ORIGEN (c. 185-254)
BOOK 1, ch. 1-21


Engl. tr. (in public domain)  William A. Curtis, Sacred Invocation: Origen on Prayer,Greekl tect: De oratione.  Ed P. Koetschau, Origenes Werke v. 2  ser  Die griechischen christlichen Schriftsteller 3 (Leipzig, Hinrichs,1899) 297-403





Commentary on the Gospel of John (Book I)






1. How Christians are the Spiritual Israel.


1. That people which was called of old the people of God was divided into twelve tribes, and over and above the other tribes it had the levitical order, which itself again carried on the service of God in various priestly and levitical suborders. In the same manner, it appears to me that the whole people of Christ, when we regard it in the aspect of the hidden man of the heart, (Rom 2:29) that people which is called Jew inwardly, and is circumcised in the spirit, has in a more mystic way the characteristics of the tribes. This may be more plainly gathered from John in his Apocalyse, though the other prophets also do not by any means conceal the state of matters from those who have the faculty of hearing them.

Ὃν τρόπον οἶμαι ὁ πάλαι λαὸς ἐπικληθεὶς θεοῦ εἰς φυλὰς διῄρητο δυοκαίδεκα καὶ τὴν ὑπὲρ τὰς λοι πὰς φυλὰς τάξιν λευϊτικήν͵ καὶ αὐτὴν κατὰ πλείονα τάγματα ἱερατικὰ καὶ λευϊτικὰ τὸ θεῖον θεραπεύουσαν͵ οὕτως νομίζω κατὰ τὸν κρυπτὸν τῆς καρδίας ἄνθρωπον πάντα τὸν Χριστοῦ λαόν͵ χρηματίζοντα ἐν κρυπτῷ Ἰουδαῖον καὶ ἐν πνεύματι περιτετμημένον͵ ἔχειν τὰς ἰδιότητας μυστικώτερον τῶν φυλῶν· ὡς ἔστι γυμνότερον ἀπὸ Ἰωάννου ἐκ τῆς Ἀποκαλύψεως μαθεῖν͵ οὐδὲ τῶν λοιπῶν προφητῶν τοῖς ἀκούειν ἐπισταμένοις τὰ τοιαῦτα ἀποσιωπησάντων.

John speaks as follows: And I saw another angel ascending from the sunrising, having the seal of the living God, and he cried with a loud voice to the four angels to whom it was given to hurt the earth and the sea, saying, Hurt not either the earth, or the sea, or the trees, till we have sealed the servants of our God on their foreheads. And I heard the number of them that were sealed, a hundred and forty-four thousand who were sealed, out of every tribe of the children of Israel; of the tribe of Juda were sealed twelve thousand, of the tribe of Roubem twelve thousand. (Rev 7:2-5)

1.2 Φησὶ δὲ οὕτως ὁ Ἰωάννης· Καὶ εἶδον ἄλλον ἄγγελον ἀναβαίνοντα ἀπὸ ἀνατολῆς ἡλίου͵ ἔχοντα σφραγῖδα θεοῦ ζῶντος͵ καὶ ἐκέκραξε φωνῇ μεγάλῃ τοῖς τέσσαρσιν ἀγγέλοις͵ οἷς ἐδόθη αὐτοῖς ἀδικῆσαι τὴν γῆν καὶ τὴν θάλασσαν͵ λέγων· Μὴ ἀδικήσητε μήτε τὴν γῆν μήτε τὴν θάλασσαν μήτε τὰ δένδρα͵ ἄχρι σφραγίσωμεν τοὺς δούλους τοῦ θεοῦ ἡμῶν ἐπὶ τῶν μετώπων αὐτῶν. Καὶ ἤκουσα τὸν ἀριθμὸν τῶν ἐσφραγισμένων͵ ἑκατὸν τεσσαράκοντα τέσσαρες χιλιάδες ἐσφραγισμένοι ἐκ πάσης φυλῆς υἱῶν Ἰσραήλ· ἐκ φυλῆς Ἰούδα δώδεκα χιλιάδες ἐσφρα γισμένοι͵ ἐκ φυλῆς Ρουβὴν δώδεκα χιλιάδες.

