BM ms1088 f049 Anthology of Philosophy
JUSTIN Martyr, St (c.100–c.165), early Christian Apologist. He was born of pagan parents at Flavia Neapolis (‘Nablus’), the ancient Shechem in Samaria. He was converted from pagan philosophy to Christianity c.130, though whether the account of his search through various philosophies (Dial. 2) is historically accurate, is disputed.
He continued as a philosopher (wearing the pallium), now teaching Christianity, first at Ephesus, where he engaged in his Disputation with Trypho the Jew (c.135), and later at Rome, where he opened a Christian school, having Tatian as one of his pupils. Here he wrote his ‘First Apology’ (c.155), addressed to the Emperor Antoninus Pius and his adopted sons (Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus), and soon afterwards issued his ‘Dialogue with Trypho’. His ‘Second Apology’, addressed to the Roman Senate, was apparently written shortly after the accession of Marcus Aurelius (161). He and some of his disciples were denounced as Christians c.165 (acc. to Tatian, by the Cynic philosopher Crescens); and on refusing to sacrifice they were scourged and beheaded. The authentic record of their martyrdom (‘Martyrium S. Iustini et Sociorum’), based on an official court report, survives. [Feast day in the East, 1 June; in the West, formerly 14 April; since 1969, 1 June]
Justin is the most outstanding of the ‘Apologists’, i.e. of those writers (mainly in the 2nd Cent. who, in the face of persecution by the Roman authorities, wrote defences (ἀπολογίαι) of Christianity. Their first concern was to rebut charges of atheism and immorality (‘Thyestian feasts, Oedipodean intercourse’) and the underlying charge of sedition. But they went further and argued that Christianity was a true philosophy, in comparison with which other philosophies were either false, or (as Justin himself argued) shadows of the truth fulfilled in Christ. In support of this argument Justin developed his doctrine of the ‘generative’ or ‘germinative’ Word (λόγος σπερματικός), who had sown the seed of truth in all men and who had become incarnate in Christ, to teach men the whole truth and to redeem them from the power of the demons. Justin also used his doctrine of the Logos to explain why Christians, while remaining monotheists, worshipped Jesus Christ, regarding Him as an incarnation of the Logos, ‘in second place’ to God.
This teaching is expounded in his two ‘Apologies’ and in the ‘Dialogue with Trypho’. The later chapters of the ‘First Apology’ give a brief account of the ceremonies of Baptism and the Eucharist. The ‘Dialogue’ argues that the fulfilment of the prophecies in Christ proves the transitoriness of the Old Covenant and the vocation of the Gentiles to take the place of Israel, and uses Middle Platonic ideas to interpret Old Testament theophanies as manifestations of the Logos. Justin also taught a form of Millenarianism.
A large number of other works have circulated from early times under Justin’s name, all of them spurious. One group belongs to the late 2nd and 3rd cents. and consists of an ‘Address to the Greeks’, an ‘Exhortation to the Greeks,’ and a work ‘On the Monarchy of God’. Another group is probably all the work of a single author of the Aristotelian school (4th–5th cent.). Yet another pseudo-Justinian work—the ‘Expositio Rectae Fidei’—is by Theodoret.
Of the earlier edns. of Justin, the best is that of P. Maran, OSB (Paris, 1742). The only complete modern critical edition is that of J. C. T. Otto (2 vols., Jena, 1842–3; 3rd edn. in 5 vols., 1876–81). J. P. Migne, PG 6 (1857). Apologies, edited by M. Marcovich (Patristische Texte und Studien, 38; 1994), and, with French text, by C. Munier (Paradosis, 39; 1995). ‘Dialogue with Trypho’, ed. M. Marcovich (Patristische Texte und Studien, 47; 1997) and, with French translation and., comm. by P. Bobichon (Paradosis, 47/1–2, Fribourg, 2003). Eng. tr. in ANCL (1867); also of ‘Dialogue with Trypho’, by A. L. Williams (Translations of Christian Literature, 1930), with useful introd. Comm. on ‘Dialogue with Trypho’, 1–9, by J. C. M. van Winden, An Early Christian Philosopher (Philosophia Patrum, 1; Leiden, 1971). Modern edn. of Pseudo-Justin’s ‘Address to Greeks’, ‘Exhortation to the Greeks’ and ‘On the Monarchy of God’ by M. Marcovich (Patristische Texte und Studien, 32; 1990).
Benedict XVI General Audience Wednesday, 21 March 2007
St Justin, Philosopher and Martyr (c. 100-165)
In these Catecheses, we are reflecting on the great figures of the early Church. Today, we will talk about St Justin, Philosopher and Martyr, the most important of the second-century apologist Fathers.
The word “apologist” designates those ancient Christian writers who set out to defend the new religion from the weighty accusations of both pagans and Jews, and to spread the Christian doctrine in terms suited to the culture of their time.
Thus, the apologists had a twofold concern: that most properly called “apologetic”, to defend the newborn Christianity (apología in Greek means, precisely, “defence”), and the pro-positive, “missionary” concern, to explain the content of the faith in a language and on a wavelength comprehensible to their contemporaries.
