. Libertas est in homine vis incrementi et maturationis in veritate et bonitate. Libertas suam attingit perfectionem, cum ad Deum, beatitudinem nostram, ordinatur.

1732 As long as freedom has not bound itself definitively to its ultimate good which is God, there is the possibility of choosing between good and evil, and thus of growing in perfection or of failing and sinning. This freedom characterizes properly human acts. It is the basis of praise or blame, merit or reproach.

1732 Quamdiu libertas definitive fixa non est in suo ultimo bono, quod est Deus, possibilitatem implicat inter bonum et malum eligendi, illam igitur in perfectione crescendi vel deficiendi atque peccandi. Ipsa actus proprie humanos distinguit. Fons fit laudis vel vituperationis, meriti vel demeriti.

1733 The more one does what is good, the freer one becomes. There is no true freedom except in the service of what is good and just. the choice to disobey and do evil is an abuse of freedom and leads to “the slavery of sin.”28

1733 Quo magis quis bonum facit, eo liberior fit. Vera non habetur libertas nisi in boni et iustitiae servitium. Inoboedientiae et mali electio est libertatis abusus et ducit ad servitutem peccati.51

1734 Freedom makes man responsible for his acts to the extent that they are voluntary. Progress in virtue, knowledge of the good, and ascesis enhance the mastery of the will over its acts.

1734 Libertas hominem suorum facit responsabilem actuum quatenus ipsi voluntarii sunt. Progressus in virtute, boni cognitio et ascesis dominium augent voluntatis super eius actus.

1735 Imputability and responsibility for an action can be diminished or even nullified by ignorance, inadvertence, duress, fear, habit, inordinate attachments, and other psychological or social factors.

1735 Imputabilitas et responsabilitas cuiusdam actionis minui possunt atque adeo supprimi propter ignorantiam, inadvertentiam, violentiam, metum, consuetudines, affectiones immoderatas et alias psychicas vel sociales causas.

1736 Every act directly willed is imputable to its author:

1736 Omnis actus directe volitus auctori suo imputabilis est:

Thus the Lord asked Eve after the sin in the garden: “What is this that you have done?”29 He asked Cain the same question.30 The prophet Nathan questioned David in the same way after he committed adultery with the wife of Uriah and had him murdered.31
An action can be indirectly voluntary when it results from negligence regarding something one should have known or done: for example, an accident arising from ignorance of traffic laws.

Sic Dominus post peccatum in paradiso quaerit ab Adam: « Quid hoc fecisti? » (Gn 3,13). Eodem modo, Cain interrogat.52 Sic etiam propheta Nathan loquitur ad regem David post adulterium cum uxore Uriae huiusque necem.53

Actio quaedam potest indirecte voluntaria esse, cum ipsa e negligentia provenit relate ad id quod cognosci vel fieri debuisset, sicut infortunium ex ignorantia proveniens codicis vehiculorum transitum regentis.

1737 An effect can be tolerated without being willed by its agent; for instance, a mother’s exhaustion from tending her sick child. A bad effect is not imputable if it was not willed either as an end or as a means of an action, e.g., a death a person incurs in aiding someone in danger. For a bad effect to be imputable it must be foreseeable and the agent must have the possibility of avoiding it, as in the case of manslaughter caused by a drunken driver.

1737 Effectus quidam, quin ab agente sit volitus, potest tolerari, exempli gratia extrema matris ad lectum filii aegrotantis defatigatio. Effectus malus imputabilis non est, si non est volitus nec ut finis nec ut medium actionis, sic mors accepta dum cuidam personae versanti in periculo fertur auxilium. Ut effectus malus sit imputabilis, requiritur ut ille possit praevideri et ut agens possibilitatem habeat illum evitandi, exempli gratia in casu homicidii ab eo commissi qui vehiculum in statu ducit ebrietatis.