And he mentioned each of the tribes singly, with the exception of Dan. Then, some way further on, he continues: And I saw, and behold the Lamb standing on Mount Zion, and with Him a hundred and forty-four thousand, having His name and the name of His Father written on their foreheads. And I heard a voice from heaven as the voice of many waters, and as the voice of a great thunder. And the voice which I heard was as the voice of harpers harping with their harps; and they sing a new song before the throne and before the four beasts and the elders, and no one could learn the song but the hundred and forty-four thousand who had been purchased from the earth. These are they which were not defiled with women, for they are virgins. These are they who follow the Lamb whithersover He goes. These were purchased from among men, a first fruits to God and to the Lamb; and in their mouth was found no lie, for they are without blemish. (Rev 14:1-5)

1.3 Καὶ μετὰ τὸ διῃρῆσθαι τὰς λοιπὰς φυλὰς παρὲξ τοῦ Δὰν ἑξῆς μετὰ πλείονα ἐπιφέρει· Καὶ εἶδον͵ καὶ ἰδοὺ τὸ ἀρνίον ἑστὼς ἐπὶ τὸ ὄρος Σιών͵ καὶ μετ΄ αὐτοῦ αἱ ἑκατὸν τεσσαράκοντα τέσσαρες χιλιάδες ἔχουσαι τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ καὶ τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῦ γεγραμμένον ἐπὶ τῶν μετώπων αὐτῶν. Καὶ ἤκουσα φωνὴν ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ ὡς φωνὴν ὑδάτων πολλῶν͵ καὶ ὡς φωνὴν βροντῆς μεγάλης͵ καὶ ἡ φωνὴ ἣν ἤκουσα ὡς κιθα ρῳδῶν κιθαριζόντων ἐν ταῖς κιθάραις αὐτῶν. Καὶ ᾄδουσιν ᾠδὴν καινὴν ἐνώπιον τοῦ θρόνου καὶ ἐνώπιον τῶν τεσσάρων ζῴων καὶ τῶν πρεσβυτέρων· καὶ οὐδεὶς ἐδύνατο μαθεῖν τὴν ᾠδὴν εἰ μὴ αἱ ἑκατὸν τεσσαράκοντα τέσσαρες χιλιάδες͵ οἱ ἠγορασμένοι ἀπὸ τῆς γῆς· οὗτοί εἰσιν οἳ μετὰ γυναικῶν οὐκ ἐμολύνθησαν· παρθένοι γάρ εἰσιν· οὗτοι οἱ ἀκολουθοῦντες τῷ ἀρνίῳ ὅπου ἐὰν ὑπάγῃ· οὗτοι ἠγοράσθησαν ἀπὸ τῶν ἀνθρώπων ἀπαρχὴ τῷ θεῷ καὶ τῷ ἀρνίῳ· καὶ ἐν τῷ στόματι αὐτῶν οὐχ εὑρέθη ψεῦδος· ἄμωμοι γάρ εἰσιν.

Now this is said in John with reference to those who have believed in Christ, for they also, even if their bodily descent cannot be traced to the seed of the Patriarchs, are yet gathered out of the tribes. That this is so we may conclude from what is further said about them: Hurt not, he says, the earth, nor the sea, nor the trees, till we have sealed the servants of our God on their foreheads. And I heard the number of them that were sealed, a hundred and forty-four thousand, sealed from every tribe of the children of Israel.

1.4 Ὅτι δὲ ταῦτα παρὰ τῷ Ἰωάννῃ περὶ τῶν εἰς Χριστὸν πεπιστευκότων λέγεται͵ καὶ αὐτῶν ὑπαρχόντων ἀπὸ φυλῶν͵ κἂν μὴ δοκῇ τὸ σωματικὸν αὐτῶν γένος ἀνατρέχειν ἐπὶ τὸ σπέρμα τῶν πατριαρχῶν͵ ἔστιν οὕτως ἐπιλογίσασθαι· Μὴ ἀδικήσητε͵ φησί͵ τὴν γῆν μήτε τὴν θάλασσαν μήτε τὰ δένδρα͵ ἄχρι σφραγίσωμεν τοὺς δούλους τοῦ θεοῦ ἡμῶν ἐπὶ τῶν μετώπων αὐτῶν. Καὶ ἤκουσα τὸν ἀριθμὸν τῶν ἐσφραγισμένων͵ ἑκατὸν τεσσαράκοντα τέσσαρες χιλιάδες ἐσφραγισμένων ἐκ πάσης φυλῆς υἱῶν Ἰσραήλ.

2. The 144,000 Sealed in the Apocalypse are Converts to Christ from the Gentile World.


These, then, who are sealed on their foreheads (Rev 7:3-4) from every tribe of the children of Israel, are a hundred and forty-four thousand in number; and these hundred and forty-four thousand are afterwards said in John to have the name of the Lamb and of His Father written on their foreheads, and to be virgins, not having defiled themselves with women.

