HIPPOLYTUS
of
 ROME
(ca. 215 ad)
 

 3rd cent. Statue of Hippolytus,
 Lateran Museum, Rome


The Office of Readings, December 30 The treatise of St Hippolytus On the Refutation of All Heresies (10:33:13-34)  The word made flesh makes us divine. Hippolytus. Refutatio omnium haeresium, De Gruyter, Berlin, 1986 pag 53-417 ser `Patristische Texte und Studien &`25 edr Marcovich, M.


Our faith is not founded upon empty words; nor are we carried away by mere caprice or beguiled by specious arguments. On the contrary, we put our faith in words spoken by the power of God, spoken by the Word himself at God’s command. God wished to win men back from disobedience, not by using force to reduce him to slavery but by addressing to his free will a call to liberty.

            33.13  Τοιαύτη <δὴ> ἡ καθ' ἡμᾶς πίστις, ὦ πάντες ἄνθρωποι, οὐ κενοῖς ῥήμασι<ν> <ἡμῶν> πειθομένων, οὐδὲ σχεδιάσμασι καρδίας συναρπαζομένων, οὐδὲ πιθανότητι εὐεπείας λόγων θελγομένων, ἀλλὰ δυνάμει θείᾳ λελαλημένοις λόγοις οὐκ ἀπειθούντων. καὶ ταῦτα <δὲ> θεὸς ἐκέλευε  Λόγῳ, ὁ δὲ  Λόγος ἐφθέγγετο λέγων <τοῖς προφήταις>, δι' αὐτῶν ἐπιστρέφων τὸν ἄνθρωπον ἐκ παρακοῆς· οὐ βίᾳ <δὲ> ἀνάγκης δουλαγωγῶν <αὐτόν>, ἀλλ' "ἐπ' ἐλευθερίᾳ" ἑκουσίῳ προαιρέσει "καλῶν".

            The Word spoke first of all through the prophets, but because the message was couched in such obscure language that it could be only dimly apprehended, in the last days the Father sent the Word in person, commanding him to show himself openly so that the world could see him and be saved.

33.14  Τοῦτον <οὖν> τὸν  Λόγον ἐν ὑστέροις <καιροῖς> ἀπέστειλεν ὁ πατήρ, οὐκέτι διὰ προφητῶν <αὐτὸν> λαλεῖν, οὐ σκοτεινῶς κηρυσσόμενον ὑπονοεῖσθαι [θέλων], ἀλλ' αὐτοψεὶ φανερωθῆναι τοῦτον <θέλων> [λέγων], ἵνα <ὁ> κόσμος ὁρῶν δυσωπηθῇ οὐκ<έτι> ἐντελλόμενον διὰ προσώπου προφητῶν,

            We know that by taking a body from the Virgin he re-fashioned our fallen nature. We know that his manhood was of the same clay as our own; if this were not so, he would hardly have been a teacher who could expect to be imitated. If he were of a different substance from me, he would surely not have ordered me to do as he did, when by my very nature I am so weak. Such a demand could not be reconciled with his goodness and justice.

τοῦτον ἔγνωμεν ἐκ παρθένου σῶμα ἀνειληφότα καὶ "τὸν παλαιὸν ἄνθρωπον" διὰ καινῆς πλάσεως πεφορηκότα. . . .  <τ>οῦτον ἄνθρωπον ἴσμεν <ἐκ> τοῦ καθ' ἡμᾶς φυράματος γεγονότα· εἰ γὰρ μὴ ἐκ τοῦ αὐτοῦ <ἡμῖν φυράματος> ὑπῆρξε, μάτην νομοθετεῖ μιμεῖσθαι τὸν διδάσκαλον. εἰ γὰρ ἐκεῖνος ὁ ἄνθρωπος ἑτέρας ἐτύγχανεν οὐσίας, τί τὰ ὅμοια κελεύει ἐμοί, τῷ ἀσθ?ενεῖ? πεφυκότι, καὶ πῶς οὗτος ἀγαθὸς καὶ 33.17 δίκαιος;

            No. He wanted us to consider him as no different from ourselves, and so he worked, he was hungry and thirsty, he slept. Without protest he endured his passion, he submitted to death and revealed his resurrection. In all these ways he offered his own manhood as the first fruits of our race to keep us from losing heart when suffering comes our way, and to make us look forward to receiving the same reward as he did, since we know that we possess the same humanity.

<ἀλλ'> ἵνα δὴ μὴ ἕτερος παρ' ἡμᾶς νομισθῇ, ?καὶ? κάματον ὑπέμεινε, καὶ πεινῆν ἠθέλησε, καὶ διψῆν οὐκ ἠρνήσατο, καὶ ὕπνῳ ἠρέμησε, καὶ πάθει οὐκ ἀντεῖπε, καὶ θανάτῳ ὑπήκουσε, καὶ ἀνάστασιν ἐφανέρωσεν, ἀπαρξάμενος ἐν πᾶσι τούτοις τὸν ἴδιον ἄνθρωπον, ἵνα <καὶ> σὺ πάσχων μὴ ἀθυμῇς, ἀλλ' ἄνθρωπον σεαυτὸν ὁμολογῶν προσδοκᾷς καὶ σὺ ὃ τούτῳ παρέσχε <θεό>ς.

    When we have come to know the true God, both our bodies and our souls will be immortal and incorruptible. We shall enter the kingdom of heaven, because while we lived on earth we acknowledged heaven’s King. Καὶ ταῦτα μὲν ἐκφεύξῃ θεὸν τὸν <ὄντως> ὄντα διδαχθείς, ἕξεις δὲ ἀθάνατον τὸ σῶμα καὶ ἄφθαρτον ἅμα <τῇ> ψυχῇ. <καὶ τὴν δὲ> βασιλείαν <τῶν> οὐρανῶν ἀπολήψῃ, ὁ ἐν γῇ βιοὺς καὶ <τὸν> ἐπουράνιον βασιλέα ἐπιγνούς,

Friends of God and co-heirs with Christ, we shall be subject to no evil desires or inclinations, or to any affliction of body or soul, for we shall have become divine.

