JEWISH
INTERTESTAMENTAL
APOCALYPTIC and
V
ISIONARY LITERATURE
(PSEUDEPIGRAPHA)
 

 Memling,
 St. John Altar, 1560


THE BOOK of ENOCH


Book of Enoch, tr. L. Dysinger, based in part on R.H. Charles, The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament (Oxford, The Clarendon Press). Greek  Text: Apocalypsis Henochi Graece (Brill, Leiden, 1970) pp. 19-44. ser Pseudepigrapha veteris testamenti Graece  ed. M. Black, TLG 1463 001.    Selections from ch 14, 17-19, taken from The Book of the Watchers (chs. 1-36); and ch. 71, taken from The Book of Heavenly Luminaries (chs. 72-82). [Introduction]


CHAPTER 14

 

8And the vision shown to me was this:
behold, in the vision clouds called me
    and a mist summoned me,

and the course of the stars and the lightnings
     urged me on and hastened me,

14.8 Καὶ ἐμοὶ ἐφ' ὁράσει οὕτως ἐδείχθη·
ἰδοὺ νεφέλαι ἐν τῇ ὁράσει ἐκάλουν

     καὶ ὁμίχλαι με
̈̈̈ ἐφώνουν,

καὶ διαδρομαὶ τῶν ἀστέρων καὶ διαστραπαι
¨
̈̈̈ με κατεσπούδαζον καὶ ἐθορύβαζόν με,

and in my vision the winds 

    caused me to fly

         9 and lifted me upward, 

            and bore me into heaven.

καὶ ἄνεμοι ἐν τῇ ὁράσει μου

  ἐξεπέτασάν με

 14.9 καὶ ἐπῆράν με ἄν

     καὶ εἰσήνεγκάν με εἰς τὸν οὐρανόν,

    And I went in until I approached a wall built of blocks of ice and surrounded by tongues of fire: and it began to frighten me.

    καὶ εἰσῆλθον μέχρις ἤγγισα τείχους οἰκοδομῆς ἐν λίθοις χαλάζης καὶ γλώσσης πυρὸς κύκλῳ αὐτῶν· καὶ ἤρξαντο ἐκφοβεῖν με.

   

    10 And I went into the tongues of fire and drew near to a large house which built of blocks of ice: and the walls of the house were like stone tile-work, all made of snow, and its floor was of snow.

    14.10 Καὶ εἰσῆλθον εἰς τὰς γλώσσας τοῦ πυρός, καὶ ἤγγισα εἰς οἶκον μέγαν οἰκοδομημένον ἐν λίθοις χαλάζης, καὶ οἱ τοῖχοι τοῦ οἴκου ὡς λιθόπλακες, καὶ πᾶσαι ἦσαν ἐκ χιόνος, καὶ ἐδάφη χιονικά,

11 Its ceiling was like the course of the stars and the lightnings: and between them were fiery cherubim, and their heaven was water. 12 And a flaming fire surrounded the walls, and its doors blazed with fire.

14.11 καὶ αἱ στέγαι ὡς διαδρομαὶ ἀστέρων καὶ ἀστραπαί, καὶ μεταξὺ αὐτῶν χερουβὶν πύρινα, καὶ οὐρανὸς αὐτῶν ὕδωρ, 14.12 καὶ πῦρ φλεγόμενον κύκλῳ τῶν τειχῶν, καὶ θύραι πυρὶ καιόμεναι.


Ascension, Ruth Rhoten

    13 I entered into that house: it was hot as fire and cold as ice, and there was no movement of life within it.  Fear overwhelmed me, trembling took hold of me me; and [thus] shaking and trembling, I fell prostrate.

    14.13 εἰσῆλθον εἰς τὸν οἶκον ἐκεῖνον, θερμὸν ὡς πῦρ καὶ ψυχρὸν ὡς χιών, καὶ πᾶσα τροφὴ ζωῆς οὐκ ἦν ἐν αὐτῷ· φόβος με ἐκάλυψεν καὶ τρόμος με ἔλαβεν. 14.14 καὶ ἤμην σειόμενος καὶ τρέμων, καὶ ἔπεσον.