1.5 Οὐκοῦν οἳ ἐκ πάσης φυλῆς υἱῶν Ἰσραὴλ σφραγίζονται ἐπὶ τῶν μετώπων αὐτῶν͵ ἑκατὸν τεσσαράκοντα τέσσαρές εἰσι χιλιάδες τὸν ἀριθμόν· αἵτινες ἑκατὸν τεσσαράκοντα τέσσαρες χιλιάδες ἐν τοῖς ἑξῆς παρὰ τῷ Ἰωάννῃ λέγονται ἔχειν τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ ἀρνίου καὶ τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῦ γεγραμμένον ἐπὶ τῶν μετώπων αὐτῶν͵ οὖσαι παρθένοι καὶ μετὰ γυναικῶν οὐ μολυνθέντες.

What else could the seal be which is on their foreheads but the name of the Lamb and the name of His Father? In both passages their foreheads are said to have the seal; in one the seal is spoken of, in the other it appears to contain the letters forming the name of the Lamb, and the name of His Father.

1.6 Τίς ἂν οὖν ἄλλη εἴη ἡ σφραγὶς ἡ ἐπὶ τῶν μετώπων ἢ τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ ἀρνίου καὶ τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῦ͵ ἐν ἀμφοτέροις τοῖς τόποις τῶν μετώπων λεγομένων ἔχειν πὴ μὲν τὴν σφραγῖδα πὴ δὲ τὰ γράμματα περιέχοντα τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ ἀρνίου καὶ τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῦ;

Now these taken from the tribes are, as we showed before, the same persons as the virgins. But the number of believers is small who belong to Israel according to the flesh; one might venture to assert that they would not nearly make up the number of a hundred and forty-four thousand. It is clear, therefore, that the hundred and forty-four thousand who have not defiled themselves with women must be made up of those who have come to the divine word out of the Gentile world. In this way the truth of the statement may be upheld that the first fruits of each tribe are its virgins.

1.7 Ἀλλὰ καὶ οἱ ἀπὸ φυλῶν εἰ οἱ αὐτοί εἰσι τοῖς παρθένοις͵ ὡς προαπεδείξαμεν͵ σπάνιος δὲ ὁ ἐκ τοῦ κατὰ σάρκα Ἰσραὴλ πιστεύων͵ ὡς τάχα τολμῆσαι ἄν τινα εἰπεῖν μὴ συμπληροῦσθαι ἀπὸ τῶν ἐκ τοῦ κατὰ σάρκα Ἰσραὴλ πιστευόντων μηδὲ τὸν τῶν ἑκατὸν τεσσαράκοντα τεσσάρων χιλιάδων ἀριθμόν͵ δῆλον ὅτι ἐκ τῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ἐθνῶν τῷ θείῳ προσερχομένων λόγῳ συνίστανται αἱ ἑκατὸν τεσσαράκοντα τέσσαρες χιλιάδες μετὰ γυναικῶν οὐ μολυνομένων· ὥστε μὴ ἂν ἀποπεσεῖν τῆς ἀληθείας τὸν φάσκοντα ἀπαρχὴν ἑκάστης εἶναι φυλῆς τοὺς παρθένους αὐτῆς.

For the passage goes on: These were brought from among men to be a first fruits to God and to the Lamb; and in their mouth was found no guile, for they are without blemish. The statement about the hundred and forty-four thousand no doubt admits of mystical interpretation; but it is unnecessary at this point, and would divert us from our purpose, to compare with it those passages of the prophets in which the same lesson is taught regarding those who are called from among the Gentiles.

1.8 Καὶ γὰρ ἐπιφέρεται· Οὗτοι ἠγοράσθησαν ἀπὸ τῶν ἀνθρώπων ἀπαρχὴ τῷ θεῷ καὶ τῷ ἀρνίῳ͵ καὶ ἐν τῷ στόματι αὐτῶν οὐχ εὑρέθη ψεῦδος· ἄμωμοι γάρ εἰσιν. Οὐκ ἀγνοητέον δέ͵ ὅτι ὁ περὶ τῶν ἑκατὸν τεσσαράκοντα τεσσάρων χιλιάδων παρθένων λόγος ἐπιδέχεται ἀναγωγήν. Περιττὸν δὲ νῦν καὶ οὐ κατὰ τὸν προκείμενον λόγον τὸ παρατίθεσθαι λέξεις προφητικὰς ταὐτὸν περὶ τῶν ἐξ ἐθνῶν ἡμᾶς διδασκούσας.





