Roman Mosaic.

Galen,  On the Doctrines of Hippocrates and Plato

 Ed., Tr. P. DeLacy, (Berlin:Akademie-Verlag, 1978) Galen,  De placitis Hippocratis et Platonis , ed.  P. De Lacy, Galen. On the doctrines of Hippocrates and Plato, ser. Corpus medicorum Graecorum, vol., pts. 1-2 (Berlin: Akademie-Verlag,v. 1:1978; v. 2:1980 pp 1:65-358; 2:360-608



 [p.329] Perhaps this quotation would be sufficient to indicate the absurdity 13 of the things Chrysippus said about the end, as he explained how a person might succeed in living in concord with nature; but it is better, I think, to quote the passage that comes next in Posidonius’ work: “When the cause of the affections was seen, it removed 14 this absurdity; it showed the sources of distortion in what is to be sought and avoided; it distinguished the methods of training and it cleared up the difficulties about the conation that arises from affection. πρεπῶς συντείνει εἰς τὸ τῶν διαφορῶν τυγχάνειν. ἤρκει μὲν οὖν ἴσως καὶ τοῦτο πρὸς ἔνδειξιν τῆς ἀτοπίας ὧν ὁ Χρύσιππος εἴρηκε περὶ τοῦ τέλους ἐξηγούμενος ὅπως ἄν τις τυγχάνοι τοῦ ὁμολογουμένως τῇ φύσει ζῆν· ἄμεινον μὴν ἡγοῦμαι καὶ τὰ τούτοις ἑξῆς ὑπὸ τοῦ Ποσειδωνίου γεγραμ 5.6.14 μένα παραθέσθαι τόνδε τὸν τρόπον ἔχοντα· ταύτην τε δὴ τὴν ἀτοπίαν διέλυσεν ἡ αἰτία τῶν παθῶν ὁραθεῖσα καὶ τὰς ἀρχὰς ἔδειξε τῆς ἐν τοῖς ὀρεκτοῖς καὶ φευκτοῖς διαστρο φῆς καὶ τοὺς τρόπους τῆς ἀσκήσεως διεῖλε καὶ τὰ διαπορούμενα

15 These are no small or chance benefits that he says we shall derive from the discovery of the cause of the affections. Indeed, the discovery of the cause of the affections helped US to understand precisely what sort of thing it is to ‘live in concord with nature’. For the person who 16 lives by the affections does not live in concord with nature, and the person who does not live by the affections lives in concord with nature. The one follows the irrational and unstable part of the soul, the other [p.331] the rational and divine. “And the discovery of the cause of the affections 17 taught (us) the sources of distortion in what is to be sought and avoided.”

5.6.15 περὶ τῆς ἐκ πάθους ὁρμῆς ἐξέφηνεν. οὐ σμικρά γε οὐδὲ τὰ τυχόντα φησὶν ἡμᾶς ἀπολαύσειν ἀγαθὰ τῆς αἰτίας τῶν παθῶν εὑρεθείσης. εἰς γὰρ τὸ μαθεῖν ἀκριβῶς οἷόν τι τὸ ὁμολογουμένως τῇ φύσει ζῆν ἐστιν͵ ἐκ τῆς τῶν παθῶν 5.6.16 αἰτίας εὑρεθείσης ὠφελήθημεν. ὁ μὲν γὰρ κατὰ πάθος οὐχ ὁμολογουμένως ζῇ τῇ φύσει͵ ὁ δὲ μὴ κατὰ πάθος ὁμολογου μένως ζῇ τῇ φύσει. ἕπεται γὰρ ὁ μὲν τῷ ἀλόγῳ καὶ ἐμ 5.6.17 πλήκτῳ τῆς ψυχῆς͵ ὁ δὲ τῷ λογικῷ τε καὶ τῷ θείῳ. καὶ τὰς ἀρχὰς δὲ τῆς ἐν τοῖς αἱρετοῖς τε καὶ φευκτοῖς διαστρο φῆς ἐδίδαξεν ἡ αἰτία τῶν παθῶν εὑρεθεῖσα.