    15 In my vision I beheld, and lo, another door stood before me [leading into] a second house, greater 16 than the first: and it was built entirely of tongues of fire.

ἐθεώρουν ἐν τῇ ὁράσει μου, 14.15 καὶ ἰδοὺ ἄλλη θύρα ἀνεῳγμένη κατέναντί μου, καὶ ὁ οἶκος μείζων τούτου, καὶ ὅλος οἰκοδομημένος ἐν γλώσσαις πυρός,

And it so completely surpassed [the first] in glory and magnificence and majesty that I am powerless to describe to you its glory and majesty.

14.16 καὶ ὅλος διαφέρων ἐν δόξῃ καὶ ἐν τιμῇ καὶ ἐν μεγαλωσύνῃ, ὥστε μὴ δύνασθαί με ἐξειπεῖν ὑμῖν περὶ τῆς δόξης καὶ περὶ τῆς μεγαλωσύνης αὐτοῦ.

17 [For] its floor was of fire, and above it were lightnings and the course of the stars, and its ceiling was flaming fire.

14.17 τὸ ἔδαφος αὐτοῦ ἦν πυρός, τὸ δὲ ἀνώτερον αὐτοῦ ἦσαν ἀστραπαὶ καὶ διαδρομαὶ ἀστέρων, καὶ ἡ στέγη αὐτοῦ ἦν πῦρ φλέγον.
   

[Glory of God

Enthroned]

18 And I beheld and I saw within a high throne: its appearance was like crystal, and [its] wheels were like the shining sun and and [like] the face of cherubim.

    14.18 Ἐθεώρουν δὲ καὶ εἶδον θρόνον ὑψηλόν, καὶ τὸ εἶδος αὐτοῦ ὡσεὶ κρυστάλλινον, καὶ τροχὸς ὡς ἡλίου λάμποντος καὶ ὄρος χερουβίν.

19 And from beneath the throne came rivers of flaming fire that I was powerless to look upon.

14.19 καὶ ὑποκάτω τοῦ θρόνου ἐξεπορεύοντο ποταμοὶ πυρὸς φλεγόμενοι, καὶ οὐκ ἐδυνάσθην ἰδεῖν.

20 And the Great Glory sat upon [the throne]:

14.20 καὶ ἡ δόξα ἡ μεγάλη ἐκάθητο ἐπ' αὐτῷ·

His raiment was like
the appearance of the sun,
shining
and
    whiter than any snow.

τὸ περιβόλαιον αὐτοῦ
ὡς
εἶδος ἡλίου,

λαμπρότερον καὶ λευκότερον πάσης χιόνος.

Note similarities to:
Christ at the transfiguration [also Dan 7:9]:

Mt: 17:2: “his face shone like the sun, and his garments became white as light.” Mt 17.2:  καὶ ἔλαμψεν τὸ πρόσωπον αὐτοῦ ὡς ὁ ἥλιος, τὰ δὲ ἱμάτια αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο λευκὰ ὡς τὸ φῶς.

Mk 9:3:And his raiment became shining, exceeding white [ koine et.al. add: as snow];”  καὶ τὰ ἱμάτια αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο στίλβοντα λευκὰ λίαν [ως χιων]

Lk 9:29: the appearance of his countenance was altered, and his raiment became dazzling white  [καὶ τὸ εἶδος τοῦ προσώπου αὐτοῦ ἕτερον καὶ ὁ ἱματισμὸς αὐτοῦ λευκὸς ἐξαστράπτων.

The Transfiguration of Christ
Mt. Sinai, St. Katherine's Monastery

    21 And none of the angels were able to enter that house to behold His face because of the magnificence and glory; and no flesh could behold Him.