Justin was born in about the year 100 near ancient Shechem, Samaria, in the Holy Land; he spent a long time seeking the truth, moving through the various schools of the Greek philosophical tradition.
Finally, as he himself recounts in the first chapters of his Dialogue with Tryphon, a mysterious figure, an old man he met on the seashore, initially leads him into a crisis by showing him that it is impossible for the human being to satisfy his aspiration to the divine solely with his own forces. He then pointed out to him the ancient prophets as the people to turn to in order to find the way to God and “true philosophy”.
In taking his leave, the old man urged him to pray that the gates of light would be opened to him. The story foretells the crucial episode in Justin’s life: at the end of a long philosophical journey, a quest for the truth, he arrived at the Christian faith. He founded a school in Rome where, free of charge, he initiated students into the new religion, considered as the true philosophy. Indeed, in it he had found the truth, hence, the art of living virtuously.
For this reason he was reported and beheaded in about 165 during the reign of Marcus Aurelius, the philosopher-emperor to whom Justin had actually addressed one of his Apologia.
These - the two Apologies and the Dialogue with the Hebrew, Tryphon - are his only surviving works. In them, Justin intends above all to illustrate the divine project of creation and salvation, which is fulfilled in Jesus Christ, the Logos, that is, the eternal Word, eternal Reason, creative Reason.
Every person as a rational being shares in the Logos, carrying within himself a “seed”, and can perceive glimmers of the truth. Thus, the same Logos who revealed himself as a prophetic figure to the Hebrews of the ancient Law also manifested himself partially, in “seeds of truth”, in Greek philosophy.
Now, Justin concludes, since Christianity is the historical and personal manifestation of the Logos in his totality, it follows that “whatever things were rightly said among all men are the property of us Christians” (Second Apology of St Justin Martyr, 13: 4).
In this way, although Justin disputed Greek philosophy and its contradictions, he decisively oriented any philosophical truth to the Logos, giving reasons for the unusual “claim” to truth and universality of the Christian religion. If the Old Testament leaned towards Christ, just as the symbol is a guide to the reality represented, then Greek philosophy also aspired to Christ and the Gospel, just as the part strives to be united with the whole.
And he said that these two realities, the Old Testament and Greek philosophy, are like two paths that lead to Christ, to the Logos. This is why Greek philosophy cannot be opposed to Gospel truth, and Christians can draw from it confidently as from a good of their own.
Therefore, my venerable Predecessor, Pope John Paul II, described St Justin as a “pioneer of positive engagement with philosophical thinking - albeit with cautious discernment.... Although he continued to hold Greek philosophy in high esteem after his conversion, Justin claimed with power and clarity that he had found in Christianity ‘the only sure and profitable philosophy’ (Dial. 8: 1)” (Fides et Ratio, n. 38).
Overall, the figure and work of Justin mark the ancient Church’s forceful option for philosophy, for reason, rather than for the religion of the pagans. With the pagan religion, in fact, the early Christians strenuously rejected every compromise. They held it to be idolatry, at the cost of being accused for this reason of “impiety” and “atheism”.
Justin in particular, especially in his first Apology, mercilessly criticized the pagan religion and its myths, which he considered to be diabolically misleading on the path of truth.
Philosophy, on the other hand, represented the privileged area of the encounter between paganism, Judaism and Christianity, precisely at the level of the criticism of pagan religion and its false myths. “Our philosophy...”: this is how another apologist, Bishop Melito of Sardis, a contemporary of Justin, came to define the new religion in a more explicit way (Ap. Hist. Eccl. 4, 26, 7).
In fact, the pagan religion did not follow the ways of the Logos, but clung to myth, even if Greek philosophy recognized that mythology was devoid of consistency with the truth.
Therefore, the decline of the pagan religion was inevitable: it was a logical consequence of the detachment of religion - reduced to an artificial collection of ceremonies, conventions and customs - from the truth of being.
Justin, and with him other apologists, adopted the clear stance taken by the Christian faith for the God of the philosophers against the false gods of the pagan religion.
It was the choice of the truth of being against the myth of custom. Several decades after Justin, Tertullian defined the same option of Christians with a lapidary sentence that still applies: “Dominus noster Christus veritatem se, non consuetudinem, cognominavit - Christ has said that he is truth not fashion” (De Virgin. Vel. 1, 1). It should be noted in this regard that the term consuetudo, used here by Tertullian in reference to the pagan religion, can be translated into modern languages with the expressions: “cultural fashion”, “current fads”.
In a time like ours, marked by relativism in the discussion on values and on religion - as well as in interreligious dialogue - this is a lesson that should not be forgotten. To this end, I suggest to you once again - and thus I conclude - the last words of the mysterious old man whom Justin the Philosopher met on the seashore: “Pray that, above all things, the gates of light may be opened to you; for these things cannot be perceived or understood by all, but only by the man to whom God and his Christ have imparted wisdom” (Dial. 7: 3).
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