3. In the Spiritual Israel the High-Priests are Those Who Devote Themselves to the Study of Scripture.


2. But what is the meaning of all this for us? So you will ask when you read these words, Ambrosius, you who are truly a man of God, a man in Christ, and who seekest to be not a man only, but a spiritual man. (1 Cor 2:14) The meaning is this. Those of the tribes offer to God, through the levites and priests, tithes and first fruits; not everything which they possess do they regard as tithe or first fruit. The levites and priests, on the other hand, have no possessions but tithes and first fruits; yet they also in turn offer tithes to God through the high-priests, and, I believe, first fruits too.

2.9 Τί δὴ πάντα ταῦθ΄ ἡμῖν βούλεται; ἐρεῖς ἐν τυγχάνων τοῖς γράμμασιν͵ Ἀμβρόσιε͵ ἀληθῶς θεοῦ ἄνθρωπε͵ καὶ ἐν Χριστῷ ἄνθρωπε καὶ σπεύδων εἶναι πνευματικός͵ οὐκέτι ἄνθρωπος. Οἱ μὲν ἀπὸ τῶν φυλῶν δεκάτας καὶ ἀπαρχὰς ἀναφέρουσι τῷ θεῷ διὰ τῶν λευϊτῶν καὶ ἱερέων͵ οὐ πάντα ἔχοντες ἀπαρχὰς ἢ δεκάτας· οἱ δὲ λευῖται καὶ ἱερεῖς͵ πάντα δεκάταις καὶ ἀπαρχαῖς χρώμενοι͵ δεκάτας ἀναφέρουσι τῷ θεῷ διὰ τοῦ ἀρχιερέως͵ οἶμαι δ΄ ὅτι καὶ ἀπαρχάς.

The same is the case with those who approach Christian studies. Most of us devote most of our time to the things of this life, and dedicate to God only a few special acts, thus resembling those members of the tribes who had but few transactions with the priest, and discharged their religiousduties with no great expense of time. But those who devote themselves to the divine word and have no other employment but the service of God may not unnaturally, allowing for the difference of occupation in the two cases, be called our levites and priests.

2.10 Ἡμῶν δὴ τῶν προσιόντων τοῖς Χριστοῦ μαθήμασιν οἱ μὲν πλεῖστοι͵ τὰ πολλὰ τῷ βίῳ σχολάζοντες καὶ ὀλίγας πράξεις τῷ θεῷ ἀνατι θέντες͵ τάχα εἶεν ἂν οἱ ἀπὸ τῶν φυλῶν ὀλίγην πρὸς τοὺς ἱερεῖς ἔχοντες κοινωνίαν καὶ ἐν βραχέσι τὸ θεραπευτικὸν τοῦ θεοῦ τρέφοντες· οἱ δὲ ἀνακείμενοι τῷ θείῳ λόγῳ καὶ πρὸς μόνῃ τῇ θεραπείᾳ τοῦ θεοῦ γινόμενοι γνησίως κατὰ τὴν δια φορὰν τῶν εἰς τοῦτο κινημάτων λευῖται καὶ ἱερεῖς οὐκ ἀτόπως λεχθήσονται.

And those who fulfil a more distinguished office than their kinsmen will perhaps be high-priests, according to the order of Aaron, not that of Melchisedek. Here some one may object that it is somewhat too bold to apply the name of high-priests to men, when Jesus Himself is spoken of in many a prophetic passage as the one great priest, as We have a great high-priest who has passed through the heavens, Jesus, the Son of God. (Heb 4:14)  But to this we reply that the Apostle clearly defined his meaning, and declared the prophet to have said about the Christ, You are a priest for ever, according to the order of Melchisedek, and not according to the order of Aaron. We say accordingly that men can be high-priests according to the order of Aaron, but according to the order of Melchisedek only the Christ of God.