 ἔσῃ τε ὁμιλητὴς θεοῦ καὶ "συγκληρονόμος  Χριστοῦ", 34.4 οὐκ<έτι> ἐπιθυμίαις καὶ πάθεσι καὶ νόσοις δουλούμενος. γέγονας γὰρ θεός·

      Whatever evil you may have suffered, being man, it is God that sent it to you, precisely because you are man; but equally, when you have been deified, God has promised you a share in every one of his own attributes. The saying Know yourself means therefore that we should recognise and acknowledge in ourselves the God who made us in his own image, for if we do this, we in turn will be recognised and acknowledged by our Maker.

ὅσα <μὲν> γὰρ ὑπέμεινας πάθη ἄνθρωπος ὤν, ταῦτα <ἐ>δίδου  <σοι θεός>, ὅτι ἄνθρωπος εἶς· ὅσα δὲ παρακολουθεῖ θεῷ, ταῦτα παρέχειν <σοι> ἐπήγγελται θεὸς ὅταν θεοποιηθῇς, ἀθάνατος γενηθείς. <Καὶ> τοῦτ' ἔστι τὸ "γνῶθι σεαυτόν", ἐπιγνοὺς <ἐν σεαυτῷ> τὸν πεποιηκότα θεόν· τῷ γὰρ ἐπιγνῶναι αὐτὸν ἐπιγνωσθῆναι συμβέβηκε τῷ καλουμένῳ ὑπ' αὐτοῦ. μὴ φιλεχθ<ρ>ήσητε τοίνυν ἑαυτοῖς, ἄνθρωποι,

   So let us not be at enmity with ourselves, but change our way of life without delay. For Christ who is God, exalted above all creation, has taken away man’s sin and has re-fashioned our fallen nature. In the beginning God made man in his image and so gave proof of his love for us. If we obey his holy commands and learn to imitate his goodness, we shall be like him and he will honour us. God is not beggarly, and for the sake of his own glory he has given us a share in his divinity.

34.5 μηδὲ <περὶ> τὸ παλινδρομεῖν διστάσητε.  Χριστὸς γάρ ἐστιν ὁ κατὰ πάντων θεός· ὃς τὴν ἁμαρτίαν ἐξ ἀνθρώπων ἀποπλύνειν προσέταξε, νέον "τὸν παλαιὸν ἄνθρωπον" ἀποτελῶν, "εἰκόνα" τοῦτον <τοῦ θεοῦ> καλέσας ἀπ' ἀρχῆς, διὰ τύπου <"ὁμοίωσιν"> τὴν εἰς σὲ ἐπιδεικνύμενος στοργήν. οὗ προστάγμασιν ὑπακούσας σεμνοῖς, καὶ ἀγαθοῦ ἀγαθὸς γενόμενος μιμητής, ἔσῃ <ὡς> ὅμοιος ὑπ' αὐτοῦ τιμηθείς. οὐ γὰρ πτωχεύει θεός· <ὃς> καὶ σὲ θεὸν ποιήσει εἰς δόξαν αὐτ?οῦŸ.

More Extensive Citation from Same Work 

 

 Chapter 29.—The Doctrine of the Truth Continued.

 

Therefore this solitary and supreme Deity, by an exercise of reflection, brought forth the Logos first; not the word in the sense of being articulated by voice, but as a ratiocination of the universe, conceived and residing in the divine mind.

 33.1  Οὗτος οὖν <ὁ> μόνος καὶ κατὰ πάντων θεὸς  Λόγον πρῶτον ἐννοηθεὶς ἀπογεννᾷ· οὐ <δὲ>  Λόγον ὡς φωνήν, ἀλλ' ἐνδιάθετον τοῦ παντὸς λογισμόν.

Him alone He produced from existing things; for the Father Himself constituted existence, and the being born from Him was the cause of all things that are produced.44

τοῦτον <οὖν> μόνον ἐξ ὄντων ἐγέννα· τὸ γὰρ ὃν αὐτὸς ὁ πατὴρ 33.2 ἦν, ἐξ οὗ τὸ γεννηθέν.

The Logos was in the Father Himself, bearing the will of His progenitor, and not being unacquainted with the mind of the Father. For simultaneously45 with His procession from His Progenitor, inasmuch as He is this Progenitor’s first-born, He has, as a voice in Himself, the ideas conceived in the Father.

<κ>αὶ αἴτιον τοῖς γινομένοις  Λόγος ἦν, ἐν <ἑ>αυτῷ φέρων τὸ θέλειν τοῦ γεγεν<ν>ηκότος, οὐκ ἄπειρός <τε ὢν> τῆς τοῦ πατρὸς ἐννοίας. ἅμα γὰρ τῷ ἐκ τοῦ γεννήσαντος προελθεῖν, πρωτότοκος τούτου γενόμενος, <ὡς> φωνὴν εἶχεν ἐν ἑαυτῷ τὰς ἐν τῷ πατρικῷ <νῷ> ἐννοηθείσας ἰδέας.

And so it was, that when the Father ordered the world to come into existence, the Logos one by one completed each object of creation, thus pleasing God. And some things which multiply by generation46 He formed male and female; but whatsoever beings were designed for service and ministration He made either male, or not requiring females, or neither male nor female. For even the primary substances of these, which were formed out of nonentities, viz., fire and spirit, water and earth, are neither male nor female; nor could male or female proceed from any one of these, were it not that God, who is the source of all authority, wished that the Logos might render assistance47 in accomplishing a production of this kind. I confess that angels are of fire, and I maintain that female spirits are not present with them.