    14.21 καὶ οὐκ ἐδύνατο πᾶς ἄγγελος παρελθεῖν εἰς τὸν οἶκον τοῦτον καὶ ἰδεῖν τὸ πρόσωπον αὐτοῦ διὰ τὸ ἔντιμον καὶ ἔνδοξον, καὶ οὐκ ἐδύνατο πᾶσα σὰρξ ἰδεῖν αὐτοῦ

22 The flaming fire surrounded Him, and a great fire stood before Him, and none could draw near Him: surrounding him were ten thousand times ten thousand who (stood) before Him, and every word [of His] was accomplished.

14.22 τὸ πῦρ φλεγόμενον κύκλῳ· καὶ πῦρ μέγα παρειστήκει αὐτῷ, καὶ οὐδεὶς ἐγγίζει αὐτῷ. κύκλῳ μυρίαι μυριάδες ἑστήκασιν ἐνώπιον αὐτοῦ, καὶ πᾶς λόγος αὐτοῦ ἔργον.

23 And the holy angels near him neither left by night nor departed from Him.

14.23 καὶ οἱ ἅγιοι τῶν ἀγγέλων οἱ ἐγγίζοντες αὐτῷ οὐκ ἀποχωροῦσιν νυκτὸς οὔτε ἀφίστανται αὐτοῦ.

24 And until then I had been lying prostrate on my face, trembling: and the Lord called me with His own mouth, and said to me:

‘Come here, Enoch, and hear my word.’

14.24 Κἀγὼ ἤμην ἕως τούτου ἐπὶ πρόσωπόν μου βεβλημένος καὶ τρέμων, καὶ ὁ κύριος τῷ στόματι αὐτοῦ ἐκάλεσέν με καὶ εἶπέν μοι,

Πρόσελθε ὧδε, Ἑνώχ, καὶ τὸν λόγον μου ἄκουσον.

25 And one of the holy ones came to me and roused me, and stood me up and brought me as far as the door: and I cast down my face.

14.25 καὶ προσελθών μοι εἷς τῶν ἁγίων ἤγειρέν με καὶ ἔστησέν με, καὶ προσήγαγέν με μέχρι τῆς θύρας· ἐγὼ δὲ τὸ πρόσωπόν μου κάτω ἔκυφον.

[Ch 15-16: God reproves
the “Watchers” (=fallen angels)]

 

[The Glory of Heaven and Earth]

 

CHAPTER 17

 

    1 And they [the ruling angels] took and brought me to a place in which there were beings like like flaming fire who could, when they wished, appear to be men.

    17.1 Καὶ παραλαβόντες με εἴς τινα τόπον ἀπήγαγον, ἐν ᾧ οἱ ὄντες ἐκεῖ γίνονται ὡς πῦρ φλέγον καὶ, ὅταν θέλωσιν, φαίνονται ὡσεὶ ἄνθρωποι.

2 And they brought me to a place of gloomy darkness, and to a mountain whose summit reached to heaven.

17.2 Καὶ ἀπήγαγόν με εἰς ζοφώδη τόπον καὶ εἰς ὄρος οὗ ἡ κεφαλὴ ἀφικνεῖτο εἰς τὸν οὐρανόν.

    3 And I saw the places of the luminaries and the treasuries of the stars and of the thunder; and [I looked] into the airy depths, where there were a fiery bow and arrows and their quiver, and and all the lightnings.

    17.3 καὶ εἶδον τόπον τῶν φωστήρων καὶ τοὺς θησαυροὺς τῶν ἀστέρων καὶ τῶν βροντῶν, καὶ εἰς τὰ ἀεροβαθῆ, ὅπου τόξον πυρὸς καὶ τὰ βέλη καὶ τὰς θήκας αὐτῶν καὶ τὰς ἀστραπὰς πάσας.

     4And they brought me as far as the waters and even to the fire of the west, which receives every setting of the sun. 5 And I came as far as a river of fire in which the fire flows like water and discharges itself into the great sea towards the west. 6 I saw the great rivers, and I decended as far as the great river and  even into the great darkness; and I went to the place where no flesh walks.