2.11 Τάχα δὲ οἱ πάντων διαφέροντες καὶ οἱονεὶ τὰ πρῶτα τῆς καθ΄ ἑαυτοὺς γενεᾶς ἔχοντες ἀρχιερεῖς ἔσονται κατὰ τὴν τάξιν Ἀαρών͵ καὶ οὐ κατὰ τὴν τάξιν Μελχισεδέκ. Ἐὰν γάρ τις ἀνθυποφέρῃ πρὸς τοῦτο͵ νομίζων ἡμᾶς ἀσεβεῖν τὸ τοῦ ἀρχιερέως ὄνομα τάσσοντας ἐπ΄ ἀνθρώπων͵ ἐπεὶ πολλαχοῦ Ἰησοῦς μέγας ἱερεὺς προφητεύεταιἔχομεν γὰρ ἀρχιερέα μέγαν͵ διεληλυθότα τοὺς οὐρανούς͵ Ἰησοῦν τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ θεοῦ͵ λεκτέον πρὸς αὐτὸν ὅτι ὁ ἀπόστολος ἐπεση μήνατο λέγων τὸν προφήτην εἰρηκέναι περὶ Χριστοῦ· Σὺ ἱερεὺς εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα κατὰ τὴν τάξιν Μελχισεδέκ͵ καὶ οὐ κατὰ τὴν τάξιν Ἀαρών. Ἀφ΄ οὗ καὶ ἡμεῖς λαβόντες φαμὲν κατὰ μὲν τὴν τάξιν Ἀαρὼν ἀνθρώπους δύνασθαι εἶναι ἀρχιερεῖς͵ κατὰ δὲ τὴν τάξιν Μελχισεδὲκ τὸν Χριστὸν τοῦ θεοῦ.

 4. The Study of the Gospels is the First Fruits Offered by These Priests of Christianity.


Now our whole activity is devoted to God, and our whole life, since we are bent on progress in divine things. If, then, it be our desire to have the whole of those first fruits spoken of above which are made up of the many first fruits, if we are not mistaken in this view, in what must our first fruits consist, after the bodily separation we have undergone from each other, but in the study of the Gospel? For we may venture to say that the Gospel is the first fruits of all the Scriptures.

2.12 Πάσης τοίνυν ἡμῖν πράξεως καὶ παντὸς τοῦ βίου͵ ἐπεὶ σπεύδομεν ἐπὶ τὰ κρείττονα͵ ἀνακειμένης θεῷ καὶ βουλομένων ἡμῶν ἔχειν πᾶσαν αὐτὴν ἀπαρχὴν τῶν πολλῶν ἀπαρχῶνεἴ γε μὴ σφαλλόμεθα τοῦτο νομίζοντες͵ ποίαν ἐχρῆν εἶναι μετὰ τὸ κατὰ τὸ σῶμα κεχωρίσθαι ἡμᾶς ἀλλήλων διαφέρουσαν ἢ τὴν περὶ εὐαγγελίου ἐξέτασιν; Καὶ γὰρ τολμητέον εἰπεῖν πασῶν τῶν γραφῶν εἶναι ἀπαρχὴν τὸ εὐαγγέλιον.

Where, then, could be the first fruits of our activity, since the time when we came to Alexandria, but in the first fruits of the Scriptures? It must not be forgotten, however, that the first fruits are not the same as the first growth. For the first fruits are offered after all the fruits (are ripe) , but the first growth before them all.

2.13 Ἀπαρχὴν οὖν πράξεων͵ ἐξ οὗ τῇ Ἀλεξαν δρείᾳ ἐπιδεδημήκαμεν͵ τίνα ἄλλην ἢ τὴν εἰς τὴν ἀπαρχὴν τῶν γραφῶν ἐχρῆν γεγονέναι; Χρὴ δ΄ ἡμᾶς εἰδέναι οὐ ταὐτὸν εἶναι ἀπαρχὴν καὶ πρωτογέννημα· μετὰ γὰρ τοὺς πάντας καρποὺς ἀναφέ ρεται ἡ ἀπαρχή͵ πρὸ δὲ πάντων τὸ πρωτογέννημα.

Now of the Scriptures which are current and are believed to be divine in all the churches, one would not be wrong in saying that the first growth is the law of Moses, but the first fruits the Gospel. For it was after all the fruits of the prophets who prophesied till the Lord Jesus, that the perfect word shot forth.

2.14 Τῶν τοίνυν φερομένων γραφῶν καὶ ἐν πάσαις ἐκκλησίαις θεοῦ πεπιστευμένων εἶναι θείων͵ οὐκ ἂν ἁμάρτοι τις λέγων πρωτογέννημα μὲν τὸν Μωσέως νόμον͵ ἀπαρχὴν δὲ τὸ εὐαγγέλιον. Μετὰ γὰρ τοὺς πάντας τῶν προφητῶν καρ ποὺς τῶν μέχρι τοῦ κυρίου Ἰησοῦ ὁ τέλειος ἐβλάστησε λόγος.





 [5].All Scripture is Gospel; But the Gospels are Distinguished Above Other Scriptures.