ὅθεν κελεύοντος πατρὸς γίνεσθαι <τὸν> κόσμον, τὸ κατὰ ἓν  Λόγος ἀπετέλει τὸ ἀρέσκον θεῷ. 33.3  Καὶ τὰ μὲν ?ἐ?πὶ γενέσει πλη?θ?ύνοντα ἄρσενα καὶ θήλεα εἰργάζετο, ὅσα δὲ πρὸς ὑπηρεσίαν καὶ λειτουργίαν <ἐστίν>, ἢ ἄρσενα [ἢ] θηλειῶν 33.4 μὴ προσδεόμενα, ἢ οὔτε ἄρσενα οὔτε θήλεα. καὶ γὰρ αἱ τούτων πρῶται οὐσίαι, <αἱ> ἐξ οὐκ ὄντων γενόμεναι–πῦρ καὶ πνεῦμα, ὕδωρ καὶ γῆ–, οὔτε ἄρσενα οὔτε θήλεα ὑπάρχει, <οὐδ' ἐξ> ἑκάστη<ς> τούτων δύν<α>ται προελθεῖν ἄρσενα καὶ θήλεα, πλὴν εἰ βούλοιτο ὁ κελεύων θεός, ἵνα 33.5  Λόγος ὑπουργῇ. ἐκ πυρὸς <καὶ πνεύματος μὲν οὖν> εἶναι ἀγγέλους ὁμολογῶ, καὶ οὐ τούτοις παρεῖναι θηλείας λέγω·

 

And I am of opinion that sun and moon and stars, in like manner, are produced from fire and spirit, and are neither male nor female. And the will of the Creator is, that swimming and winged animals are from water, male and female. For so God, whose will it was, ordered that there should exist a moist substance, endued with productive power. And in like manner God commanded, that from earth should arise reptiles and beasts, as well males and females of all sorts of animals; for so the nature of the things produced admitted.

ἥλιον δὲ καὶ σελήνην καὶ ἀστέρας ὁμοίως ἐκ πυρὸς καὶ πνεύματος, καὶ οὔτε ἄρσενας οὔτε θηλείας  33.6 <εἶναι> νενόμικα. ἐξ ὕδατος δὲ ζῷα νηκτὰ εἶναι θέλω καὶ πτηνά, ἄρσενα καὶ θήλεα–οὕτω<ς> γὰρ ἐκέλευσεν ὁ θεός, θελήσας γόνιμον εἶναι τὴν ὑγρὰν οὐσίαν· –ὁμοίως <δὲ> ἐκ γῆς ἑρπετὰ καὶ θηρία καὶ παντοδαπῶν ζῴων <γένη>, ἄρσενα καὶ θήλεα–οὕτως γὰρ ἐνεδέχετο ἡ τῶν γεγονότων φύσις.

 

 

For as many things as He willed, God made from time to time. These things He created through the Logos, it not being possible for things to be generated otherwise than as they were produced.

–ὅσα γοῦν ἠθέλησεν ποιεῖν ὁ θεός, ταῦτα  Λόγῳ 33.7 ἐδημιούργει, ἑτέρως γενέσθαι μὴ δυνάμενα ἢ ὡς ἐγένετο.

But when, according as He willed, He also formed (objects), He called them by names, and thus notified His creative effort.48

ὅτε δὲ <ὅσα> ἠ<θέλησεν> ὡς ἠθέλησε καὶ ἐποίησεν, ὀνόμασι<ν> <αὐτὰ> καλέσας ἐσήμηνεν.

And making these, He formed the ruler of all, and fashioned him out of all composite substances.49 The Creator did not wish to make him a god, and failed in His aim; nor an angel,—be not deceived,—but a man. For if He had willed to make thee a god, He could have done so. Thou hast the example of the Logos. His will, however, was, that you should be a man, and He has made thee a man.

 Ἐπὶ <δὲ> τούτοις τὸν πάντων ἄρχοντα δημιουργῶν, ἐκ πασῶν σύνθετον οὐσιῶν ἐσκεύασεν. οὐ<χ ὅτι δὲ> θεόν <σε> θέλων ποιεῖν ἔσφηλε<ν>, ?οὐ?δὲ ἄγγελον–μὴ πλανῶ–, ἀλλ' ἄνθρωπόν <σε θελήσας ἐποίησεν>.εἰ γὰρ θεόν σε ἠθέλησε ποιῆσαι, ἐδύνατο· ἔχεις ?το?ῦ  Λόγου τὸ παράδειγμα· <ἀλλ'> ἄνθρωπον θέλων, ἄνθρωπόν σε ἐποίησεν.

But if thou art desirous of also becoming a god, obey Him that has created thee, and resist not now, in order that, being found faithful in that which is small, you may be enabled to have entrusted to you also that which is great.50

εἰ δὲ θέλεις καὶ θεὸς γενέσθαι?, ὑπάκουε τῷ πεποιηκότι καὶ μὴ ἀντίβαινε νῦν, ἵνα ἐπὶ 33.8 τῷ μικρῷ πιστὸς εὑρεθ<εὶς> καὶ τὸ μέγα πιστευθῆναι δυνηθῇ<ς>.

The Logos alone of this God is from God himself; wherefore also the Logos is God, being the substance of God.51 Now the world was made from nothing; wherefore it is not God; as also because this world admits of dissolution whenever the Creator so wishes it.