1738 Freedom is exercised in relationships between human beings. Every human person, created in the image of God, has the natural right to be recognized as a free and responsible being. All owe to each other this duty of respect. the right to the exercise of freedom, especially in moral and religious matters, is an inalienable requirement of the dignity of the human person. This right must be recognized and protected by civil authority within the limits of the common good and public order.32

1738 Libertas in relationibus inter homines exercetur. Unaquaeque persona humana, ad imaginem Dei creata, ius habet naturale ut tamquam ens liberum et responsabile agnoscatur. Omnes unicuique hoc debent observantiae officium. Ius ad exercitium libertatis exigentia est inseparabilis a personae humanae dignitate, praesertim in re morali et religiosa.54 Hoc ius debet civiliter agnosci et protegi intra boni communis et ordinis publici limites.55


 

 

28 Cf.  Rom 6:17.
29  Gen 3:13.
30 Cf.  Gen 4:10.
31 Cf.  2 Sam 12:7-15.
32 Cf. DH 2 # 7.

 

II. Human Freedom in the Economy of Salvation

II. Libertas humana in Oeconomia salutis

1739 Freedom and sin. Man’s freedom is limited and fallible. In fact, man failed. He freely sinned. By refusing God’s plan of love, he deceived himself and became a slave to sin. This first alienation engendered a multitude of others. From its outset, human history attests the wretchedness and oppression born of the human heart in consequence of the abuse of freedom.

1739 Libertas et peccatum. Libertas humana finita est et fallibilis. De facto, homo defecit. Ipse libere peccavit. Amoris Dei consilium reiiciens, se ipsum decepit; servus factus est peccati. Haec prima alienatio multas alias genuit. Historia generis humani, inde a suis originibus, aerumnas testatur et oppressiones e corde hominis natas, ut consequentiam mali libertatis usus.

1740 Threats to freedom. the exercise of freedom does not imply a right to say or do everything. It is false to maintain that man, “the subject of this freedom,” is “an individual who is fully self-sufficient and whose finality is the satisfaction of his own interests in the enjoyment of earthly goods.”33 Moreover, the economic, social, political, and cultural conditions that are needed for a just exercise of freedom are too often disregarded or violated. Such situations of blindness and injustice injure the moral life and involve the strong as well as the weak in the temptation to sin against charity. By deviating from the moral law man violates his own freedom, becomes imprisoned within himself, disrupts neighborly fellowship, and rebels against divine truth.

1740 Pericula quae libertati minantur. Libertatis exercitium ius non implicat omnia dicendi et omnia faciendi. Falsa praesumptio est « notio subiecti huiusmodi libertatis, quod ut individua persona habetur sibi sufficiens finemque habens satisfaciendi suis commodis fruitione bonorum terrestrium ».56 Ceterum, condiciones ordinis oeconomici et socialis, politici et culturalis pro iusto libertatis exercitio requisitae nimis frequenter ignorantur et violantur. Hi caecitatis et iniustitiae status vitam moralem onerant et tam fortes quam debiles in tentationem ducunt contra caritatem peccandi. Homo, se a lege separans morali, suae propriae libertati infert detrimentum, se ipsum vinculis alligat, sui similium rumpit fraternitatem et contra divinam rebellat veritatem.

1741 Liberation and salvation. By his glorious Cross Christ has won salvation for all men. He redeemed them from the sin that held them in bondage. “For freedom Christ has set us free.”34 In him we have communion with the “truth that makes us free.”35 The Holy Spirit has been given to us and, as the Apostle teaches, “Where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is freedom.”36 Already we glory in the “liberty of the children of God.”37

1741 Liberatio et salus. Christus, per Suam crucem gloriosam, omnium hominum obtinuit salutem. Ipse eos a peccato redemit, quod eos in servitute detinebat. « Hac libertate nos Christus liberavit » (Gal 5,1). In Ipso cum veritate, quae nos liberat,57 communionem habemus. Spiritus Sanctus nobis est datus, et sicut Apostolus docet, « ubi [...] Spiritus Domini, ibi libertas » (2 Cor 3,17). Iam nunc gloriamur libertate filiorum Dei.58