3. Here, however, some one may object, appealing to the notion just put forward of the unfolding of the first fruits last, and may say that the Acts and the letters of the Apostles came after the Gospels, and that this destroys our argument to the effect that the Gospel is the first fruits of all Scripture. To this we must reply that it is the conviction of men who are wise in Christ, who have profited by those epistles which are current, and who see them to be vouched for by the testimonies deposited in the law and the prophets, that the apostolic writings are to be pronounced wise and worthy of belief, and that they have great authority, but that they are not on the same level with that Thus says the Lord Almighty. (2 Cor 6:18)

3.15 Ἐὰν δέ τις ἀνθυποφέρῃ διὰ τὴν ἔννοιαν τῆς ἀναπτύξεως τῶν ἀπαρχῶν φάσκων μετὰ τὰ εὐαγγέλια τὰς πράξεις καὶ τὰς ἐπιστολὰς φέρεσθαι τῶν ἀποστόλων καὶ κατὰ τοῦτο μὴ ἂν ἔτι σῴζεσθαι τὸ προαποδεδομένον περὶ ἀπαρχῆς͵ τὸ ἀπαρχὴν πάσης γραφῆς εἶναι τὸ εὐαγγέλιον͵ λεκτέον ἤτοι νοῦν εἶναι σοφῶν ἐν Χριστῷ ὠφελημένων ἐν ταῖς φερομέναις ἐπιστολαῖς͵ δεομένων͵ ἵνα πιστεύωνται͵ μαρτυριῶν τῶν ἐν τοῖς νομικοῖς καὶ προφητικοῖς λόγοις κειμένων· ὥστε σοφὰ μὲν καὶ εὔπιστα λέγειν καὶ σφόδρα ἐπιτετευγμένα τὰ ἀποστο λικά͵ οὐ μὴν παραπλήσια τῷ Τάδε λέγει κύριος παντοκράτωρ.

Consider on this point the language of St. Paul. When he declares that Every Scripture is inspired of God and profitable, (2 Timothy 3:16) does he include his own writings? Or does he not include his dictum, I say, and not the Lord, (1 Cor 7:12) and  So I ordain in all the churches, (1 Cor 7:17) and What things I suffered at Antioch, at Iconium, at Lystra, (2 Timothy 3:1) and similar things which he writes in virtue of his own authority, and which do not quite possess the character of words flowing from divine inspiration.

3.16 Καὶ κατὰ τοῦτο ἐπίστησον εἰ͵ ἐπὰν λέγῃ ὁ Παῦλος· Πᾶσα γραφὴ θεόπνευστος καὶ ὠφέλιμος͵ ἐμπεριλαμβάνει καὶ τὰ ἑαυτοῦ γράμματα· ἢ οὐ τό τε Ἐγὼ λέγω͵ καὶ οὐχ ὁ κύριος καὶ τὸ Ἐν πάσαις ἐκκλησίαις διατάσσομαι καὶ τὸ Οἷα ἔπαθον ἐν Ἀντιοχείᾳ͵ ἐν Ἰκονίῳ͵ ἐν Λύστροις καὶ τὰ τούτοις παραπλήσια ἐνίοτε ὑπ΄ αὐτοῦ γραφέντα τὴν μὲν ἐξουσίαν     ἀποστο λικὴν   ͵ οὐ μὴν τὸ εἰλικρινὲς τῶν ἐκ θείας ἐπιπνοίας λόγων.

Must we also show that the old Scripture is not Gospel, since it does not point out the Coming One, but only foretells Him and heralds His coming at a future time; but that all the new Scripture is the Gospel. It not only says as in the beginning of the Gospel, (Jn 1:29) Behold the Lamb of God, which takes away the sin of the world; it also contains many praises of Him, and many of His teachings, on whose account the Gospel is a Gospel.

3.17 ῍Η καὶ τούτῳ παραστατέον ὅτι ἡ παλαιὰ μὲν οὐκ εὐαγγέλιον͵ οὐ δεικνύουσα τὸν ἐρχόμενον ἀλλὰ προκη ρύσσουσα͵ πᾶσα δὲ ἡ καινὴ τὸ εὐαγγέλιόν ἐστιν͵ οὐ μόνον ὁμοίως τῇ ἀρχῇ τοῦ εὐαγγελίου φάσκουσα· Ἰδοὺ ὁ ἀμνὸς τοῦ θεοῦ͵ ὁ αἴρων τὴν ἁμαρτίαν τοῦ κόσμου͵ ἀλλὰ καὶ ποικίλας δοξολογίας περιέχουσα καὶ διδασκαλίας τοῦ δι΄ ὃν τὸ εὐαγγέλιον εὐαγγέλιόν ἐστιν.