τούτου <δὲ> ὁ  Λόγος μόνος ἐξ αὐτοῦ· διὸ καὶ θεός, οὐσία ὑπάρχων θεοῦ. ὁ δὲ κόσμος ἐξ οὐδενός· διὸ οὐ θεός· οὗτος <γὰρ> ἐπιδέχεται καὶ λύσιν,  ὅτε βούλεται ὁ κτίσας. ὁ δὲ κτίσας θεὸς κακὸν οὐκ ἐποίει οὐδὲ ποιεῖ, 33.9 <ἀλλὰ> καλὸν καὶ ἀγαθὸν <μόνον>·

But God, who created it, did not, nor does not, make evil. He makes what is glorious and excellent; for He who makes it is good. Now man, that was brought into existence, was a creature endued with a capacity of self-determination,52 yet not possessing a sovereign intellect,53 nor holding sway over all things by reflection, and authority, and power, but a slave to his passions, and comprising all sorts of contrarieties in himself. But man, from the fact of his possessing a capacity of self-determination, brings forth what is evil,54 that is, accidentally; which evil is not consummated except you actually commit some piece of wickedness. For it is in regard of our desiring anything that is wicked, or our meditating upon it, that what is evil is so denominated. Evil had no existence from the beginning, but came into being subsequently.55 Since man has free will, a law has been defined for his guidance by the Deity, not without answering a good purpose.

ἀγαθὸς γὰρ ὁ ποιῶν. ὁ δὲ γενόμενος ἄνθρωπος ζῷον αὐτεξούσιον <μὲν> ἦν, οὐκ ἄρχον <δέ>· οὐ νοῦν ἔχον, οὐκ ἐπινοίᾳ καὶ ἐξουσίᾳ καὶ δυνάμει πάντων κρατοῦν, ἀλλὰ δοῦλον καὶ πάντα ἔχον τὰ ἐναντία. ὃς τῷ αὐτεξούσιος ὑπάρχειν τὸ κακὸν ἐπιγεννᾷ, ἐκ συμβεβηκότος ἀποτελούμενον [μὲν] οὐδέν <τε ὄν>, ἐὰν <αὐτὸ> μὴ ποιῇς. ἐν γὰρ τῷ θέλειν καὶ ν?ομ?ίζειν τι κακὸν τὸ κακὸν ὀνομάζεται, οὐκ ὂν ἀπ' ἀρχῆς, ἀλλ' ἐπιγενόμενον. 33.10  Ο?ὗ? αὐτεξουσίου <οὖν> ὄντος νόμος ὑπὸ θεοῦ ὡρίζετο, οὐ<δὲ> μάτην.

For if man did not possess the power to will and not to will, why should a law be established? For a law will not be laid down for an animal devoid of reason, but a bridle and a whip;56 whereas to man has been given a precept and penalty to perform, or for not carrying into execution what has been enjoined. For man thus constituted has a law been enacted by just men in primitive ages. Nearer our own day was there established a law, full of gravity and justice, by Moses, to whom allusion has been already made, a devout man, and one beloved of God.

εἰ γὰρ μὴ εἶχεν ?ἄ?νθρωπος τὸ θέλειν καὶ τὸ μὴ θέλειν, τί καὶ νόμος ὡρίζετο; ὁ νόμος γὰρ ?ἀ?λόγῳ ζῴῳ οὐχ ὁρισθήσεται, ἀλλὰ χαλινὸς καὶ μάστιξ· ἀνθρώπῳ δὲ ἐντολὴ καὶ πρόστιμον τοῦ ποιεῖν τὸ προστεταγμένον καὶ μὴ ποιεῖν. τούτῳ <οὖν> νόμος ὡρίσθη διὰ δικαίων ἀνδρῶν <τῶν> ἐπάνωθεν· ἔγγιον <δὲ> ἡμῶν διὰ τοῦ προειρημένου

Now the Logos of God controls all these; the first begotten Child of the Father, the voice of the Dawn antecedent to the Morning Star.57 Afterwards just men were born, friends of God; and these have been styled prophets,58 on account of their foreshowing future events. And the word of prophecy59 was committed unto them, not for one age only; but also the utterances of events predicted throughout all generations, were vouchsafed in perfect clearness. And this, too, not at the time merely when seers furnished a reply to those present;60 but also events that would happen throughout all ages, have been manifested beforehand; because, in speaking of incidents gone by, the prophets brought them back to the recollection of humanity; whereas, in showing forth present occurrences, they endeavoured to persuade men not to be remiss; while, by foretelling future events, they have rendered each one of us terrified on beholding events that had been predicted long before, and on expecting likewise those events predicted as still future.

          Μωϋσέως, ἀνδρὸς εὐλαβοῦς καὶ θεοφιλοῦς, νόμος ὡρίζετο πλήρης σεμνότητος καὶ 33.11 δικαιοσύνης. τα<ῦτα> δὲ πάντα διῴκει ὁ  Λόγος ὁ θεοῦ, ὁ πρωτόγονος πατρὸς παῖς, ἡ πρὸ ἑωσφόρου φωσφόρος φωνή. ἔπειτα δίκαιοι ἄνδρες γεγένηνται, φίλοι θεοῦ· οὗτοι προφῆται κέκληνται διὰ τὸ προφαίνειν τὰ 33.12 μέλλοντα. οἷς οὐκ <ἐφ'> ἑνὸς καιροῦ λόγος ἐγένετο, ἀλλὰ διὰ πασῶν γενεῶν αἱ τῶν προλεγόντων φωναὶ εὐαπόδεικτοι παρίσταντο. <καὶ> οὐκ ἐκεῖ <δὲ> μόνον, ἡνίκα τοῖς παροῦσιν ἀπεκρίναντο, ἀλλὰ καὶ <ὅτε> διὰ  πασῶν γενεῶν τὰ ἐσόμενα προεφήναντο. ὅτι τὰ μὲν παρῳχημένα λέγοντες ὑπεμίμνῃσκον τὴν ἀνθρωπότητα, τὰ δὲ ἐνεστῶτα δεικνύντες, μὴ ῥᾳθυμεῖν <ἡμᾶς> ἔπειθον, τὰ δὲ μέλλοντα προλέγοντες, τὸν κατὰ ἕνα ἡμῶν, ὁρῶντας <τὰ> πρὸ πολλοῦ προειρημένα <πληρωθῆναι>, ἐμφόβους καθίστων, προσδοκῶντας καὶ τὰ μέλλοντα <πληρωθήσεσθαι>.

