PART THREE: Life In Christ.
Article 5.
The Fifth Commandment:
[The ETHICS of LIFE]
§ 2258-2330
 

 The Resurrection  Bellini, 1575.


PART THREE LIFE IN CHRIST; SECTION TWO; THE TEN COMMANDMENTS;
CHAPTER TWO; “YOU SHALL LOVE YOUR NEIGHBOR AS YOURSELF


 

 

 

 

ARTICLE 5
THE FIFTH COMMANDMENT
 You shall not kill
(Exod. 20:13).

ARTICULUS 5 
QUINTUM PRAECEPTUM

« Non occides » (Ex 20,13).

 

 

 

 

You have heard that it was said to the men of old, “You shall not kill: and whoever kills shall be liable to judgment.” But I say to you that every one who is angry with his brother shall be liable to judgment.55

« Audistis quia dictum est antiquis: "Non occides; qui autem occiderit, reus erit iudicio". Ego autem dico vobis: Omnis, qui irascitur fratri suo, reus erit iudicio » (Mt 5,21-22).

2258. Human life is sacred because from its beginning it involves the creative action of God and it remains for ever in a special relationship with the Creator, who is its sole end. God alone is the Lord of life from its beginning until its end: no one can under any circumstance claim for himself the right directly to destroy an innocent human being.”56

2258 « Humana vita pro re sacra habenda est, quippe quae inde a suo exordio ‘Creatoris actionem postulet' ac semper peculiari necessitudine cum Creatore, unico fine suo, perstet conexa. Solus Deus vitae Dominus est ab exordio usque ad exitum: nemo in nullis rerum adiunctis, sibi vindicare potest ius mortem humanae creaturae innocenti directe afferendi ». 168

 

 

 

 

I. RESPECT FOR HUMAN LIFE

I. Vitae humanae observantia

 

 

 

 

 

 

The witness of sacred history Historiae sacrae testimonium

 

 

2259 In the account of Abel’s murder by his brother Cain,57 Scripture reveals the presence of anger and envy in man, consequences of original sin, from the beginning of human history. Man has become the enemy of his fellow man. God declares the wickedness of this fratricide: “What have you done? The voice of your brother’s blood is crying to me from the ground. And now you are cursed from the ground, which has opened its mouth to receive your brother’s blood from your hand.”58

2259 Scriptura, in narratione occisionis Abel per Cain fratrem eius, 169 revelat, inde ab historiae humanae initiis, praesentiam, in homine, irae et cupiditatis, quae peccati originalis sunt consequentiae. Homo sui paris factus est inimicus. Deus declarat huius fratricidii nequitiam: « Quid fecisti? Vox sanguinis fratris tui clamat ad me de agro. Nunc igitur maledictus eris procul ab agro, qui aperuit os suum et suscepit sanguinem fratris tui de manu tua! » (Gn 4,10-11).

2260 The covenant between God and mankind is interwoven with reminders of God’s gift of human life and man’s murderous violence:

2260 Foedus inter Deum et humanitatem iteratis doni divini vitae humanae et mortiferae violentiae hominis recordationibus est intextum:

For your lifeblood I will surely require a reckoning. . . . Whoever sheds the blood of man, by man shall his blood be shed; for God made man in his own image.59

« Sanguinem enim animarum vestrarum requiram [...]. Quicumque effuderit humanum sanguinem, per hominem fundetur sanguis illius; ad imaginem quippe Dei factus est homo » (Gn 9,5-6).

The Old Testament always considered blood a sacred sign of life.60 This teaching remains necessary for all time.

Vetus Testamentum semper sanguinem habuit tamquam sacrum vitae signum. 170 Huius doctrinae necessitas pro omnibus est temporibus.

2261 Scripture specifies the prohibition contained in the fifth commandment: “Do not slay the innocent and the righteous.”61 The deliberate murder of an innocent person is gravely contrary to the dignity of the human being, to the golden rule, and to the holiness of the Creator. The law forbidding it is universally valid: it obliges each and everyone, always and everywhere.

2261 Scriptura prohibitionem determinat quinti praecepti: « Insontem et iustum non occides » (Ex 23,7). Innocentis occisio voluntaria dignitati creaturae humanae, regulae aureae et Creatoris sanctitati est graviter contraria. Lex quae illam proscribit, universaliter est valida: omnes et singulos, semper obligat et ubique.

2262 In the Sermon on the Mount, the Lord recalls the commandment, “You shall not kill,”62 and adds to it the proscription of anger, hatred, and vengeance. Going further, Christ asks his disciples to turn the other cheek, to love their enemies.63 He did not defend himself and told Peter to leave his sword in its sheath.64

2262 Dominus, in sermone montano, praeceptum recolit: « Non occides » (Mt 5,21), eique proscriptionem addit irae, odii et vindictae. Immo etiam Christus a Suo discipulo etiam postulat ut alteram praebeat maxillam, 171 suos diligat inimicos. 172 Ipse Se non defendit dixitque Petro ut gladium suum relinqueret in vagina. 173

 

 

Legitimate defense

Defensio legitima

 

 

2263 The legitimate defense of persons and societies is not an exception to the prohibition against the murder of the innocent that constitutes intentional killing. “The act of self-defense can have a double effect: the preservation of one’s own life; and the killing of the aggressor. . . . The one is intended, the other is not.”[St. Thom. Aq., STh II-II, 64, 7, corp. art.]

2263 Personarum et societatum legitima defensio exceptio non est prohibitionis occisionis innocentis quae homicidium constituit voluntarium. « Ex actu [...] alicuius seipsum defendentis duplex effectus sequi potest: unus quidem conservatio propriae vitae; alius autem occisio invadentis ». 174 « Nihil prohibet unius actus esse duos effectus, quorum alter solum sit in intentione, alius vero sit praeter intentionem ». 175

2264 Love toward oneself remains a fundamental principle of morality. Therefore it is legitimate to insist on respect for one’s own right to life. Someone who defends his life is not guilty of murder even if he is forced to deal his aggressor a lethal blow:

2264 Amor erga se ipsum fundamentale moralitatis permanet principium. Est igitur legitimum efficere ut proprium ad vitam observetur ius. Qui suam vitam defendit, homicidii non est reus etiamsi cogatur aggressori suo ictum ferre mortalem:

If a man in self-defense uses more than necessary violence, it will be unlawful: whereas if he repels force with moderation, his defense will be lawful. . . . Nor is it necessary for salvation that a man omit the act of moderate self-defense to avoid killing the other man, since one is bound to take more care of one’s own life than of another’s.

St. Thomas Aquinas, STh II-II, 64, 7, corp. art.

« Si aliquis ad defendendum propriam vitam utatur maiori violentia quam oporteat, erit illicitum. Si vero moderate violentiam repellat, erit licita defensio [...]. Nec est necessarium ad salutem ut homo actum moderatae tutelae praetermittat ad evitandum occisionem alterius: quia plus tenetur homo vitae suae providere quam vitae alienae ». 176

2265 Legitimate defense can be not only a right but a grave duty for one who is responsible for the lives of others. The defense of the common good requires that an unjust aggressor be rendered unable to cause harm. For this reason, those who legitimately hold authority also have the right to use arms to repel aggressors against the civil community entrusted to their responsibility.

2265 Legitima defensio potest esse non solum ius, sed grave officium ei, qui vitam aliorum praestare debet. Defendere commune bonum poscit ut iniustus aggressor extra possibilitatem nocendi collocetur. Hoc titulo, qui legitime auctoritatem detinent, ius habent etiam armis utendi ad repellendos aggressores civilis communitatis concreditae ipsorum responsabilitati.

2266 The efforts of the state to curb the spread of behavior harmful to people’s rights and to the basic rules of civil society correspond to the requirement of safeguarding the common good. Legitimate public authority has the right and duty to inflict punishment proportionate to the gravity of the offense. Punishment has the primary aim of redressing the disorder introduced by the offense. When it is willingly accepted by the guilty party, it assumes the value of expiation. Punishment then, in addition to defending public order and protecting people’s safety, has a medicinal purpose: as far as possible, it must contribute to the correction of the guilty party.67

2266 Exigentiae bonum commune tuendi correspondet nixus Status ut propagationem coerceat modorum agendi qui hominis iura atque civilis commercii normas fundamentales laedunt. Legitimae publicae auctoritatis ius est et officium ut poenas gravitati delicti proportionatas infligat. Poena tamquam primum habet scopum inordinationem a culpa introductam reparare. Cum poena voluntarie a culpabili accipitur, valorem acquirit expiationis. Poena deinde, praeter ordinis publici defensionem atque securitatis personarum tutelam, scopum intendit medicinalem, ipsa debet, quantum fieri potest, ad culpabilis emendationem conferre.