Again, if God set in the Church (Eph 4:11) apostles and prophets and evangelists (gospellers) , pastors and teachers, we must first enquire what was the office of the evangelist, and mark that it is not only to narrate how the Saviour cured a man who was blind from his birth, (Jn 9:1) or raised up a dead man who was already stinking, (Jn 11:39) or to state what extraordinary works he wrought; and the office of the evangelist being thus defined, we shall not hesitate to fmd Gospel in such discourse also as is not narrative but hortatory and intended to strengthen belief in the mission of Jesus; and thus we shall arrive at the position that whatever was written by the Apostles is Gospel.

3.18 Ἔτι δὲ εἰ ὁ θεὸς ἔθετο ἐν τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ ἀποστόλους καὶ προφήτας καὶ εὐαγγελιστὰς ποιμένας τε καὶ διδασκάλους͵ ἐπὰν ἐξετάσωμεν τί τὸ ἔργον τοῦ εὐαγγελιστοῦ͵ ὅτι οὐ πάντως διηγήσασθαι τίνα τρόπον ὁ σωτὴρ τυφλὸν ἀπὸ γενετῆς ἰάσατο͵ ὀδωδότα νεκρὸν ἀνέστησεν ἤ τι τῶν παρα δόξων πεποίηκεν͵ οὐκ ὀκνήσομεν͵ χαρακτηριζομένου τοῦ εὐαγγελιστοῦ καὶ ἐν προτρεπτικῷ λόγῳ τῷ εἰς πιστοποίησιν τῶν περὶ Ἰησοῦ͵ εὐαγγέλιόν πως εἰπεῖν τὰ ὑπὸ τῶν ἀποστόλων γεγραμμένα.

As to this second definition, it might be objected that the Epistles are not entitled Gospel, and that we are wrong in applying the name of Gospel to the whole of the New Testament. But to this we answer that it happens not unfrequently in Scripture when two or more persons or things are named by the same name, the name attaches itself most significantly to one of those things or persons. Thus the Saviour says, Call no man Master upon the earth; (Mt 23:8-9) while the Apostle says that Masters have been appointed in the Church.

3.19 Ἀλλ΄ ὅσον ἐπὶ τῇ δευτέρᾳ ἀποδόσει͵ τῷ ἀνθυποφέροντι διὰ τὸ μὴ ἐπιγεγράφθαι τὰς ἐπιστολὰς εὐαγγέλιον ὡς οὐ καλῶς πᾶσαν τὴν καινὴν διαθήκην εὐαγγέλιον ἡμῶν ὀνομα σάντων͵ λεκτέον ὅτι πολλαχοῦ τῶν γραφῶν δύο τινῶν ἢ πλειόνων τῷ αὐτῷ ὀνόματι ὀνομαζομένων κυριώτερον ἐπὶ τοῦ ἑτέρου τῶν λεγομένων κεῖται τὸ ὄνομα· οἷον λέγοντος τοῦ σωτῆρος· Μὴ καλέσητε διδάσκαλον ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς ὁ ἀπό στολός φησι τετάχθαι ἐν τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ καὶ διδασκάλους.

These latter accordingly will not be Masters in the strict sense of the dictum of the Gospel. In the same way the Gospel in the Epistles will not extend to every word of them, when it is compared with the narrative of Jesus’ actions and sufferings and discourses. No: the Gospel is the first fruits of all Scripture, and to these first fruits of the Scriptures we devote the first fruits of all those actions of ours which we trust to see turn out as we desire.

3.20 Οὐκ ἔσονται οὖν οὗτοι διδάσκαλοι ὅσον ἐπὶ τῇ ἀκριβείᾳ τῆς τοῦ εὐαγγελίου φωνῆς. Οὕτως οὐκ ἔσται εὐαγγέλιον τὸ κατὰ τὰς ἐπιστολὰς πᾶν γράμμα͵ ὅταν παραβάλληται τῇ διηγήσει τῶν περὶ Ἰησοῦ πράξεων καὶ παθημάτων καὶ λόγων αὐτοῦ. Πλὴν ἀπαρχὴ πάσης γραφῆς τὸ εὐαγγέλιον͵ καὶ πασῶν τῶν κατ΄ εὐχὴν ἡμῶν πράξεων ἐσομένων ἀπαρχὴν ποιούμεθα εἰς τὴν ἀπαρχὴν τῶν γραφῶν.





 [6]. The Fourfold Gospel. John’s the First Fruits of the Four. Qualifications Necessary for Interpreting It.