 

 

 

 

Such is our faith, O all ye men,—ours, I say, who are not persuaded by empty expressions, nor caught away by sudden impulses of the heart, nor beguiled by the plausibility of eloquent discourses, yet who do not refuse to obey words that have been uttered by divine power. And these injunctions has God given to the Word. But the Word, by declaring them, promulgated the divine commandments, thereby turning man from disobedience, not bringing him into servitude by force of necessity, but summoning him to liberty through a choice involving spontaneity.

          33.13  Τοιαύτη <δὴ> ἡ καθ' ἡμᾶς πίστις, ὦ πάντες ἄνθρωποι, οὐ κενοῖς ῥήμασι<ν> <ἡμῶν> πειθομένων, οὐδὲ σχεδιάσμασι καρδίας συναρπαζομένων, οὐδὲ πιθανότητι εὐεπείας λόγων θελγομένων, ἀλλὰ δυνάμει θείᾳ λελαλημένοις λόγοις οὐκ ἀπειθούντων. καὶ ταῦτα <δὲ> θεὸς ἐκέλευε  Λόγῳ, ὁ δὲ  Λόγος ἐφθέγγετο λέγων <τοῖς προφήταις>, δι' αὐτῶν ἐπιστρέφων τὸν ἄνθρωπον ἐκ παρακοῆς· οὐ βίᾳ <δὲ> ἀνάγκης δουλαγωγῶν <αὐτόν>, ἀλλ' "ἐπ' ἐλευθερίᾳ" ἑκουσίῳ προαιρέσει "καλῶν".

This Logos the Father in the latter days sent forth, no longer to speak by a prophet, and not wishing that the Word, being obscurely proclaimed, should be made the subject of mere conjecture, but that He should be manifested, so that we could see Him with our own eyes. This Logos, I say, the Father sent forth, in order that the world, on beholding Him, might reverence Him who was delivering precepts not by the person of prophets, nor terrifying the soul by an angel, but who was Himself—He that had spoken—corporally present amongst us. This Logos we know to have received a body from a virgin, and to have remodelled the old man61 by a new creation. And we believe the Logos to have passed through every period in this life, in order that He Himself might serve as a law for every age,62 and that, by being present (amongst) us, He might exhibit His own manhood as an aim for all men. And that by Himself in person He might prove that God made nothing evil, and that man possesses the capacity of self-determination, inasmuch as he is able to will and not to will, and is endued with power to do both.63 This Man we know to have been made out of the compound of our humanity. For if He were not of the same nature with ourselves, in vain does He ordain that we should imitate the Teacher. For if that Man happened to be of a different substance from us, why does He lay injunctions similar to those He has received on myself, who am born weak; and how is this the act of one that is good and just? In order, however, that He might not be supposed to be different from us, He even underwent toil, and was willing to endure hunger, and did not refuse to feel thirst, and sunk into the quietude of slumber. He did not protest against His Passion, but became obedient unto death, and manifested His resurrection. Now in all these acts He offered up, as the first-fruits, His own manhood, in order that thou, when thou art in tribulation, mayest not be disheartened,

33.14  Τοῦτον <οὖν> τὸν  Λόγον ἐν ὑστέροις <καιροῖς> ἀπέστειλεν ὁ πατήρ, οὐκέτι διὰ προφητῶν <αὐτὸν> λαλεῖν, οὐ σκοτεινῶς κηρυσσόμενον ὑπονοεῖσθαι [θέλων], ἀλλ' αὐτοψεὶ φανερωθῆναι τοῦτον <θέλων> [λέγων], ἵνα <ὁ> κόσμος ὁρῶν δυσωπηθῇ οὐκ<έτι> ἐντελλόμενον διὰ προσώπου προφητῶν, οὐδὲ δι' ἀγγέλου φοβοῦντα ψυχήν, ἀλλ' αὐτὸν παρόντα τὸν 33.15 λελαληκότα. τοῦτον ἔγνωμεν ἐκ παρθένου σῶμα ἀνειληφότα καὶ "τὸν παλαιὸν ἄνθρωπον" διὰ καινῆς πλάσεως πεφορηκότα. <τοῦτον ἴσμεν> ἐν βίῳ διὰ πάσης ἡλικίας ἐληλυθότα, ἵνα πάσῃ ἡλικίᾳ αὐτὸς νόμος γενηθῇ καὶ σκοπὸν τὸν ἴδιον ἄνθρωπον πᾶσιν ἀνθρώποις ἐπιδείξῃ παρών, καὶ <ἵνα> δι' αὑτοῦ ἐλέγξῃ, ὅτι μηδὲν ἐποίησεν ὁ ?θ?εὸς πονηρὸν καὶ <ὅτι> ὡς αὐτεξούσιος ὁ ἄνθρωπος ἔχει τὸ θέλειν καὶ 33.16 τὸ μὴ θέλειν, δυνατὸς ὢν ἐν ἀμφοτέροις. <τ>οῦτον ἄνθρωπον ἴσμεν <ἐκ> τοῦ καθ' ἡμᾶς φυράματος γεγονότα· εἰ γὰρ μὴ ἐκ τοῦ αὐτοῦ <ἡμῖν φυράματος> ὑπῆρξε, μάτην νομοθετεῖ μιμεῖσθαι τὸν διδάσκαλον. εἰ γὰρ ἐκεῖνος ὁ ἄνθρωπος ἑτέρας ἐτύγχανεν οὐσίας, τί τὰ ὅμοια κελεύει ἐμοί, τῷ ἀσθ?ενεῖ? πεφυκότι, καὶ πῶς οὗτος ἀγαθὸς καὶ 33.17 δίκαιος; <ἀλλ'> ἵνα δὴ μὴ ἕτερος παρ' ἡμᾶς νομισθῇ, ?καὶ? κάματον ὑπέμεινε, καὶ πεινῆν ἠθέλησε, καὶ διψῆν οὐκ ἠρνήσατο, καὶ ὕπνῳ ἠρέμησε, καὶ πάθει οὐκ ἀντεῖπε, καὶ θανάτῳ ὑπήκουσε, καὶ ἀνάστασιν ἐφανέρωσεν, ἀπαρξάμενος ἐν πᾶσι τούτοις τὸν ἴδιον ἄνθρωπον, ἵνα <καὶ> σὺ πάσχων μὴ ἀθυμῇς,