2267 Assuming that the guilty party’s identity and responsibility have been fully determined, the traditional teaching of the Church does not exclude recourse to the death penalty, if this is the only possible way of effectively defending human lives against the unjust aggressor.

2267 Traditionalis doctrina Ecclesiae, supposita plena determinatione identitatis et responsabilitatis illius qui culpabilis est, recursum ad poenam mortis non excludit, si haec una sit possibilis via ad vitas humanas ab iniusto aggressore efficaciter defendendas.

If, however, nonlethal means are sufficient to defend and protect people’s safety from the aggressor, authority will limit itself to such means, as these are more in keeping with the concrete conditions of the common good and are more in conformity to the dignity of the human person.

Si autem instrumenta incruenta sufficiunt ad personarum securitatem ab aggressore defendendam atque protegendam, auctoritas his solummodo utatur instrumentis, utpote quae melius respondeant concretis boni communis condicionibus et sint dignitati personae humanae magis consentanea.

Today, in fact, as a consequence of the possibilities which the state has for effectively preventing crime, by rendering one who has committed an offense incapable of doing harm - without definitely taking away from him the possibility of redeeming himself - “[today] the cases in which the execution of the offender is an absolute necessity  [...] are very rare, if not practically nonexistent.”

[John Paul II, Evangelium vitae 56.]

Revera nostris diebus, consequenter ad possibilitates quae Statui praesto sunt ut crimen efficaciter reprimatur, illum qui hoc commisit, innoxium efficiendo, quin illi definitive possibilitas substrahatur ut sese redimat, casus in quibus absolute necessarium sit ut reus supprimatur, « admodum raro [...] intercidunt [...], si qui omnino iam reapse accidunt ». 177

 

 

Intentional homicide

Homicidium voluntarium

 

 

2268 The fifth commandment forbids direct and intentional killing as gravely sinful. The murderer and those who cooperate voluntarily in murder commit a sin that cries out to heaven for vengeance.68

2268 Quintum praeceptum tamquam peccato graviter obnoxium proscribit homicidium directum et voluntarium. Homicida illique qui voluntarie cooperantur occisioni, committunt peccatum quod ad coelum clamat vindictam postulans. 178

Infanticide,69 fratricide, parricide, and the murder of a spouse are especially grave crimes by reason of the natural bonds which they break. Concern for eugenics or public health cannot justify any murder, even if commanded by public authority.

Infanticidium, 179 fratricidium, parricidium et coniugis occisio crimina sunt speciatim gravia, propter naturalia vincula quae rumpunt. Sollicitudo pro eugenismo vel pro curanda publica valetudine nullam possunt iustificare occisionem, licet haec a publicis praecipiatur potestatibus.

2269 The fifth commandment forbids doing anything with the intention of indirectly bringing about a person’s death. The moral law prohibits exposing someone to mortal danger without grave reason, as well as refusing assistance to a person in danger.

2269 Quintum praeceptum prohibet aliquid facere cum intentione mortem cuiusdam personae indirecte provocandi. Lex moralis vetat quemdam periculo mortis exponere sine causa gravi, et etiam auxilium recusare personae in discrimine constitutae.

The acceptance by human society of murderous famines, without efforts to remedy them, is a scandalous injustice and a grave offense. Those whose usurious and avaricious dealings lead to the hunger and death of their brethren in the human family indirectly commit homicide, which is imputable to them.70

A societate humana condiciones famis tolerari, quae mortem afferunt, quin nisus fiat ut eisdem remedium afferatur, scandalosa est iniustitia et gravis culpa. Negotiatores, quorum usurarii et mercatorii usus, suorum in humanitate fratrum famem et mortem provocant, indirecte committunt homicidium. Hoc illis est imputabile. 180

Unintentional killing is not morally imputable. But one is not exonerated from grave offense if, without proportionate reasons, he has acted in a way that brings about someone’s death, even without the intention to do so.

Homicidium involuntarium moraliter imputabile non est. Sed si quis, sine rationibus proportionatis, ita agit ut mortem adducat, etiam sine intentione illam apportandi, de gravi non excusatur culpa.

 

 

  Abortion

Abortus

 

 

2270 Human life must be respected and protected absolutely from the moment of conception. From the first moment of his existence, a human being must be recognized as having the rights of a person - among which is the inviolable right of every innocent being to life (71 Cf. CDF, Donum vitae I, 1.).

2270 Vita humana, a momento conceptionis, debet absolute observari et protegi. Creaturae humanae, inde a primo eius exsistentiae momento, agnosci debent personae iura, inter quae ius inviolabile omnis creaturae innocentis ad vitam. 181

Before I formed you in the womb I knew you, and before you were born I consecrated you (72 Jer 1:5; cf. Job 10:8-12; Ps 22:10-11.).

« Priusquam te formarem in utero, novi te et, antequam exires de vulva, sanctificavi te » (Ier 1,5).

My frame was not hidden from you, when I was being made in secret, intricately wrought in the depths of the earth(73 Ps 139:15.).

« Non sunt abscondita ossa mea a Te, cum factus sum in occulto, contextus in inferioribus terrae » (Ps 139,15).

 

 

2271 Since the first century the Church has affirmed the moral evil of every procured abortion. This teaching has not changed and remains unchangeable. Direct abortion, that is to say, abortion willed either as an end or a means, is gravely contrary to the moral law:

2271 Ecclesia, a saeculo primo, moralem affirmavit malitiam omnis abortus provocati. Haec doctrina mutata non est. Permanet immutabilis. Abortus directus, id est, tamquam finis vel tamquam medium volitus, legi morali est graviter contrarius:

You shall not kill the embryo by abortion and shall not cause the newborn to perish.(74 Didache 2, 2: SCh 248, 148; cf. Ep. Barnabae 19, 5: PG 2, 777; Ad Diognetum 5, 6: PG 2, 1173; Tertullian, Apol. 9: PL 1, 319-320.)

« Non interficies foetum in abortione neque interimes infantem natum ». 182

God, the Lord of life, has entrusted to men the noble mission of safeguarding life, and men must carry it out in a manner worthy of themselves. Life must be protected with the utmost care from the moment of conception: abortion and infanticide are abominable crimes.(75 GS 51 # 3.)

« Deus [...], Dominus vitae, praecellens servandi vitam ministerium hominibus commisit, modo homine digno adimplendum. Vita igitur inde a conceptione, maxima cura tuenda est; abortus necnon infanticidium nefanda sunt crimina ». 183

 

 

2272 Formal cooperation in an abortion constitutes a grave offense. The Church attaches the canonical penalty of excommunication to this crime against human life. “A person who procures a completed abortion incurs excommunication latae sententiae,”(76 CIC, can. 1398.)“by the very commission of the offense,”(77 CIC, can. 1314.) and subject to the conditions provided by Canon Law.(78 Cf. CIC, cann. 1323-1324.)
The Church does not thereby intend to restrict the scope of mercy. Rather, she makes clear the gravity of the crime committed, the irreparable harm done to the innocent who is put to death, as well as to the parents and the whole of society.

2272 Formalis cooperatio ad abortum culpam constituit gravem. Ecclesia hoc contra vitam humanam delictum poena canonica punit excommunicationis. « Qui abortum procurat, effectu secuto, in excommunicationem latae sententiae incurrit », 184 « ipso facto commissi delicti », 185 condicionibus a iure praevisis. 186

Ecclesia sic misericordiae campum restringere non intendit. Commissi criminis manifestat gravitatem, damnum irreparabile innocenti, qui morte afficitur, illatum, eius parentibus totique societati.

 

 

2273 The inalienable right to life of every innocent human individual is a constitutive element of a civil society and its legislation:

2273 Ius inalienabile ad vitam uniuscuiusque hominis innocentis est elementum societatis civilis et eius legislationis constitutivum:

“The inalienable rights of the person must be recognized and respected by civil society and the political authority. These human rights depend neither on single individuals nor on parents; nor do they represent a concession made by society and the state; they belong to human nature and are inherent in the person by virtue of the creative act from which the person took his origin. Among such fundamental rights one should mention in this regard every human being’s right to life and physical integrity from the moment of conception until death.”(79 CDF, Donum vitae III.)