17.4 Καὶ ἀπήγαγόν με μέχρι ὑδάτων καὶ μέχρι πυρὸς δύσεως, ὅ ἐστιν καὶ παρέχον πάσας τὰς δύσεις τοῦ ἡλίου. 17.5 καὶ ἤλθομεν μέχρι ποταμοῦ πυρός, ἐν ᾧ κατατρέχει τὸ πῦρ ὡς ὕδωρ καὶ ῥέει εἰς θάλασσαν μεγάλην δύσεως. 17.6 ἴδον τοὺς μεγάλους ποταμούς, καὶ μέχρι τοῦ μεγάλου ποταμοῦ καὶ μέχρι τοῦ μεγάλου σκότους κατήντησα, καὶ ἀπῆλθον ὅπου πᾶσα σὰρξ οὐ περιπατεῖ.

    7 I saw the mountains of the darkness of winter and the place whence all the waters of the deep flow. 8 I saw the mouth of all the earth’s rivers and the mouth of the abyss.

    17.7 ἴδον τοὺς ἀνέμους τῶν γνόφων τοὺς χειμερινοὺς καὶ τὴν ἔκχυσιν τῆς ἀβύσσου πάντων ὑδάτων. 17.8 ἴδον τὸ στόμα τῆς γῆς πάντων τῶν ποταμῶν καὶ τὸ στόμα τῆς ἀβύσσου.

CHAPTER 18

 

    1 I saw the treasuries of all the winds; I saw that in them He disposes the whole of creation and the foundations of the earth. And I saw the corner-stone of the earth

18.1 ἴδον τοὺς θησαυροὺς τῶν ἀνέμων πάντων, ἴδον ὅτι ἐν αὐτοῖς ἐκόσμησεν πάσας τὰς κτίσεις καὶ τὸν θεμέλιον τῆς γῆς, καὶ τὸν λίθον ἴδον τῆς γωνίας τῆς γῆς.

2 I saw the four winds that support the earth 3 and the firmament of the heaven. And I saw how the winds stretch out the vaults of heaven, and have their station between heaven and earth. 4 I saw the winds of heaven that spin and bring to their setting the wheel of the sun and all the stars.

18.2 ἴδον τοὺς τέσσαρας ἀνέμους τὴν γῆν βαστάζοντας, 18.3 καὶ τὸ στερέωμα τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, καὶ αὐτοὶ ἱστᾶσιν μεταξὺ γῆς καὶ οὐρανοῦ. 18.4 ἴδον ἀνέμους τῶν οὐρανῶν στρέφοντας καὶ διανεύοντας τὸν τροχὸν τοῦ ἡλίου, καὶ πάντας τοὺς ἀστέρας.

5 I saw the winds on the earth carrying the clouds: I saw the paths of the angels. I saw at the end of the earth the firmament of the heaven above.

18.5 ἴδον τοὺς ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς ἀνέμους βαστάζοντας ἐν νεφέλῃ. ἴδον πέρατα τῆς γῆς, τὸ στήριγμα τοῦ οὐρανοῦ ἐπάνω.

 [Sapphire Throne]

 

[Sapphire Throne]

 

6 AND I proceeded and saw a place which burns day and night, where there are seven mountains of magnificent stones, three towards the east, and three towards the south. 7 And as for those towards the east, was of coloured stone, and one of pearl, and one of hyacinth, and those towards the south of red stone.

    18.6 Παρῆλθον καὶ ἴδον τόπον καιόμενον νυκτὸς καὶ ἡμέρας, ὅπου τὰ ἑπτὰ ὄρη ἀπὸ λίθων πολυτελῶν, [τρία] εἰς ἀνατολὰς καὶ τρία εἰς νότον βάλλοντα. 18.7 καὶ τὰ μὲν πρὸς ἀνατολὰς ἀπὸ λίθου χρώματος, τὸ δὲ ἦν. ἀπὸ λίθου μαργαρίτου, καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ λίθου ταθέν, τὸ δὲ κατὰ νότον ἀπὸ λίθου πυρροῦ·

8 But the middle one reached to heaven like the throne of God, of alabaster, and the summit of the, THRONE was of SAPPHIRE