1742 Freedom and grace. the grace of Christ is not in the slightest way a rival of our freedom when this freedom accords with the sense of the true and the good that God has put in the human heart. On the contrary, as Christian experience attests especially in prayer, the more docile we are to the promptings of grace, the more we grow in inner freedom and confidence during trials, such as those we face in the pressures and constraints of the outer world. By the working of grace the Holy Spirit educates us in spiritual freedom in order to make us free collaborators in his work in the Church and in the world:

1742 Libertas et gratia. Gratia Christi nullo modo apparet ut aemulatrix nostrae libertatis, cum haec veritatis et boni correspondet sensui quem Deus in hominis corde posuit. E contra, sicut christiana experientia id testatur praesertim in oratione, quo dociliores impulsibus sumus gratiae, eo magis augentur nostra intima libertas atque nostra in probationibus securitas, sicut etiam coram mundi exterioris pressuris et coactionibus. Operatione gratiae, Spiritus Sanctus nos ad libertatem educat spiritualem, ut nos Sui operis in Ecclesia et in mundo liberos efficiat collaboratores:

Almighty and merciful God,

in your goodness take away from us all that is harmful,

so that, made ready both in mind and body,

we may freely accomplish your will.38

« Omnipotens et misericors Deus, universa nobis adversantia propitiatus exclude, ut, mente et corpore pariter expediti, quae Tua sunt liberis mentibus exsequamur ».59


 

 

33 CDF, instruction, Libertatis conscientia 13.
34  Gal 5: 1.
35 Cf. In 8:32.
36 2 Cor 17.
37  Rom 8:21.
38 Roman Missal, 32nd Sunday, Opening Prayer: Omnipotens et misericors
   Deus, universa nobis adversantia propitiatus exclude, ut, mente et corpore
   pariter expediti, quae tua sunt liberis mentibus exsequamur.

 

IN BRIEF

Compendium

1743 “God willed that man should be left in the hand of his own counsel (cf  Sir 15:14), so that he might of his own accord seek his creator and freely attain his full and blessed perfection by cleaving to him” (GS 17 # 1).

1743 « Deus [...] hominem [...] reliquit [...] in manu consilii sui » (Eccli 15,14) ut possit libere Creatori adhaerere suo et sic ad perfectam beatitudinem pervenire.60

1744 Freedom is the power to act or not to act, and so to perform deliberate acts of one’s own. Freedom attains perfection in its acts when directed toward God, the sovereign Good.

1744 Libertas est facultas agendi vel non agendi et sic per se ipsum actiones deliberatas ponendi. Ipsa perfectionem attingit sui actus, cum ad Deum, excelsum Bonum, ordinatur.

1745 Freedom characterizes properly human acts. It makes the human being responsible for acts of which he is the voluntary agent. His deliberate acts properly belong to him.

1745 Libertas actus proprie humanos distinguit. Hominem reddit responsabilem actuum, quorum ipse voluntarie est auctor. Eius deliberata operatio ad eum pertinet tamquam propria.

1746 The imputability or responsibility for an action can be diminished or nullified by ignorance, duress, fear, and other psychological or social factors.

1746 Cuiusdam actionis imputabilitas vel responsabilitas possunt propter ignorantiam, violentiam, metum et alias psychicas vel sociales causas minui aut supprimi.

1747 The right to the exercise of freedom, especially in religious and moral matters, is an inalienable requirement of the dignity of man. But the exercise of freedom does not entail the putative right to say or do anything.

1747 Ius ad exercitium libertatis exigentia est ab hominis dignitate inseparabilis, praesertim in re religiosa et morali. Sed exercitium libertatis non implicat praesumptum ius ad omnia facienda vel ad omnia dicenda.

1748 “For freedom Christ has set us free” ( Gal 5:1).

1748 « Hac libertate nos Christus liberavit » (Gal 5,1).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE GIFT of a CHILD

Donum filii