« Inalienabilia personae iura agnosci atque observari debent a civili societate et a publicis auctoritatibus. Quae iura neque a singulis hominibus pendent, neque a parentibus, ac ne sunt quidem concessio a societate et a Civitate facta: verum ea pertinent ad humanam naturam, atque personae inhaerent vi creatricis actionis, a qua persona ipsa originem duxit. Inter haec fundamentalia iura, ad rem quod attinet, recolere oportet: ius ad vitam et ad corporis integritatem, quo unaquaeque creatura humana gaudet a conceptionis momento usque ad mortem ». 187

“The moment a positive law deprives a category of human beings of the protection which civil legislation ought to accord them, the state is denying the equality of all before the law. When the state does not place its power at the service of the rights of each citizen, and in particular of the more vulnerable, the very foundations of a state based on law are undermined. . . . As a consequence of the respect and protection which must be ensured for the unborn child from the moment of conception, the law must provide appropriate penal sanctions for every deliberate violation of the child’s rights.”(80 CDF, Donum vitae III.)

« Cum lex civilis cuidam hominum coetui praesidium aufert, quod lex praebere debet, eo ipso tunc respublica negat omnium civium aequalitatem coram lege. Cum respublica vim suam non adhibet ad iura uniuscuiusque tuenda, maxime debiliorum, tunc labefiunt ipsa fundamenta Civitatis legitime constitutae. [...] Ex observantia atque tutela quae nascituro debentur, inde a conceptionis momento, consequitur ut lex congruas poenas praevideat contra quamlibet deliberatam violationem iurium ipsius ». 188

 

 

2274 Since it must be treated from conception as a person, the embryo must be defended in its integrity, cared for, and healed, as far as possible, like any other human being.

2274 Embryo, quippe qui tamquam persona, inde a conceptione, est tractandus, in sua integritate est defendendus, curandus et sanandus, quantum fieri potest, sicut quaelibet alia humana creatura.

Prenatal diagnosis is morally licit, “if it respects the life and integrity of the embryo and the human fetus and is directed toward its safe guarding or healing as an individual. . . . It is gravely opposed to the moral law when this is done with the thought of possibly inducing an abortion, depending upon the results: a diagnosis must not be the equivalent of a death sentence.”(81 CDF, Donum vitae I, 2.)

Praenatalis diagnosis est moraliter licita, si « tuetur vitam et integritatem embryonis et fetus humani atque spectat ad singulum embryonem servandum vel curandum [...]. Ea tamen graviter legi morali adversatur, si, prout erit eius exitus, admittat abortum fieri posse: diagnosis [...] aequiparanda non est damnationi ad mortem ». 189

 

 

2275 “One must hold as licit procedures carried out on the human embryo which respect the life and integrity of the embryo and do not involve disproportionate risks for it, but are directed toward its healing the improvement of its condition of health, or its individual survival.”(82 CDF, Donum vitae I, 3.)

2275 « Interventus in humano embryone liciti habendi sunt hac condicione, ut embryonis vitam integritatemque observent, ne secumferant pericula haud proportionata sed spectent ad morbi curationem, ad salutis statum in melius mutandum vel ad ipsius singularis fetus superstitem vitam in tuto ponendam ». 190

“It is immoral to produce human embryos intended for exploitation as disposable biological material.”(83 CDF, Donum vitae I, 5.)

« Morum [...] honestati contrarium est embryones humanos gignere ad abutendum, scilicet ut efficiantur "materia biologica", quae praesto sit ad usum ». 191

“Certain attempts to influence chromosomic or genetic inheritance are not therapeutic but are aimed at producing human beings selected according to sex or other predetermined qualities. Such manipulations are contrary to the personal dignity of the human being and his integrity and identity”(84 CDF, Donum vitae I, 6.) which are unique and unrepeatable.

« Nonnulli conatus interveniendi in patrimonio cromosomico vel generativo non sunt therapeutici, sed spectant ad viventes humanos gignendos, selectos secundum sexum vel alias proprietates iam antea praestitutas. Huiusmodi artificiosae tractationes adversantur personali humanae creaturae dignitati eiusque integritati atque identitati » 192 unicae, non iterabili.

EUTHANASIA_2276-2279

 

 

 

  Euthanasia

Euthanasia

 

 

 

 

2276 Those whose lives are diminished or weakened deserve special respect. Sick or handicapped persons should be helped to lead lives as normal as possible.

2276 Illi, quorum vita impedita est vel infirmata, specialem postulant observantiam. Personae aegrotae vel aliqua incapacitate (handicap) laborantes sustineri debent ut vitam degant ita normalem, quantum fieri potest.

 

 

2277 Whatever its motives and means, direct euthanasia consists in putting an end to the lives of handicapped, sick, or dying persons. It is morally unacceptable.

2277 Euthanasia directa, quaecumque sunt eius motiva vel media, consistit in fine imponendo vitae personarum aliqua incapacitate (handicap) laborantium, aegrotarum vel morientium. Moraliter inacceptabilis est.

Thus an act or omission which, of itself or by intention, causes death in order to eliminate suffering constitutes a murder gravely contrary to the dignity of the human person and to the respect due to the living God, his Creator. The error of judgment into which one can fall in good faith does not change the nature of this murderous act, which must always be forbidden and excluded.

Sic actio vel omissio quae, ex se vel in intentione, mortem causat ad dolorem supprimendum, occisionem constituit dignitati personae humanae et observantiae erga Deum viventem, eius Creatorem, graviter contrariam. Iudicii error, in quem quis bona fide incidere potest, naturam non mutat huius interficientis actus qui semper proscribendus est et excludendus. [(193) Cf Sacra Congregatio pro Doctrina Fidei, Decl. Iura et bona: AAS 72 (1980) 542-552.]

 

 

2278

 

2278 Discontinuing medical procedures that are [:]

2278 Cessatio a mediis medicinalibus,

burdensome,

dangerous,

extraordinary, or

disproportionate to the expected outcome

onerosis,

periculosis,

extraordinariis vel

talibus quae cum effectibus obtentis proportionata non sunt,

can be legitimate; it is the refusal of “over-zealous” treatment. Here one does not will to cause death; one’s inability to impede it is merely accepted. The decisions should be made by the patient if he is competent and able or, if not, by those legally entitled to act for the patient, whose reasonable will and legitimate interests must always be respected.

legitima esse potest. Haec est recusatio « saevitiae therapeuticae ». Hoc modo, non intenditur mortem inferre; accipitur non posse eam impedire. Decisiones suscipiendae sunt ab aegroto, si ad id competentiam habeat et capacitatem, secus autem ab illis qui ad id, secundum legem, habent iura, rationabilem aegroti voluntatem et legitimum commodum semper observantes.

 

 

2279 Even if death is thought imminent, the ordinary care owed to a sick person cannot be legitimately interrupted. The use of painkillers to alleviate the sufferings of the dying, even at the risk of shortening their days, can be morally in conformity with human dignity if death is not willed as either an end or a means, but only foreseen and tolerated as inevitable Palliative care is a special form of disinterested charity [=selfless love]. As such it should be encouraged.

2279 Etiamsi mors imminere consideretur, curae, quae ordinario personae aegrotae debentur, nequeunt legitime interrumpi. Analgesicorum medicamentorum usus ad moribundi dolores sublevandos, etiam cum periculo eius dies breviandi, potest esse dignitati humanae moraliter conformis, si mors neque ut finis neque ut medium est volita, sed solummodo praevisa et, tamquam inevitabilis, tolerata. Curae lenientes formam constituunt excellentem caritatis gratuitae. Hac ratione foveri debent.

 

 

 

 

  Suicide

Suicidium

 

 

 

 

2280 Everyone is responsible for his life before God who has given it to him. It is God who remains the sovereign Master of life. We are obliged to accept life gratefully and preserve it for his honor and the salvation of our souls. We are stewards, not owners, of the life God has entrusted to us. It is not ours to dispose of.

2280 Unusquisque suae vitae est responsabilis coram Deo qui illam ei donavit. Ipse eius Dominus permanet summus. Tenemur eam cum gratitudine accipere et ad Ipsius honorem praeservare atque ad animarum nostrarum salutem. Vitae, quam Deus nobis concredidit, administratores sumus et non domini. De illa non disponimus.

 

 

2281 Suicide contradicts the natural inclination of the human being to preserve and perpetuate his life. It is gravely contrary to the just love of self. It likewise offends love of neighbor because it unjustly breaks the ties of solidarity with family, nation, and other human societies to which we continue to have obligations. Suicide is contrary to love for the living God.