18.8 τὸ δὲ μέσον αὐτῶν ἦν εἰς οὐρανόν, ὥσπερ θρόνος θεοῦ ἀπὸ λίθου φουκά, καὶ ἡ κορυφὴ τοῦ θρόνου ἀπὸ λίθου σαφφείρου·
   

[The Place of Angels' Torment]

 

   

9 AND I saw a flaming fire. And beyond these mountains 10 Is a region the end of the great earth: there the heavens were completed. And I saw a deep abyss, with columns of heavenly fire, and among them I saw columns of fire fall, which were beyond measure alike towards 12 the height and towards the depth. And beyond that abyss I saw a place which had no firmament of the heaven above, and no firmly founded earth beneath it: there was no water upon it, and no birds, but it was a waste and horrible place.

18.9 καὶ πῦρ καιόμενον ἴδον. κἀπέκεινα τῶν ὀρέων τούτων 18.10 τόπος ἐστὶν πέρας τῆς μεγάλης γῆς· ἐκεῖ συντελεσθήσονται οἱ οὐρανοί. 18.11 καὶ ἴδον χάσμα μέγα εἰς τοὺς στύλους τοῦ πυρὸς καταβαίνοντας καὶ οὐκ ἦν μέτρον οὔτε εἰς βάθος οὔτε εἰς ὕψος. 18.12 καὶ ἐπέκεινα τοῦ χάσματος τούτου ἴδον τόπον ὅπου οὐδὲ στερέωμα οὐρανοῦ ἐπάνω, οὔτε γῆ ᾖ τεθεμελιωμένη ὑποκάτω αὐτοῦ, οὔτε ὕδωρ ἦν ὑπὸ αὐτὸ οὔτε πετεινόν, ἀλλὰ τόπος ἦν ἔρημος καὶ φοβερός.

    13 I saw there seven stars like great burning mountains, 14 and to me, when I inquired regarding them, The angel said: ‘This place is the end of heaven and earth: this has become a prison for the stars and the host of heaven.

    18.13 ἐκεῖ ἴδον ἑπτὰ ἀστέρας ὡς ὄρη μεγάλα καιόμενα, περὶ ὧν πυνθανομένῳ μοι 18.14 εἶπεν ὁ ἄγγελος Οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ τόπος τὸ τέλος τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καὶ γῆς· δεσμωτήριον τοῦτο ἐγένετο τοῖς ἄστροις καὶ ταῖς δυνάμεσιν τοῦ οὐρανοῦ.
15 And the stars which rotate in the fire are those who have transgressed the commandment of the Lord at the beginning of their rising, - for the place outside of heaven is empty - because they did not come forth at their appointed times. 16 And He was angry with them and bound them until the time of to their sin is fulfilled: ten thousand years. 18.15 καὶ οἱ ἀστέρες οἱ κυλιόμενοι ἐν τῷ πυρί, οὗτοί εἰσιν οἱ παραβάντες πρόσταγμα κυρίου ἐν ἀρχῇ τῆς ἀνατολῆς αὐτῶν – ὅτι τόπος ἔξω τοῦ οὐρανοῦ κενός ἐστιν – ὅτι οὐκ ἐξῆλθαν ἐν τοῖς καιροῖς αὐτῶν. 18.16 καὶ ὀργίσθη αὐτοῖς καὶ ἔδησεν αὐτοὺς μέχρι καιροῦ τελειώσεως αὐτῶν ἁμαρτίας "αὐτῶν", ἐνιαυτῶν μυρίων.
   

[The Angel's Sin and their Punishment]

 

CHAPTER 19

 

1 AND Uriel said to me: ‘Here shall stand the angels who have connected themselves with women: for  their spirits assuming many different forms are defiling men and leading them astray to sacrifice to demons: [here they shall stand] until the great judgement in which they will be condemned to destruction. 2 And the women of the offending angels will become sirens.’