but, confessing thyself to be a man (of like nature with the Redeemer), mayest dwell in expectation of also receiving what the Father has granted unto this Son.64 ἀλλ' ἄνθρωπον σεαυτὸν ὁμολογῶν προσδοκᾷς καὶ σὺ ὃ τούτῳ παρέσχε <θεό>ς.

Chapter XXX.—The Author’s Concluding Address.

 

Such is the true doctrine in regard of the divine nature, O ye men, Greeks and Barbarians, Chaldeans and Assyrians, Egyptians and Libyans, Indians and Ethiopians, Celts, and ye Latins, who lead armies, and all ye that inhabit Europe, and Asia, and Libya.65 And to you I am become an adviser, inasmuch as I am a disciple of the benevolent Logos, and hence humane, in order that you may hasten and by us may be taught who the true God is, and what is His well-ordered creation. Do not devote your attention to the fallacies of artificial discourses, nor the vain promises of plagiarizing heretics,66 but to the venerable simplicity of unassuming truth. And by means of this knowledge you shall escape the approaching threat of the fire of judgment, and the rayless scenery of gloomy Tartarus,67 where never shines a beam from the irradiating voice of the Word!

          34.1  Τοιοῦτος ὁ περὶ τὸ θεῖον ἀληθὴς λόγος, ὦ ἄνθρωποι Ἔλληνές τε καὶ βάρβαροι,  Χαλδαῖοί τε καὶ Ἀσσύριοι,  Αἰγύπτιοί τε καὶ  Λίβυες, Ἰνδοί τε καὶ  Αἰθίοπες,  Κελτοί τε καὶ οἱ στρατηγοῦντες  Λατῖνοι, πάντες τε οἱ τὴν  Εὐρώπην, Ἀσίαν τε καὶ  Λιβύην κατοικοῦντες. οἷς σύμβουλος ἐγὼ γίνομαι, φιλανθρώπου  Λόγου ὑπάρχων μαθητὴς [καὶ] φιλάνθρωπος, 34.2 ὅπως προσδραμόντες διδαχθῆτε παρ' ἡμῶν, τίς ὁ ὄντως θεὸς καὶ <τίς> ἡ τούτου εὔτακτος dhmiourgíα, μὴ προσέχοντες σοφίσμασιν ἐντέχνων λόγων, μηδὲ ματαίοις ἐπαγγελίαις κλεψιλόγων αἱρετικῶν, ἀλλ' ἀληθείας ἀκόμπου ἁπλότητι σεμνῇ.  Δι' ἧς ἐπιγνώσεως ἐκφεύξεσθε ἐπερχομένην πυρὸς κρίσεως ἀπειλήν, καὶ  Ταρτάρου ζοφεροῦ ὄμμα ἀφώτιστον, ὑπὸ  Λόγου φωνῆς μὴ καταλαμφ<θ>έν,

You shall escape the boiling flood of hell’s68 eternal lake of fire and the eye ever fixed in menacing glare of fallen angels chained in Tartarus as punishment for their sins; and you shall escape the worm that ceaselessly coils for food around the body whose scum69 has bred it. Now such (torments) as these shall thou avoid by being instructed in a knowledge of the true God. And thou shalt possess an immortal body, even one placed beyond the possibility of corruption, just like the soul. And thou shalt receive the kingdom of heaven, thou who, whilst thou didst sojourn in this life, didst know the Celestial King. καὶ βρασμὸν ἀεννάου λίμνης γεννητρίας φλογός, καὶ ταρταρούχων ἀγγέλων κολαστῶν <φοβερὸν> ὄμμα, ἀεὶ μένον ἐν ἀπειλῇ,  καὶ σκώληκα, σώματος ἀπουσίαν, <ἀπαύστως> ἐπιστρεφόμενον ἐπὶ τὸ ἐκβράσαν σῶμα ὡς ἐπιστροφήν. 34.3  Καὶ ταῦτα μὲν ἐκφεύξῃ θεὸν τὸν <ὄντως> ὄντα διδαχθείς, ἕξεις δὲ ἀθάνατον τὸ σῶμα καὶ ἄφθαρτον ἅμα <τῇ> ψυχῇ. <καὶ τὴν δὲ> βασιλείαν <τῶν> οὐρανῶν ἀπολήψῃ, ὁ ἐν γῇ βιοὺς καὶ <τὸν> ἐπουράνιον βασιλέα ἐπιγνούς,
And you shall be a companion of the Deity, and a co-heir with Christ, no longer enslaved by lusts or passions, and never again wasted by disease. ἔσῃ τε ὁμιλητὴς θεοῦ καὶ "συγκληρονόμος  Χριστοῦ", 34.4 οὐκ<έτι> ἐπιθυμίαις καὶ πάθεσι καὶ νόσοις δουλούμενος.
 For you have become God:70 γέγονας γὰρ θεός·
for whatever sufferings you underwent while being a man, these He gave to thee, because thou wast of mortal mould, ὅσα <μὲν> γὰρ ὑπέμεινας πάθη ἄνθρωπος ὤν, ταῦτα <ἐ>δίδου  <σοι θεός>, ὅτι ἄνθρωπος εἶς·
but whatever it is consistent with God to impart, these God has promised to bestow upon thee, because thou hast been deified, and begotten unto immortality.71 ὅσα δὲ παρακολουθεῖ θεῷ, ταῦτα παρέχειν <σοι> ἐπήγγελται θεὸς ὅταν θεοποιηθῇς, ἀθάνατος γενηθείς.