2281 Suicidium naturali creaturae humanae contradicit inclinationi ad eius vitam conservandam et perpetuandam. Graviter iusto sui ipsius amori contrarium est. Pariter amorem offendit proximi, quia iniuste solidarietatis frangit vincula cum societatibus familiari, nationali et humanae, erga quas obligati permanemus. Suicidium amori Dei viventis est contrarium.

 

 

2282 If suicide is committed with the intention of setting an example, especially to the young, it also takes on the gravity of scandal. Voluntary co-operation in suicide is contrary to the moral law.

2282 Suicidium, si intentione committitur ut exemplo sit, praesertim iuvenibus, gravitatem etiam sumit scandali. Cooperatio voluntaria ad suicidium est legi morali contraria.

Grave psychological disturbances, anguish, or grave fear of hardship, suffering, or torture can diminish the responsibility of the one committing suicide.

Graves perturbationes psychicae, angustia vel gravis timor probationis, doloris vel cruciatus responsabilitatem se ipsum interficientis possunt imminuere.

 

 

2283 We should not despair of the eternal salvation of persons who have taken their own lives. By ways known to him alone, God can provide the opportunity for salutary repentance. The Church prays for persons who have taken their own lives.

2283 De salute aeterna personarum, quae sibi ipsis mortem intulerunt, desperari non debet. Deus potest, viis, quas solus Ipse noscit, occasionem illis praebere salutaris poenitentiae. Ecclesia orat pro personis quae vitae suae intulerunt vim.

 

 

 

 

II. RESPECT FOR THE DIGNITY
of
PERSONS

II. Observantia
dignitatis personarum

 

 

 

 

Respect for the souls of others: scandal

Observantia animae alius: scandalum

2284 Scandal is an attitude or behavior which leads another to do evil. The person who gives scandal becomes his neighbor’s tempter. He damages virtue and integrity; he may even draw his brother into spiritual death. Scandal is a grave offense if by deed or omission another is deliberately led into a grave offense.

2284 Scandalum habitudo est vel agendi modus qui alium ducunt ad malum faciendum. Qui scandalizat, proximi sui fit tentator. Virtuti et rectitudini damnum affert; fratrem suum in mortem potest trahere spiritualem. Scandalum culpam constituit gravem si actione vel omissione alium deliberate ad culpam gravem trahit.

2285 Scandal takes on a particular gravity by reason of the authority of those who cause it or the weakness of those who are scandalized. It prompted our Lord to utter this curse: “Whoever causes one of these little ones who believe in me to sin, it would be better for him to have a great millstone fastened round his neck and to be drowned in the depth of the sea.”85 Scandal is grave when given by those who by nature or office are obliged to teach and educate others. Jesus reproaches the scribes and Pharisees on this account: he likens them to wolves in sheep’s clothing.86

2285 Scandalum particularem induit gravitatem ratione auctoritatis eorum qui illud causant vel debilitatis eorum qui illud patiuntur. Id Domino nostro hanc suggessit maledictionem: « Qui autem scandalizaverit unum de pusillis istis, [...] expedit ei, ut suspendatur mola asinaria in collo eius et demergatur in profundum maris » (Mt 18,6). 194 Grave est scandalum, cum ab illis efficitur qui, natura vel munere, tenentur ad alios docendos et educandos. Iesus de eo scribas obiurgat et Phariseos: eos cum lupis agnos specie simulantibus comparat. 195

2286 Scandal can be provoked by laws or institutions, by fashion or opinion.

2286 Scandalum potest lege vel institutionibus provocari, usu vel opinione.

Therefore, they are guilty of scandal who establish laws or social structures leading to the decline of morals and the corruption of religious practice, or to “social conditions that, intentionally or not, make Christian conduct and obedience to the Commandments difficult and practically impossible.”87 This is also true of business leaders who make rules encouraging fraud, teachers who provoke their children to anger,88 or manipulators of public opinion who turn it away from moral values.

Sic scandali efficiuntur culpabiles illi qui leges instituunt vel sociales structuras quae ducunt ad mores pervertendos et ad vitam religiosam corrumpendam, vel ad « sociales condiciones quae, voluntarie vel non, arduam vel fere impossibilem reddunt vitae rationem christianam, praeceptis summi Legislatoris congruentem ». 196 Idem valet de societatum ad bona gignenda moderatoribus qui dispositiones efferunt ad fraudem incitantes, de magistris qui suos pueros « exasperant » 197 vel de illis qui publicam opinionem arte mutant, eam a valoribus moralibus avertentes.

2287 Anyone who uses the power at his disposal in such a way that it leads others to do wrong becomes guilty of scandal and responsible for the evil that he has directly or indirectly encouraged. “Temptations to sin are sure to come; but woe to him by whom they come!”89

2287 Ille, qui potestatibus, quibus gaudet, utitur in condicionibus quae ad male agendum inducunt, culpabilis est scandali et responsabilis mali cui directe vel indirecte favit. « Impossibile est ut non veniant scandala; vae autem illi, per quem veniunt » (Lc 17,1).

Respect for health

Valetudinis observantia

2288 Life and physical health are precious gifts entrusted to us by God. We must take reasonable care of them, taking into account the needs of others and the common good.

2288 Vita et physica valetudo bona sunt magni pretii, concredita a Deo. Earum curam rationabiliter sumere debemus, ratione habita necessitatum aliorum et boni communis.

Concern for the health of its citizens requires that society help in the attainment of living-conditions that allow them to grow and reach maturity: food and clothing, housing, health care, basic education, employment, and social assistance.

Cura valetudinis civium requirit adiutorium societatis ad exsistentiae obtinendas condiciones quae permittunt crescere et ad maturitatem pervenire: alimentum et vestitum, habitationem, valetudinis curas, fundamentalem institutionem, occupationem, socialem assistentiam.

2289 If morality requires respect for the life of the body, it does not make it an absolute value. It rejects a neo-pagan notion that tends to promote the cult of the body, to sacrifice everything for it’s sake, to idolize physical perfection and success at sports. By its selective preference of the strong over the weak, such a conception can lead to the perversion of human relationships.

2289 Etsi doctrina moralis ad observantiam appellet vitae corporalis, huic non tribuit valorem absolutum. Contra mentalitatem neo-paganam insurgit, quae tendit ad cultum corporis promovendum, ad omnia ei sacrificanda, ad idololatriam perfectionis physicae et victoriae in ludicris exercitationibus. Talis mentalitas, propter electionem selectivam, quam inter fortes facit et debiles, ad relationum humanarum potest ducere perversionem.

2290 The virtue of temperance disposes us to avoid every kind of excess: the abuse of food, alcohol, tobacco, or medicine. Those incur grave guilt who, by drunkenness or a love of speed, endanger their own and others’ safety on the road, at sea, or in the air.

2290 Temperantiae virtus ad omne genus excessuum vitandum disponit, abusum mensae, vinolentiae, tabaci et medicamentorum. Qui in ebrietatis statu vel propter immoderatam velocitatis voluptatem, securitati aliorum vel suae propriae periculum afferunt in viis, in mari vel in aere, graviter fiunt culpabiles.

2291 The use of drugs inflicts very grave damage on human health and life. Their use, except on strictly therapeutic grounds, is a grave offense. Clandestine production of and trafficking in drugs are scandalous practices. They constitute direct co-operation in evil, since they encourage people to practices gravely contrary to the moral law.

2291 Stupefactivorum medicamentorum usus gravissimas infligit valetudini et vitae humanae destructiones. Extra indicationes stricte therapeuticas, gravis est culpa. Clandestina stupefactivorum medicamentorum productio et mercatura operationes sunt scandalosae; cooperationem constituunt directam, quoniam ad usus legi morali incitant graviter contrarios.

Respect for the person and scientific research

Observantia personae et scientifica investigatio

2292 Scientific, medical, or psychological experiments on human individuals or groups can contribute to healing the sick and the advancement of public health.

2292 Scientifica, medicinalia vel psychologica in personis vel coetibus humanis experimenta conferre possunt ad aegrotorum sanationem et ad publicae valetudinis progressum.

2293 Basic scientific research, as well as applied research, is a significant expression of man’s dominion over creation. Science and technology are precious resources when placed at the service of man and promote his integral development for the benefit of all. By themselves however they cannot disclose the meaning of existence and of human progress. Science and technology are ordered to man, from whom they take their origin and development; hence they find in the person and in his moral values both evidence of their purpose and awareness of their limits.