    19.1 Καὶ εἶπέν μοι Οὐριήλ Ἐνθάδε οἱ μιγέντες ἄγγελοι ταῖς γυναιξὶν στήσονται, καὶ τὰ πνεύματα αὐτῶν πολύμορφα γενόμενα λυμαίνεται τοὺς ἀνθρώπους καὶ πλανήσει αὐτοὺς ἐπιθύειν τοῖς δαιμονίοις μέχρι τῆς μεγάλης κρίσεως, ἐν ᾗ κριθήσονται εἰς ἀποτελείωσιν. 19.2 καὶ αἱ γυναῖκες αὐτῶν τῶν παραβάντων ἀγγέλων εἰς σειρῆνας γενήσονται.

    3 And I, Enoch, alone saw the vision, the ends of all things: and no man shall see as I have seen.

    19.3 κἀγὼ Ἑνὼχ ἴδον τὰ θεωρήματα μόνος, τὰ πέρατα πάντων, καὶ οὐ μὴ ἴδῃ οὐδὲ εἷς ἀνθρώπων ὡς ἐγὼ ἴδον.
   

[Enoch's Transfiguration]

[CHAPTER 71] (retelling of Enoch’s ascent: this section not in the Aramaic text of Qumran)

1 And it came to pass after this that my spirit was translated And it ascended into the heavens: And I saw the holy sons of God. They were stepping on flames of fire: Their garments were white [and their raiment], And their faces shone like snow.2 And I saw two streams of fire, And the light of that fire shone like hyacinth, And I fell on my face before the Lord of Spirits.

    3 And the angel Michael [one of the archangels] seized me by my right hand, And lifted me up and led me forth into all the secrets, And he showed me all the secrets of righteousness. 4 And he showed me all the secrets of the ends of the heaven, And all the chambers of all the stars, and all the luminaries, Whence they proceed before the face of the holy ones.

    5 And he translated my spirit into the heaven of heavens, And I saw there as it were a structure built of crystals, And between those crystals tongues of living fire. 6 And my spirit saw the girdle which girt that house of fire, And on its four sides were streams full of living fire, And they girt that house.

7 And round about were Seraphim, Cherubim, and Ophannim: And these are they who sleep not And guard the throne of His glory. 8 And I saw angels who could not be counted, a thousand thousands, and ten thousand times ten thousand, Encircling that house. And Michael, and Raphael, and Gabriel, and Phanuel, And the holy angels who are above the heavens, go in and out of that house. 9 And they came forth from that house, And Michael and Gabriel, Raphael and Phanuel, nd many holy angels without number. 10 And with them the Head of Days, His head white and pure as wool, And His raiment indescribable.

11 And I fell on my face,

And my whole body became relaxed,

And my spirit was transfigured;

And I cried with a loud voice, . . . with the spirit of power, And blessed and glorified and extolled.12 And these blessings which went forth out of my mouth were well pleasing before that Head of Days. And that Head of Days came with Michael and Gabriel, Raphael and Phanuel, thousands and ten thousands of angels without number.

    14 And he (i.e. the angel) came to me and greeted me with His voice, and said unto me ‘ This is the Son of Man who is born unto righteousness, And righteousness abides over him, And the righteousness of the Head of Days forsakes him not.’ 15 And he said unto me: ‘ He proclaims unto thee peace in the name of the world to come; For from hence has proceeded peace since the creation of the world, And so shall it be unto thee for ever and for ever and ever.

16 And all shall walk in his ways since righteousness never forsaketh him: With him will be their dwelling-places, and with him their heritage, And they shall not be separated from him for ever and ever and ever.

And so there shall be length of days with that Son of Man, And the righteous shall have peace and an upright way In the name of the Lord of Spirits for ever and ever.’


INTRODUCTION to the Book of Enoch

 

 


INTROD. to the BOOK of ENOCH.
 