This constitutes the import of the proverb, “Know thyself; ”i.e., discover God within thyself, for He has formed thee after His own image. For with the knowledge of self is conjoined the being an object of God’s knowledge, for thou art called by the Deity Himself.

 <Καὶ> τοῦτ' ἔστι τὸ "γνῶθι σεαυτόν", ἐπιγνοὺς <ἐν σεαυτῷ> τὸν πεποιηκότα θεόν· τῷ γὰρ ἐπιγνῶναι αὐτὸν ἐπιγνωσθῆναι συμβέβηκε τῷ καλουμένῳ ὑπ' αὐτοῦ. μὴ φιλεχθ<ρ>ήσητε τοίνυν ἑαυτοῖς, ἄνθρωποι,

So let us not be at enmity with ourselves, but change 72 our way of life without delay. For Christ who is God, exalted above all creation, has taken away man’s sin 73 and has refashioned our fallen nature. In the beginning God made man in his image and so gave proof of his love for us. 34.5 μηδὲ <περὶ> τὸ παλινδρομεῖν διστάσητε.  Χριστὸς γάρ ἐστιν ὁ κατὰ πάντων θεός· ὃς τὴν ἁμαρτίαν ἐξ ἀνθρώπων ἀποπλύνειν προσέταξε, νέον "τὸν παλαιὸν ἄνθρωπον" ἀποτελῶν, "εἰκόνα" τοῦτον <τοῦ θεοῦ> καλέσας ἀπ' ἀρχῆς, διὰ τύπου <"ὁμοίωσιν"> τὴν εἰς σὲ ἐπιδεικνύμενος στοργήν.
If we obey his holy commands and learn to imitate his goodness, we shall be like him and he will honour us. οὗ προστάγμασιν ὑπακούσας σεμνοῖς, καὶ ἀγαθοῦ ἀγαθὸς γενόμενος μιμητής, ἔσῃ <ὡς> ὅμοιος ὑπ' αὐτοῦ τιμηθείς.
God is not beggarly,74 and for the sake of his own glory he has made us divine.75 οὐ γὰρ πτωχεύει θεός· <ὃς> καὶ σὲ θεὸν ποιήσει εἰς δόξαν αὐτοῦ.

 


41 The margin, in of the ms. has the words “Origen and Origen’s opinion.” This seemed to confirm the criticism which ascribes The Refutation to Origin. But even supposing Origen not the author, the copyer of the ms. might have written Origen’s name on the margin, as indicating the transcriber’s opinion concerning the coincidence of creed between Origen and the a¯thor of The Refutation. The fact, however, i.-, that the doctrine of eternal punishment, asserted in the concluding chapter of The Refutation, was actually controverted by Origen. See translator’s Introductory Notice. (See also War;Isworth (a lucid exposition), p. 20, etc., and infra, cap. xxix. note 5.]

42 oroghn (Scott). The ms.. has morfhn.

43 Here we have another reference intimately bearin on the authorship of The Refutation. What follows corresponds with a fragment having a similar title to that stated above, first published by Le Moyne, and inserted in Fabricius (i. pp. 22O - 222) as the work of Hippolytus. Photics mentions this work, and give an extract from it corresponding with what is furnished by Hippolytus. Photius, however, mentions that the book On the Substance of the Universewas said to be written by Josephus, but discovers in marginal notes the asription of it to Caius. But Caius cannot be the writer, since Photius states that the author of The Labyrinthaffirmed that he had written 0n the Substance of the Universe. Now Hippolytus informs us that he is author of The Labyrinth. Hippolytus thus refers to three of his works in The Refutation: (I) eterai bibloi, i.e., on Chronology; (2) Concerning the Substance of the Universe; (3) Little Labyrinth. Except Hippolytus and Photics refer to different works in speaking of The Labyrinth, the foregoing settles the question of the authorship of The Refutation. [See the case of Caius stated. Wordsworth, cap. iv. p. 27, etc.]

44 [Elucidation XVI.]

45 This passage is differently rendered, according as we read fwnhwith Bunsen, or fwnhnwith Dr. Wordsworth. The latter also alters the reading of the vs. (at the end of the next sentence!, apeteleitoarxkwn ew, into apetelei to areskon, “he carried into effect what was pleasing to the Toity.”

46 Dr.Wordsworth suggests for genesei, epigenesei, i.e., a continuous series of procreaition.

47 See Orion, in Foann., tom.. ii. sec. 8.

48 [Rather, His will.]

49 Compare Orig;en, in Foann., sec. 2, where we have a similar opinion stated. A certain parallel in this and other portions of Hippolytus’ concluding remarks, induces the transcriber, no doubt, to write “Origen’s opinion” in the margin.

50 Matt. xxv. 21, 23; Luke xvi. 10, 11, 12. [Also 2 Pet. i. 4, one of the king-texts of the inspired oracles.

51 [Nicene doctrine, ruling out all conditions of time from the idea of the generation of the Logos.]