2293 Investigatio scientifica fundamentalis et etiam investigatio applicata expressionem constituunt significativam dominatus hominis in creationem. Scientia et technica ars subsidia sunt magni pretii, cum in servitium adhibentur hominis et eius integralem promovent progressum in omnium beneficium; ipsae tamen, per se solas, exsistentiae et progressus humani nequeunt indicare sensum. Scientia et technica ars homini ordinantur, a quo ipsae originem sumunt et incrementum; in persona igitur et in eius valoribus moralibus indicatio finalitatis earum et conscientia earum limitum inveniuntur.

2294 It is an illusion to claim moral neutrality in scientific research and its applications. On the other hand, guiding principles cannot be inferred from simple technical efficiency, or from the usefulness accruing to some at the expense of others or, even worse, from prevailing ideologies. Science and technology by their very nature require unconditional respect for fundamental moral criteria. They must be at the service of the human person, of his inalienable rights, of his true and integral good, in conformity with the plan and the will of God.

2294 Fallax est moralem investigationis scientificae et eius applicationum neutralitatem vindicare. Altera ex parte, criteria viam indicantia neque ex mera technica efficacia possunt deduci neque ex utilitate quae inde quibusdam in aliorum detrimentum possunt provenire, neque, id quod esset peius, ex ideologiis praevalentibus. Scientia et technica ars requirunt, e sua propria intrinseca significatione, absolutam criteriorum moralitatis fundamentalium observantiam; illae esse debent in servitium personae humanae, eius iurium non alienabilium, eius boni veri et integralis, secundum Dei propositum et voluntatem.

2295 Research or experimentation on the human being cannot legitimate acts that are in themselves contrary to the dignity of persons and to the moral law. The subjects’ potential consent does not justify such acts. Experimentation on human beings is not morally legitimate if it exposes the subject’s life or physical and psychological integrity to disproportionate or avoidable risks. Experimentation on human beings does not conform to the dignity of the person if it takes place without the informed consent of the subject or those who legitimately speak for him.

2295 Investigationes vel experimenta in creatura humana non possunt legitimos reddere actus qui in se ipsis dignitati personarum et legi morali sunt contrarii. Subiectorum consensus, si forte detur, tales actus non iustificat. Experimentum in creatura humana moraliter legitimum non est, si vitam vel physicam et psychicam integritatem subiecti subire facit discrimina non proportionata vel evitabilia. Experimentum in hominibus dignitati personae conforme non est, si, praeterea, fit sine conscio consensu subiecti vel eorum qui ius in ipsum habent.

2296 Organ transplants are in conformity with the moral law if the physical and psychological dangers and risks to the donor are proportionate to the good sought for the recipient. Organ donation after death is a noble and meritorious act and is to be encouraged as a expression of generous solidarity. It is not morally acceptable if the donor or his proxy has not given explicit consent. Moreover, it is not morally admissible to bring about the disabling mutilation or death of a human being, even in order to delay the death of other persons.

2296 Organorum transplantatio legi morali est conformis, si pericula et discrimina physica atque psychica quae donans subit, bono sunt proportionata quod pro eo quaeritur cui illa destinatur. Donatio organorum post mortem est actus nobilis et meritorius atque alliciendus tamquam generosae solidarietatis manifestatio. Moraliter acceptabilis non est, si donans vel eius propinqui ius ad id habentes suum explicitum non dederint consensum. Praeterea nequit moraliter admitti, mutilationem, quae invalidum reddit, vel mortem directe provocare, etiamsi id fiat pro aliarum personarum retardanda morte.

Respect for bodily integrity

Observantia integritatis corporalis

2297 Kidnapping and hostage taking bring on a reign of terror; by means of threats they subject their victims to intolerable pressures. They are morally wrong. Terrorism threatens, wounds, and kills indiscriminately; it is gravely against justice and charity. Torture which uses physical or moral violence to extract confessions, punish the guilty, frighten opponents, or satisfy hatred is contrary to respect for the person and for human dignity. Except when performed for strictly therapeutic medical reasons, directly intended amputations, mutilations, and sterilizations performed on innocent persons are against the moral law.90

2297 Violenta retentio et obsidum captus spargunt terrorem atque, minis, intolerabiles in victimas exercent coactiones. Ipsa moraliter sunt illegitima. Terrorismus indiscriminatim minatur, vulnerat et interficit; ipse graviter iustitiae et caritati est contrarius. Cruciatus, qui physica vel morali utitur violentia ad confessiones extorquendas, ad culpabiles puniendos, ad adversarios terrendos, ad odium satiandum, observantiae personae et dignitati humanae est contrarius. Nisi praescriptiones habeantur medicae ordinis stricte therapeutici, amputationes, mutilationes vel sterilizationes directe voluntariae personarum innocentium legi morali sunt contrariae. 198

2298 In times past, cruel practices were commonly used by legitimate governments to maintain law and order, often without protest from the Pastors of the Church, who themselves adopted in their own tribunals the prescriptions of Roman law concerning torture. Regrettable as these facts are, the Church always taught the duty of clemency and mercy. She forbade clerics to shed blood. In recent times it has become evident that these cruel practices were neither necessary for public order, nor in conformity with the legitimate rights of the human person. On the contrary, these practices led to ones even more degrading. It is necessary to work for their abolition. We must pray for the victims and their tormentors.

2298 Temporibus anteactis, crudeles usus a gubernationibus legitimis sunt communiter exerciti, ad legem et ordinem servandum, saepe sine protestatione Pastorum Ecclesiae, qui et ipsi in suis propriis tribunalibus praescriptiones iuris Romani assumpserunt de cruciatu. Praeter haec dolenda facta, Ecclesia semper docuit clementiae officium et misericordiae; clericos prohibuit ne sanguinem funderent. Temporibus recentioribus, evidens est effectum, hos crudeles usus ordini publico necessarios non esse neque legitimis personae humanae iuribus esse conformes. E contra, hi usus ad pessimas ducunt depravationes. Oportet contendere ad eas abolendas. Pro victimis et eorum carnificibus orandum est.

Respect for the dead

Mortuorum observantia

2299 The dying should be given attention and care to help them live their last moments in dignity and peace. They will be helped by the prayer of their relatives, who must see to it that the sick receive at the proper time the sacraments that prepare them to meet the living God.

2299 Attentio et cura morientibus tribuentur ad eos adiuvandos ut in suis ultimis momentis dignitate vivant et pace. Oratione adiuvabuntur suorum propinquorum. Hi curabunt ut aegroti tempore opportuno recipiant sacramenta quae ad occursum praeparant cum Deo viventi.

2300 The bodies of the dead must be treated with respect and charity, in faith and hope of the Resurrection. The burial of the dead is a corporal work of mercy;91 it honors the children of God, who are temples of the Holy Spirit.

2300 Defunctorum corpora cum observantia et caritate tractanda sunt in resurrectionis fide et spe. Mortuorum sepultura misericordiae corporalis est opus; 199 eadem Dei honorat filios, Spiritus Sancti templa.

2301 Autopsies can be morally permitted for legal inquests or scientific research. The free gift of organs after death is legitimate and can be meritorious.

2301 Cadaverum sectio et inspectio (autopsia) moraliter potest admitti legalis indagationis et scientificae investigationis causa. Gratuita organorum post mortem donatio legitima est et potest esse meritoria.

The Church permits cremation, provided that it does not demonstrate a denial of faith in the resurrection of the body.92

Ecclesia cremationem permittit nisi haec dubium fidei in corporum resurrectionem manifestet. 200

 

 

 

 

III. SAFEGUARDING PEACE

III. Pacis tutela

 

 

 

 

Peace

Pax

2302 By recalling the commandment, “You shall not kill,”93 our Lord asked for peace of heart and denounced murderous anger and hatred as immoral.

2302 Dominus noster, praeceptum commemorans: « Non occides » (Mt 5,21), cordis postulat pacem et irae interfectricis atque odii immoralitatem denuntiat:

Anger is a desire for revenge. “To desire vengeance in order to do evil to someone who should be punished is illicit,” but it is praiseworthy to impose restitution “to correct vices and maintain justice.”94 If anger reaches the point of a deliberate desire to kill or seriously wound a neighbor, it is gravely against charity; it is a mortal sin. The Lord says, “Everyone who is angry with his brother shall be liable to judgment.”95

Ira est vindictae optatum. « Appetere vindictam propter malum eius qui puniendus est, illicitum est »: sed est laudabile reparationem imponere « propter vitiorum correctionem et bonum iustitiae conservandum ». 201 Si ira usque ad deliberatum perveniat optatum proximum occidendi vel serio vulnerandi, graviter contra caritatem offendit; peccatum est mortale. Dominus dicit: « Omnis qui irascitur fratri suo, reus erit iudicio » (Mt 5,22).