 

 

 

(1) 1 Enoch, or ‘Ethiopic Enoch’ as it is sometimes called from the fact that it survives in its most complete form in Ethiopic, is one of the most important Jewish Pseudepigrapha. It embodies a series of revelations, of which Enoch is the professed recipient, on such matters as the origin of evil, the angels and their destinies, and the nature of Gehenna and Paradise. Apart from the continuous Ethiopic text, several Greek fragments have come to light (some of them extensive), a single Latin fragment, and a number of fragments in Aramaic and Hebrew (representing the remains of ten or more separate MSS) from Qumran. The original language of the work appears to have been Aramaic, or possibly Hebrew.

As it is preserved in Ethiopic, the work is clearly composite. About the precise divisions and their dates there is some disagreement. R. H. Charles divided it as follows into five sections composed at different dates: Section 1 (chs. 1–36) incorporates portions of ‘The Book of Noah’ and was written before 170 BC; 2 (chs. 37–71) contains the ‘Parables’ or ‘Similitudes’, c.105–64 BC; 3 (chs. 72–82), ‘The Book of the Heavenly Luminaries’, before 110 BC; 4 (chs. 83–90), ‘The Dream Visions’, c.165–161 BC; and 5 (chs. 91–104), incorporating an ‘Apocalypse of Weeks’, contains material of various dates.

The passages on ‘the Son of Man’ in the ‘Parables’ or ‘Similitudes’ (chs. 37–71) have been widely held to have influenced the NT writings; and other NT titles, such as ‘the Righteous One’ and ‘the Elect One’ have been said to have appeared here first as Messianic designations. But this view has been increasingly questioned, especially since the discovery of the Qumran fragments; for although all the other sections of 1 Enoch are well represented in these fragments, chs. 37–71 are not represented at all. Nor are they represented in the Greek and Latin fragments. It is probable, therefore, that they are a later (Christian) insertion into the Book, and that it was the NT which influenced them rather than vice versa. But about the value of the other sections of the Book for understanding the NT there can be no doubt. 1 En. 1:9 is explicitly quoted as Enoch’s in the Ep. of Jude (vv. 14–15), and themes appear to be taken up elsewhere, e.g. in 2 Peter 2. 1 En. 79:56 is quoted as ‘Scripture’ in the Ep. of Barnabas (16:4; cf. 4:3); and Tertullian also regarded the Book as Scripture, although he admitted that he knew of ‘some’ who did not (Cult. Fem. 1. 3. 1).

(2) 2 Enoch, or ‘Slavonic Enoch’, or ‘The Book of the Secrets of Enoch’ (a title based on the titles in some of the MSS), has many points of contact with 1 Enoch, although there are no literary parallels. It survives only in Old Church Slavonic, the language of the Russian Church, and first came to knowledge of W. scholars in the last part of the 19th cent. Of the Slavonic text there are two recensions, of which the shorter is undoubtedly the earlier. About its origin, date, authorship, and original language, opinions have differed widely. At one extreme, R. H. Charles thought that it was written about the beginning of the Christian era, by an Alexandrian Jew, and in Greek (though certain parts of it ‘were founded on Hebrew originals’); at the other extreme, it has been argued that it is a Bogomil work, written in Bulgarian between the 12th and 15th cents. As an intermediate view may be instanced that of A. Vaillant, that the author was a Jewish Christian, who was concerned to produce a Christian counterpart to the Jewish 1 Enoch, and wrote in Greek, prob. in the 2nd or early 3rd cent.

(3) 3 Enoch, a Jewish work, dating from well within the Christian era (perhaps the 4th or 5th cent. AD), has gradually come to light, mainly in fragments, from c.1870 onwards. The continuous Hebrew text was first published by H. Odeberg in 1928 from a Bodleian MS of c.AD 1511. Its subjects include the destinies of ‘Metatron’ (i.e. the Divine servant who is identified with Enoch), many descriptions of angels and their operations, and an account of Sheol. It appears to betray traces of an anti-Christian polemic.