52 autezousio". Hippolytus here follows his master Irenaeus (Haer., iv. 9), and in doing so enunciatess an Opinion, and uses an expression adopted universally by patristic writers, up to the period of St. Augustine. This great philosopher and divine, however, shook the entire fabric of existing theology respecting the will, and started diffculties, speculative ones at least, which admit of no solution short of the annihilation of finite thought and volition. See translator’s Treatise on Metaphysics, chap. x. [Also compare Irenaeus, vol. i.p. 518, and Clement, vol. ii. pp. 319 passimto 525; also vol. iii. 301, and vol. iv. Tertullian and Origen. See Indexeson Free-will.]

53 Dr. Wordsworth translates the passage thus: “Endued with free will, but not dominant; having reason, but not able to govern,” etc.

54 [One of the most pithy of all statements as to the origin of subjectiveevil, i.e., evil in humanity.]

55 See Origen, in Joann., tom. ii. sec. 7.

56 Ps. xxxii. 9.

57 Ps. cx. 3; 2 Pet. i. 18, 19.

58 In making the Logos a living principle in the prophets, and as speaking through them to the Church of God in all ages, Hippolytus agrees with Origen. This constitutes another reason for the marginal note “Origen’s opinion,” already mentioned. (See Origen, peri `arcwn, i. I.)

59 Hippolytus expresses similar opinions respecting the economy of the prophets, in his work, De Antichristo, sec. 2.

60 Hippolytus here compares the ancient prophets with the oracles of the Gentiles. The heathen seers did not give forth their vaticinations spontaneously, but furnished responses to those only who made inquiries after them, says Dr. Wordsworth.

61 pefurakota, This is the reading adopted by Cruice and Wordsworth. The translator has followed Cruice’s rendering, refinxissewhile Dr. Wordsworth construes the word “fashioned.” The latter is mare literal, as furawmeans to knead, though the sense imparted to it by Cruice would seem more coincident with the scriptural account ( 1 Cor. v. 7; 2 Cor. v. 17; Gal. vi. 15). Bunsen does not alter peforhkota, the reading of the its, and translates it, “to have put on the old man through a new formation.” Sauppe reads pefurhkota. See Hippolytus, De Antichristo, sec. 26, in Danielem (p. 205, Mai); and Irenaeus, v. 6.

62 [See Irenaeus (a very beautiful passage), voL i. p. 391.]

63 [See vol. iv. pp, 255 and 383.]

64 This is the reading adopted by Cruice and Bunsen. Dr. Wordsworth translates the passage thus: “acknowledging thyself a man of like nature with Christ, and thou also waiting for the appearance of what thou gavest Him.” The source of consolatian to man which Hippolytus, according to Dr. Wordsworth, is here anxious to indicate, is the glorification of human nature in the person of the Lord Jesus Christ. Dr. Wordsworth therefore objects to Bunsen’s rendermg, as it gives to the passage a meaning different from this.

65 [The translator’s excessive interpolations sometimes needlessly dilute the terse characteristics of the author. Thus, with confusing brackets, the Edinburgh reads: “who so often lead your armies to victory.” This is not Hippolytus, and, in such instances, I feel bound to reduce a plethoric text.]

66 [Here the practical idea of the Philosophumenacomes out; and compare vol. iv. pp. 469 and 570.]

67 Dr. Wordsworth justifies Hippolytus’ use of the pagan word “Tartarus,” by citing the passage (2 Pet. ii. 4), “For if God spared not the angels that sinned, but cast them down to hell, and delivered them into chains of darkness (seirai" zofou tartarwsa"), to be reserved unto judgment,” etc. [Elucidation XVII. and vol. iv. 140.]

68 Schneidewin suggests a comparison of this passage with Hippolytus’ fragment, Against Plato, concerning the Cause of the Universe(p 22O, ed. Fabricii; p. 68, ed. de Lagarde).

69 The different renderings of this passage, according to different readings, are as follow: “And the worm the scum of the body, turning to the Body that foamed it forth as to that which nourisheth it” (Wordsworth). “The worm which winds itself without rest round the mouldering body, to feed upon it” (Bunsen and Scott). “The worm wriggling as over the filth of the (putrescent) flesh towards the exhaling body” (Roeper). “The worm turning itself towards the substance of the body, towards, (I say,) the exhalations of the decaying frame, as to food” (Schneidewm). The words chiefly altered are: opousian, into (I) ep ousian, (2) ep` alousia(3) apaustw"; and epistrefouenoninto (I) epistrefon, (2) epi trofhn.

70 [This startling expression is justified by such texts as 2 Pet. i. 4compared with John xvii. 22, 23, and Rev. iii. 21. Thus, Christ overrules the Tempter (Gen. iii. 5), and gives more than was offered by the “Father of Lies.”]

71 [Compare John x. 34with Rev. v. 10. kings of the earth may be called “gods,” in a sense; ergo,etc.]

72 Bunsen translates thus: “Doubt not that you will exist again,” a rendering which Dr. Wordsworth controverts in favour of the one adopted above.

73 Bunsen translates thus: “For Christ is He whom the God of all has ordered to wash away the sins,” etc. Dr. Wordsworth severely censures this rendering in a lengthened note.

74 ptwceuei, Bunsen translates,“for God acts the beggar towards thee,” which is literal, though rather unintelligible. Dr. Wordsworth renders the word thus: “God has a longing for thee.”

75 Hippolytus, by his argument, recognises the duty not merely of overthrowing error but substantiating truth, or in other words, the negative and positive aspect of theology. His brief statement (chap. xxviii.-xxx.) in the latter department, along with being eminently reflective, constitutes a noble specimen of patristic eloquence. [This is most just: and it must be observed, that having summed up his argument against the heresies derived from carnal anil inferior sources, and shown the primal truth, he advances (in chap. xxviii.) to the Nnicene position, and proves himself one of the witnesses on whose traditive testimony that sublime formulary was given to the whole Church as the kthma e" aeiof Christendom,- a formal countersign of apostolic doctrine.]

 

 


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