2303 Deliberate hatred is contrary to charity. Hatred of the neighbor is a sin when one deliberately wishes him evil. Hatred of the neighbor is a grave sin when one deliberately desires him grave harm. “But I say to you, Love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you, so that you may be sons of your Father who is in heaven.”96

2303 Odium voluntarium caritati est contrarium. Odium proximi peccatum est, cum homo illi malum vult deliberate. Odium proximi grave est peccatum, cum quis illi damnum grave deliberate exoptat. « Ego autem dico vobis: Diligite inimicos vestros et orate pro persequentibus vos; ut sitis filii Patris vestri, qui in caelis est... » (Mt 5,44-45).

2304 Respect for and development of human life require peace. Peace is not merely the absence of war, and it is not limited to maintaining a balance of powers between adversaries. Peace cannot be attained on earth without safeguarding the goods of persons, free communication among men, respect for the dignity of persons and peoples, and the assiduous practice of fraternity. Peace is “the tranquillity of order.”97 Peace is the work of justice and the effect of charity.98

2304 Vitae humanae observantia et progressus pacem postulant. Pax non est tantum belli absentia et ad virium adversarum servandum aequilibrium non reducitur. Pax nequit super terram obtineri sine tutela bonorum personarum, libera inter homines communicatione, observantia dignitatis personarum et populorum, assiduo fraternitatis exercitio. Eadem est « tranquillitas ordinis ». 202 Ea « opus iustitiae » (Is 32,17) est et caritatis effectus. 203

2305 Earthly peace is the image and fruit of the peace of Christ, the messianic “Prince of Peace.”99 By the blood of his Cross, “in his own person he killed the hostility,”100 he reconciled men with God and made his Church the sacrament of the unity of the human race and of its union with God. “He is our peace.”101 He has declared: “Blessed are the peacemakers.”102

2305 Terrena pax imago et fructus est pacis Christi, qui est « Princeps pacis » (Is 9,5) messianicae. Per sanguinem crucis Suae interfecit inimicitiam in Semetipso, 204 homines reconciliavit cum Deo et Ecclesiam Suam sacramentum effecit unitatis generis humani eiusque unionis cum Deo. 205 « Ipse est enim pax nostra » (Eph 2,14). Et declarat: « Beati pacifici » (Mt 5,9).

2306 Those who renounce violence and bloodshed and, in order to safeguard human rights, make use of those means of defense available to the weakest, bear witness to evangelical charity, provided they do so without harming the rights and obligations of other men and societies. They bear legitimate witness to the gravity of the physical and moral risks of recourse to violence, with all its destruction and death.103

2306 Qui actioni violentae renuntiant et cruentae, et pro iurium hominis tutela ad defensionis recurrunt media quae debilioribus praesto sunt, caritati evangelicae reddunt testimonium, dummodo hoc sine iurium atque officiorum aliorum hominum et societatum fiat detrimento. Legitime gravitatem testantur periculorum physicorum et moralium recursus ad violentiam cum eius ruinis et eius mortuis. 206

Avoiding war

Bellum vitare

2307 The fifth commandment forbids the intentional destruction of human life. Because of the evils and injustices that accompany all war, the Church insistently urges everyone to prayer and to action so that the divine Goodness may free us from the ancient bondage of war.104

2307 Quintum praeceptum voluntariam vitae humanae prohibet destructionem. Ecclesia, propter mala et iniustitias quae omne bellum secum fert, singulos instanter adhortatur ad orandum et operandum, ut bonitas divina nos ab antiqua belli liberet servitute. 207

2308 All citizens and all governments are obliged to work for the avoidance of war.

2308 Singuli cives et gubernantes agere tenentur ad bella vitanda.

However, “as long as the danger of war persists and there is no international authority with the necessary competence and power, governments cannot be denied the right of lawful self-defense, once all peace efforts have failed.”105

« Quamdiu autem periculum belli aderit, auctoritasque internationalis competens congruisque viribus munita defuerit, tamdiu, exhaustis quidem omnibus pacificae tractationis subsidiis, ius legitimae defensionis guberniis denegari non poterit ». 208

2309 The strict conditions for legitimate defense by military force require rigorous consideration. The gravity of such a decision makes it subject to rigorous conditions of moral legitimacy. At one and the same time:

2309 Strictas condiciones legitimae defensionis vi militari oportet severe considerare. Talis decisionis gravitas eam condicionibus legitimitatis moralis subigit rigorosis. Requiritur simul:

- the damage inflicted by the aggressor on the nation or community of nations must be lasting, grave, and certain;

— damnum ab aggressore nationi vel nationum communitati inflictum esse diuturnum, grave et certum;

- all other means of putting an end to it must have been shown to be impractical or ineffective;

— omnia alia media ad illi imponendum finem manifestata esse impossibilia vel inefficacia;

- there must be serious prospects of success;

— serias ad exitum prosperum simul haberi condiciones;

- the use of arms must not produce evils and disorders graver than the evil to be eliminated. The power of modem means of destruction weighs very heavily in evaluating this condition.

— armorum usum mala non implicare et perturbationes graviora quam malum supprimendum. Modernorum destructionis mediorum potentia in hac condicione aestimanda gravissimum habet pondus.

These are the traditional elements enumerated in what is called the “just war” doctrine.

Haec sunt elementa traditionalia quae enumerantur in doctrina « belli iusti » appellata.

The evaluation of these conditions for moral legitimacy belongs to the prudential judgment of those who have responsibility for the common good.

Aestimatio harum condicionum pro morali legitimitate ad prudens pertinet iudicium eorum qui boni communis habent officium.

2310 Public authorities, in this case, have the right and duty to impose on citizens the obligations necessary for national defense.

2310 Publicae potestates hoc in casu habent ius et officium civibus imponendi necessaria officia ad nationem defendendam.

Those who are sworn to serve their country in the armed forces are servants of the security and freedom of nations. If they carry out their duty honorably, they truly contribute to the common good of the nation and the maintenance of peace.106

Qui sese, in vita militari, patriae dedunt servitio, securitatis et libertatis populorum sunt ministri. Si suum munus recte peragunt, vere ad bonum commune conferunt et ad pacem servandam. 209

2311 Public authorities should make equitable provision for those who for reasons of conscience refuse to bear arms; these are nonetheless obliged to serve the human community in some other way.107

2311 Publicae potestates cum aequitate casibus providebunt eorum qui, ob conscientiae motiva, armorum recusant usum, dum humanae communitati servire alia forma teneantur. 210

2312 The Church and human reason both assert the permanent validity of the moral law during armed conflict. “The mere fact that war has regrettably broken out does not mean that everything becomes licit between the warring parties.”108

2312 Ecclesia et humana ratio permanentem declarant validitatem legis moralis, perdurantibus armatis conflictionibus. « Nec bello infeliciter iam exorto, eo ipso omnia inter partes adversas licita fiunt ». 211

2313 Non-combatants, wounded soldiers, and prisoners must be respected and treated humanely.

2313 Non-praeliantes, vulneratos milites et bello captos oportet observare et humaniter tractare.

Actions deliberately contrary to the law of nations and to its universal principles are crimes, as are the orders that command such actions. Blind obedience does not suffice to excuse those who carry them out. Thus the extermination of a people, nation, or ethnic minority must be condemned as a mortal sin. One is morally bound to resist orders that command genocide.

Actiones iuri gentium et eius universalibus principiis deliberate contrariae, et etiam iussiones quae illas praecipiunt, sunt crimina. Caeca quaedam oboedientia non sufficit ut ii, qui se illis submittunt, excusentur. Sic cuiusdam populi, nationis vel minoris ethnicae partis exterminium tamquam peccatum mortale damnandum est. Moralis adest obligatio iussionibus resistendi quae praecipiunt « genocidium ».

2314 “Every act of war directed to the indiscriminate destruction of whole cities or vast areas with their inhabitants is a crime against God and man, which merits firm and unequivocal condemnation.”109 A danger of modern warfare is that it provides the opportunity to those who possess modern scientific weapons especially atomic, biological, or chemical weapons - to commit such crimes.