 Versions:

(1) Ethiopic text ed. A. Dillmann (Leipzig, 1851), J. Flemming (TU 22, Heft 1; 1902), R. H. Charles (Anecdota Oxoniensia. Semitic Series, pt. 11; 1906) and, with Eng. tr., by M. A. Knibb (2 vols., Oxford, 1978). Greek texts conveniently pr. in H. B. Swete, The Old Testament in Greek according to the Septuagint, 3 (4th edn., Cambridge, 1912), pp. 789–809, and C. Bonner (ed.), The Last Chapters of Enoch in Greek (Studies and Documents, 8, 1937); all the available frags. ed. M. Black, Apocalypsis Henochi Graece (Pseudepigrapha Veteris Testamenti Graece, 3; Leiden, 1970). J. T. Milik and M. Black (eds.), The Books of Enoch: Aramaic Fragments of Qumrân Cave 4, (Oxford, 1976, incl. Eng. tr.). Eng. tr. of Dillmann’s text by R. H. Charles (Oxford, 1893) and of his own edn. (ibid., 1912). The latter is repr., with introd., in R. H. Charles (ed.), The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament, 2 (Oxford, 1913), pp. 163–281; Knibb’s tr. is repr., with introd., in H. F. D. Sparks (ed.), The Apocryphal Old Testament (Oxford, 1984), pp. 169–319. Further Eng. trs. by E. Isaac in J. H. Charlesworth (ed.), The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, 1 (1983), pp. 5–89, and by M. Black (Studia in Veteris Testamenti Pseudepigrapha, 7; Leiden, 1985), with comm. and textual notes. Comm. on 1 Enoch 1–36 and 81–108 by G. W. E. Nickelsburg (Hermeneia, Minneapolis [2001]). C. P. van Andel, De Structuur van de Henoch-Traditie en het Nieuwe Testament (Studia Theologica Rheno-Traiectina, 2; Utrecht, 1955, with Eng. summary). J. Theisohn, Die auserwählte Richter: Untersuchungen zur traditionsgeschichtlichen Ort der Menschensohngestalt der Bilderreden des Äthiopischen Henoch (Göttingen 1975]). J. C. VanderKam, Enoch and the Growth of an Apocalyptic Tradition (Catholic Biblical Quarterly Monograph Series, 16; Washington, DC, 1984). S. Uhlig, Das Äthiopische Henochbuch (Jüdische Schriften aus hellenistischrömischer Zeit, Band 5, Lieferung 6; 1984). M. Barker, The Older Testament (1987), pp. 8–80; id., The Lost Prophet: The Book of Enoch and its Influence on Christianity (1988). E. Schürer, The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ, rev. Eng. tr. by G. Vermes and others, 3 (pt. 1, Edinburgh, 1986), pp. 250–77. G. W. E. Nickelsburg in Anchor Bible Dictionary, 2 (1992), pp. 508–16. See also bibl. to son of man.

(2) Slavonic text, with Fr. tr., ed. A. Vaillant (Textes publiés par l’Institut d’Études slaves, 4; 1952). Eng. trs. by W. R. Morfill, with introd. by R. H. Charles (Oxford, 1896); by N. Forbes and R. H. Charles in R. H. Charles (ed.), The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament, 2 (Oxford, 1913), pp. 425–69; by F. I. Andersen in J. H. Charlesworth (ed.), The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, 1 (1983), pp. 91–221; and by A. [A.] Pennington in H. F. D. Sparks (ed.), The Apocryphal Old Testament (Oxford, 1984), pp. 321–62. E. Schürer, op. cit. 3 (pt. 2, 1987), pp. 746–50. F. I. Andersen in Anchor Bible Dictionary, 2 (1992), pp. 516–22.

 (3) Heb. text ed., with Eng. tr., by H. Odeberg (Cambridge, 1928; repr., New York, 1973, with prolegomenon by J. C. Greenfield). Eng. tr. by P. [S.] Alexander in J. H. Charlesworth (ed.), The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, 1 (1983), pp. 223–315. Id. in Anchor Bible Dictionary, 2 (1992), pp. 522–6.

Adapted from The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, ed. F.L.Cross & E.L.Livingstone.

 

 


xcxxcxxc  F ” “ This Webpage was created for a workshop held at Saint Andrew's Abbey, Valyermo, California in 1994....x....   “”.