Some persons mistakenly suppose that what is suitable to 18 the irrational powers of the soul is suitable without qualification; they do not know that to experience pleasure and to rule over one’s neighbors are objects sought by the animal-like part of the soul, but wisdom and all that is good and noble are objects sought by that (part) which is rational and divine. “And”, he says, “when the cause of the affections 19 was recognised it distinguished the methods of training.”

5.6.18 τὰ γὰρ οἰκεῖα ταῖς ἀλόγοις δυνάμεσι τῆς ψυχῆς ἐξαπατώμενοί τινες ὡς ἁπλῶς οἰκεῖα δοξάζουσιν οὐκ εἰδότες ὡς τὸ μὲν ἥδεσθαί τε καὶ τὸ κρατεῖν τῶν πέλας τοῦ ζῳώδους τῆς ψυχῆς ἐστιν ὀρεκτά͵ σοφία δὲ καὶ πᾶν ὅσον ἀγαθόν τε καὶ καλὸν ἅμα 5.6.19 τοῦ λογικοῦ τε καὶ θείου. καὶ τοὺς τρόπους δέ φησι τῆς ἀσκήσεως ἡ τῶν παθῶν αἰτία γνωρισθεῖσα διωρίσατο.

We 20 shall prescribe for some persons a regimen of rhythms and scales and exercises of such and such a sort, and for others another sort, as Plato taught us. We shall rear the dull and heavy and spiritless in high pitched rhythms and in scales that move the soul forcibly and in exercises of the same kind; and we shall rear those who are too high-spirited and who rush about too madly in the opposite kind.

5.6.20 τοὺς μὲν γὰρ ἐν τοιοῖσδε ῥυθμοῖς ἅμα καὶ ἁρμονίαις καὶ ἐπιτη δεύμασι͵ τοὺς δὲ ἐν τοιοῖσδε διαιτᾶσθαι κελεύσομεν͵ ὥσπερ ὁ Πλάτων ἡμᾶς ἐδίδαξε͵ τοὺς μὲν ἀμβλεῖς καὶ νωθροὺς καὶ ἀθύμους ἔν τε τοῖς ὀρθίοις ῥυθμοῖς καὶ ταῖς κινούσαις ἰσχυρῶς τὴν ψυχὴν ἁρμονίαις καὶ τοῖς τοιούτοις ἐπιτηδεύμασι τρέφοντες͵ τοὺς δὲ θυμικωτέρους καὶ μανικώτερον ᾄττοντας ἐν ταῖς ἐναντίαις.

why was 21 it, in heaven’s name -I shall address this question also to Chrysippus’ followers - that when Damon the musician came upon a flute girl playing in the Phrygian mode to some young men who were overcome with wine and acting madly, he told her to play in the Dorian mode, and the youths immediately dropped their wild behavior?

5.6.21 ἐπεὶ διὰ τί πρὸς θεῶν͵ ἐρωτήσω γὰρ ἔτι τοῦτο τοὺς ἀπὸ τοῦ Χρυσίππου͵ Δάμων ὁ μουσικὸς αὐλη τρίδι παραγενόμενος αὐλούσῃ τὸ Φρύγιον νεανίσκοις τισὶν οἰνωμένοις καὶ μανικὰ ἄττα διαπραττομένοις ἐκέλευσεν αὐλῆ σαι τὸ Δώριον͵ οἱ δ΄ εὐθὺς ἐπαύσαντο τῆς ἐμπλήκτου φορᾶς;

Obviously they are not taught anything by the music of the flute that 22 changes the opinions of their rational faculty; but since the affective part of the soul is irrational, they are aroused or calmed by means of irrational motions. For the irrational is helped and harmed by irrational things, the rational by knowledge and ignorance.

5.6.22 οὐ γὰρ δήπου τὰς δόξας τοῦ λογιστικοῦ μεταδιδάσκονται πρὸς τῶν αὐλημάτων͵ ἀλλὰ τὸ παθητικὸν τῆς ψυχῆς ἄλογον ὑπάρχον ἐπεγείρονταί τε καὶ πραΰνονται διὰ κινήσεων ἀλό γων. τῷ μὲν γὰρ ἀλόγῳ διὰ τῶν ἀλόγων ἥ τε ὠφέλεια καὶ ἡ βλάβη͵ τῷ λογικῷ δὲ δι΄ ἐπιστήμης τε καὶ ἀμαθίας.




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