2314 « Omnis actio bellica quae in urbium integrarum vel amplarum regionum cum earum incolis destructionem indiscriminatim tendit, est crimen contra Deum et ipsum hominem, quod firmiter et incunctanter damnandum est ». 212 Periculum belli moderni est ne illis, qui arma possident scientifica, praesertim atomica, biologica vel chimica, praebeatur occasio, talia committendi crimina.

2315 The accumulation of arms strikes many as a paradoxically suitable way of deterring potential adversaries from war. They see it as the most effective means of ensuring peace among nations. This method of deterrence gives rise to strong moral reservations. The arms race does not ensure peace. Far from eliminating the causes of war, it risks aggravating them. Spending enormous sums to produce ever new types of weapons impedes efforts to aid needy populations;110 it thwarts the development of peoples. Over-armament multiplies reasons for conflict and increases the danger of escalation.

2315 Armorum accumulatio multis quasi modus videtur inopinatus ad possibiles adversarios a bello dissuadendos. In illa medium perspiciunt efficacissimum capax praestandi pacem inter nationes. Hic dissuassionis modus graves morales exigit exceptiones. Ad congerenda arma certatio pacem non confirmat. Illa non solum belli non excludit causas, sed in discrimine est ne eas aggravet. Ingentium divitiarum dispendium in armis semper novis praeparandis impedit quominus indigentibus incolis afferatur remedium; 213 populorum progressioni obstaculum imponit. Armis sese excessivo modo munire rationes multiplicat conflictuum et periculum auget propagationis eorum.

2316 The production and the sale of arms affect the common good of nations and of the international community. Hence public authorities have the right and duty to regulate them. The short-term pursuit of private or collective interests cannot legitimate undertakings that promote violence and conflict among nations and compromise the international juridical order.

2316 Armorum productio et commercium bonum nationum et communitatis internationalis afficiunt commune. Proinde publicae auctoritates ius habent et officium ea ordinandi. Commodorum privatorum vel publicorum brevi tempore quaestus legitima non efficit incepta quae violentiam et conflictiones excitant inter nationes quaeque ordinem iuridicum internationalem in discrimen adducunt.

2317 Injustice, excessive economic or social inequalities, envy, distrust, and pride raging among men and nations constantly threaten peace and cause wars. Everything done to overcome these disorders contributes to building up peace and avoiding war:

2317 Iniustitiae et excessivae in re oeconomica et sociali inaequalitates, invidia, diffidentia et superbia quae inter homines pullulant et nationes, constanter paci minantur bellaque causant. Quidquid fit ad has perturbationes superandas, confert ad pacem aedificandam et ad bellum vitandum:

Insofar as men are sinners, the threat of war hangs over them and will so continue until Christ comes again; but insofar as they can vanquish sin by coming together in charity, violence itself will be vanquished and these words will be fulfilled: “they shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning hooks; nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more.”111

« Quatenus homines peccatores sunt, eis imminet periculum belli, et usque ad Adventum Christi imminebit; quatenus autem, caritate coniuncti, peccatum superant, superabuntur et violentiae, donec impleatur verbum: "Conflabunt gladios suos in vomeres et lanceas suas in falces. Non levabit gens contra gentem gladium, nec exercebuntur ultra ad praelium" (Is 2,4) ». 214

IN BRIEF

Compendium

2318 “In [God’s] hand is the life of every living thing and the breath of all mankind” (Job 12:10).

2318 « In [...] [Dei] manu anima omnis viventis et spiritus universae carnis hominis » (Iob 12,10).

2319 Every human life, from the moment of conception until death, is sacred because the human person has been willed for its own sake in the image and likeness of the living and holy God.

2319 Omnis vita humana, inde a conceptionis momento usque ad mortem, sacra est, quia persona humana est propter se ipsam volitam ad imaginem et similitudinem Dei vivi et sancti.

2320 The murder of a human being is gravely contrary to the dignity of the person and the holiness of the Creator.

2320 Creaturae humanae occisio dignitati personae et sanctitati Creatoris graviter est contraria.

2321 The prohibition of murder does not abrogate the right to render an unjust aggressor unable to inflict harm. Legitimate defense is a grave duty for whoever is responsible for the lives of others or the common good.

2321 Occisionis prohibitio ius non abrogat ut iniustus aggressor extra nocendi possibilitatem ponatur. Legitima defensio grave est officium illi qui aliorum vitae vel boni communis est responsabilis.

2322 From its conception, the child has the right to life. Direct abortion, that is, abortion willed as an end or as a means, is a “criminal” practice (GS 27 # 3), gravely contrary to the moral law. The Church imposes the canonical penalty of excommunication for this crime against human life.

2322 Infans, inde a conceptione sua, ius habet ad vitam. Abortus directus, id est, tamquam finis vel tamquam medium volitus, est « probrum » 215 legi morali graviter contrarium. Ecclesia poena canonica excommunicationis hoc contra vitam humanam punit delictum.

2323 Because it should be treated as a person from conception, the embryo must be defended in its integrity, cared for, and healed like every other human being.

2323 Embryo, quippe qui tamquam persona, inde a sua conceptione, est tractandus, in sua integritate est defendendus, curandus et sanandus, sicut quaelibet alia humana creatura.

2324 Intentional euthanasia, whatever its forms or motives, is murder. It is gravely contrary to the dignity of the human person and to the respect due to the living God, his Creator.

2324 Euthanasia voluntaria, quaecumque eius sunt formae et motiva, occisionem constituit. Ipsa est dignitati personae humanae et observantiae erga Deum viventem, Creatorem eius, graviter contraria.

2325 Suicide is seriously contrary to justice, hope, and charity. It is forbidden by the fifth commandment.

2325 Suicidium iustitiae, spei et caritati graviter est contrarium. Quinto praecepto prohibetur.

2326 Scandal is a grave offense when by deed or omission it deliberately leads others to sin gravely.

2326 Scandalum culpam constituit gravem cum alium, actione vel omissione, deliberate inducit ad graviter peccandum.

2327 Because of the evils and injustices that all war brings with it, we must do everything reasonably possible to avoid it. The Church prays: “From famine, pestilence, and war, O Lord, deliver us.”

2327 Propter mala et iniustitias, quae omne bellum secum fert, debemus facere quidquid rationabiliter possibile est, ad illud vitandum. Ecclesia orat: « A peste, fame et bello, libera nos Domine ».

2328 The Church and human reason assert the permanent validity of the moral law during armed conflicts. Practices deliberately contrary to the law of nations and to its universal principles are crimes.

2328 Ecclesia et humana ratio permanentem legis moralis declarant validitatem, perdurantibus armatis conflictionibus. Actiones iuri gentium et eius universalibus principiis deliberate contrariae sunt crimina.

2329 “The arms race is one of the greatest curses on the human race and the harm it inflicts on the poor is more than can be endured” (GS 81 # 3).

2329 Cursus ad arma apparanda gravissima plaga humanitatis est, ac pauperes intolerabiliter laedit. 216

2330 “Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called sons of God” (Mt 5:9).

2330 « Beati pacifici, quoniam filii Dei vocabuntur » (Mt 5,9).


 

 

54 Ex 20:13; Cf. Deut 5:17.
55 Mt 5:21-22.
56 CDF, instruction, Donum vitae, intro. 5.
57 Cf. Gen 4:8-12.
58 Gen 4:10-11.
59 Gen 9:5-6.
60 Cf. Lev 17:14.
61 Ex 23:7.
62 Mt 5:21.
63 Cf. Mt 5:22-39; 5:44.
64 Cf. Mt 26:52.
65 St. Thomas Aquinas, STh II-II, 64, 7, corp. art.
66 St. Thomas Aquinas, STh II-II, 64, 7, corp. art.
67 Cf. Lk 23:40-43.
68 Cf. Gen 4:10.
69 Cf. GS 51 # 3.
70 Cf. Am 8:4-10.
71 Cf. CDF, Donum vitae I, 1.
72 Jer 1:5; cf. Job 10:8-12; Ps 22:10-11.
73 Ps 139:15.
74 Didache 2, 2: SCh 248, 148; cf. Ep. Barnabae 19, 5: PG 2, 777; Ad Diognetum 5, 6: PG 2, 1173; Tertullian, Apol. 9: PL 1, 319-320.
75 GS 51 # 3.
76 CIC, can. 1398.
77 CIC, can. 1314.
78 Cf. CIC, cann. 1323-1324.
79 CDF, Donum vitae III.
80 CDF, Donum vitae III.
81 CDF, Donum vitae I, 2.
82 CDF, Donum vitae I, 3.
83 CDF, Donum vitae I, 5.
84 CDF, Donum vitae I, 6.
85 Mt 18:6; Cf. 1 Cor 8:10-13.
86 Cf. Mt 7:15.
87 Pius XII, Discourse, June 1, 1941.
88 Cf. Eph 6:4; Col. 3:21.
89 Lk 17:1.
90 Cf. DS 3722.
91 Cf. Tob 1:16-18.
92 Cf. CIC, can. 1176 # 3.
93 Mt 5:21.
94 St. Thomas Aquinas, STh II-II, 158, 1 ad 3.
95 Mt 5:22.
96 Mt 5:44-45.
97 St. Augustine, De civ. Dei, 19, 13, 1: PL 41, 640.
98 Cf. Isa 32:17; cf. GS 78 ## 1-2.
99 Isa 9:5.
100 Eph 2:16 J.B.; cf. Col 1:20-22.
101 Eph 2:14.
102 Mt 5:9.
103 Cf. GS 78 # 5.
104 Cf. GS 81 # 4.
105 GS 79 # 4.
106 Cf. GS 79 # 5.
107 Cf. GS 79 # 3.
108 GS 79 # 4.
109 GS 80 #3.
110 Cf. Paul VI, PP 53.
111 GS 78 # 6; cf. Isa 2:4.
NT John Paul II, Evangelium vitae 56.

 (168) Congregatio pro Doctrina Fidei, Instr. Donum vitae, Introductio, 5: AAS 80 (1988) 76-77.

(169) Cf Gn 4,8-12.

(170) Cf Lv 17,14.

(171) Cf Mt 5,22-26.38-39.

(172) Cf Mt 5,44.

(173) Cf Mt 26,52.

(174) Sanctus Thomas Aquinas, Summa theologiae, II-II, q. 64, a. 7, c: Ed. Leon. 9, 74.

(175) Sanctus Thomas Aquinas, Summa theologiae, II-II, q. 64, a. 7, c: Ed. Leon. 9, 74.

(176) Sanctus Thomas Aquinas, Summa theologiae, II-II, q. 64, a. 7, c: Ed. Leon. 9, 74.

(177) Ioannes Paulus II, Litt. enc. Evangelium vitae, 56: AAS 87 (1995) 464.

(178) Cf Gn 4,10.

(179) Cf Concilium Vaticanum II, Const. past. Gaudium et spes, 51: AAS 58 (1966) 1072.

(180) Cf Am 8,4-10.

(181) Cf Congregatio pro Doctrina Fidei, Instr. Donum vitae, 1, 1: AAS 80 (1988) 79.

(182) Didaché 2, 2: SC 248, 148 (Funk 1, 8); cf Epistula Pseudo Barnabae 19, 5: SC 172, 202 (Funk 1, 90); Epistula ad Diognetum 5, 6: SC 33, 62 (Funk 1, 398); Tertullianus, Apologeticum, 9, 8: CCL 1, 103 (PL 1, 371-372).

(183) Concilium Vaticanum II, Const. past. Gaudium et spes, 51: AAS 58 (1966) 1072.

(184) CIC canon 1398.

(185) CIC canon 1314.

(186) Cf CIC canones 1323-1324.

(187) Congregatio pro Doctrina Fidei, Instr. Donum vitae, 3: AAS 80 (1988) 98-99.

(188) Congregatio pro Doctrina Fidei, Instr. Donum vitae, 3: AAS 80 (1988) 99.

(189) Congregatio pro Doctrina Fidei, Instr. Donum vitae, 1, 2: AAS 80 (1988) 79-80.

(190) Congregatio pro Doctrina Fidei, Instr. Donum vitae, 1, 3: AAS 80 (1988) 80-81.

(191) Congregatio pro Doctrina Fidei, Instr. Donum vitae, 1, 5: AAS 80 (1988) 83.

(192) Congregatio pro Doctrina Fidei, Instr. Donum vitae, 1, 6: AAS 80 (1988) 85.

(193) Cf Sacra Congregatio pro Doctrina Fidei, Decl. Iura et bona: AAS 72 (1980) 542-552.

(194) Cf 1 Cor 8,10-13.

(195) Cf Mt 7,15.

(196) Pius XII, Nuntius radiophonicus (1 iunii 1941): AAS 33 (1941) 197.

(197) Cf Eph 6,4; Col 3,21.

(198) Cf Pius XI, Litt. enc. Casti connubii: DS 3722-3723.

(199) Cf Tb 1,16-18.

(200) Cf CIC canon 1176, § 3.

(201) Sanctus Thomas Aquinas, Summa theologiae, II-II, q. 158, a. 1, ad 3: Ed. Leon. 10, 273.

(202) Sanctus Augustinus, De civitate Dei, 19, 13: CSEL 402, 395 (PL 41, 640).

(203) Cf Concilium Vaticanum II, Const. past. Gaudium et spes, 78: AAS 58 (1966) 1101.

(204) Cf Eph 2,16; Col 1,20-22.

(205) Cf Concilium Vaticanum II, Const. dogm. Lumen gentium, 1: AAS 57 (1965) 5.

(206) Cf Concilium Vaticanum II, Const. past. Gaudium et spes, 78: AAS 58 (1966) 1101-1102.

(207) Cf Concilium Vaticanum II, Const. past. Gaudium et spes, 81: AAS 58 (1966) 1105.

(208) Concilium Vaticanum II, Const. past. Gaudium et spes, 79: AAS 58 (1966) 1103.

(209) Cf Concilium Vaticanum II, Const. past. Gaudium et spes, 79: AAS 58 (1966) 1103.

(210) Cf Concilium Vaticanum II, Const. past. Gaudium et spes, 79: AAS 58 (1966) 1103.

(211) Concilium Vaticanum II, Const. past. Gaudium et spes, 79: AAS 58 (1966) 1103.

(212) Concilium Vaticanum II, Const. past. Gaudium et spes, 80: AAS 58 (1966) 1104.

(213) Cf Paulus VI, Litt. enc. Populorum progressio, 53: AAS 59 (1967) 283.

(214) Concilium Vaticanum II, Const. past. Gaudium et spes, 78: AAS 58 (1966) 1102.

(215) Cf Concilium Vaticanum II, Const. past. Gaudium et spes, 27: AAS 58 (1966) 1048.

(216) Cf Concilium Vaticanum II, Const. past. Gaudium et spes, 81: AAS 58 (1966) 1105.

54 Ex 20:13; Cf. Deut 5:17.
55 Mt 5:21-22.
56 CDF, instruction, Donum vitae, intro. 5.
57 Cf. Gen 4:8-12.
58 Gen 4:10-11.
59 Gen 9:5-6.
60 Cf. Lev 17:14.
61 Ex 23:7.
62 Mt 5:21.
63 Cf. Mt 5:22-39; 5:44.
64 Cf. Mt 26:52.
65 St. Thomas Aquinas, STh II-II, 64, 7, corp. art.
66 St. Thomas Aquinas, STh II-II, 64, 7, corp. art.
67 Cf. Lk 23:40-43.
68 Cf. Gen 4:10.
69 Cf. GS 51 # 3.
70 Cf. Am 8:4-10.














85 Mt 18:6; Cf. 1 Cor 8:10-13.

86 Cf. Mt 7:15.
87 Pius XII, Discourse, June 1, 1941.
88 Cf. Eph 6:4; Col. 3:21.
89 Lk 17:1.
90 Cf. DS 3722.
91 Cf. Tob 1:16-18.
92 Cf. CIC, can. 1176 # 3.
93 Mt 5:21.
94 St. Thomas Aquinas, STh II-II, 158, 1 ad 3.
95 Mt 5:22.
96 Mt 5:44-45.
97 St. Augustine, De civ. Dei, 19, 13, 1: PL 41, 640.
98 Cf. Isa 32:17; cf. GS 78 ## 1-2.
99 Isa 9:5.
100 Eph 2:16 J.B.; cf. Col 1:20-22.
101 Eph 2:14.
102 Mt 5:9.
103 Cf. GS 78 # 5.
104 Cf. GS 81 # 4.
105 GS 79 # 4.
106 Cf. GS 79 # 5.
107 Cf. GS 79 # 3.
108 GS 79 # 4.
109 GS 80 #3.
110 Cf. Paul VI, PP 53.
111 GS 78 # 6; cf. Isa 2:4.
NT John Paul II, Evangelium vitae 56.
 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   
   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   
   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   
   
   

 

   
   

 

 

 


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