4. Now the Gospels are four. These four are, as it were, the elements of the faith of the Church, out of which elements the whole world which is reconciled to God in Christ is put together; as Paul says, (2 Cor 5:19) God was in Christ, reconciling the world to Himself; of which world Jesus bore the sin; for it is of the world of the Church that the word is written, (Jn 1:29) Behold the Lamb of God which takes away the sin of the world. The Gospels then being four, I deem the first fruits of the Gospels to be that which you have enjoined me to search into according to my powers, the Gospel of John, that which speaks of him whose genealogy had already been set forth, but which begins to speak of him at a point before he had any genealogy.

4.21 Ἐγὼ δ΄ οἶμαι ὅτι καὶ τεσσάρων ὄντων τῶν εὐαγγελίων οἱονεὶ στοιχείων τῆς πίστεως τῆς ἐκκλησίαςἐξ ὧν στοιχείων ὁ πᾶς συνέστηκε κόσμος ἐν Χριστῷ καταλλα γεὶς τῷ θεῷ͵ καθά φησιν ὁ Παῦλος· Θεὸς ἦν ἐν Χριστῷ κόσμον καταλλάσσων ἑαυτῷ· οὗ κόσμου τὴν ἁμαρτίαν ἦρεν Ἰησοῦς· περὶ γὰρ τοῦ κόσμου τῆς ἐκκλησίας ὁ λόγος ἐστὶν ὁ γεγραμμένος· Ἰδοὺ ὁ ἀμνὸς τοῦ θεοῦ͵ ὁ αἴρων τὴν ἁμαρτίαν τοῦ κόσμουἀπαρχὴν τῶν εὐαγγελίων εἶναι τὸ προστεταγμένον ἡμῖν ὑπὸ σοῦ κατὰ δύναμιν ἐρευνῆσαι͵ τὸ κατὰ Ἰωάννην͵ τὸν γενεαλογούμενον εἰπὸν καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀγενεαλογήτου ἀρχόμενον.

For Matthew, writing for the Hebrews who looked for Him who was to come of the line of Abraham and of David, says: (Mt 1:1) The book of the generation of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham. And Mark, knowing what he writes, narrates the beginning of the Gospel; we may perhaps find what he aims at in John; in the beginning the Word, God the Word. But Luke, though he says at the beginning of Acts, The former treatise did I make about all that Jesus began to do and to teach, yet leaves to him who lay on Jesus’ breast the greatest and completest discourses about Jesus. For none of these plainly declared His Godhead, as John does when he makes Him say, I am the light of the world, I am the way and the truth and the life, I am the resurrection, I am the door, I am the good shepherd; and in the Apocalypse, I am the Alpha and the Omega, the beginning and the end, the first and the last.

4.22 Ματθαῖος μὲν γὰρ τοῖς προσδοκῶσι τὸν ἐξ Ἀβραὰμ καὶ Δαβὶδ Ἑβραίοις γράφων· Βίβλος͵ φησί͵ γενέσεως Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ͵ υἱοῦ Δαβίδ͵ υἱοῦ Ἀβραάμ͵ καὶ Μάρκος͵ εἰδὼς ὃ γράφει͵ ἀρχήν διηγεῖται τοῦ εὐαγγελίου͵ τάχα εὑρισκόντων ἡμῶν τὸ τέλος αὐτοῦ παρὰ τῷ Ἰωάννῃ     τὸν ἐν ἀρχῇ λόγον͵ θεὸν λόγον. Ἀλλὰ καὶ Λου κᾶς     ἀλλά γε τηρεῖ τῷ ἐπὶ τὸ στῆθος ἀναπεσόντι τοῦ Ἰησοῦ τοὺς μείζονας καὶ τελειοτέρους περὶ Ἰησοῦ λόγους· οὐδεὶς γὰρ ἐκείνων ἀκράτως ἐφανέρωσεν αὐτοῦ τὴν θεότητα ὡς Ἰωάννης͵ παραστήσας αὐτὸν λέγοντα· Ἐγώ εἰμι τὸ φῶς τοῦ κόσμου· Ἐγώ εἰμι ἡ ὁδὸς καὶ ἡ ἀλήθεια καὶ ἡ ζωή· Ἐγώ εἰμι ἡ ἀνάστασις· Ἐγώ εἰμι ἡ θύρα· Ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ ποιμὴν ὁ καλός· καὶ ἐν τῇ Ἀποκα λύψει Ἐγώ εἰμι τὸ Α καὶ τὸ Ω͵ ἡ ἀρχὴ καὶ τὸ τέλος͵ ὁ πρῶτος καὶ ὁ ἔσχατος.

We may therefore make bold to say that the Gospels are the first fruits of all the Scriptures, but that of the Gospels that of John is the first fruits. No one can apprehend the meaning of it except he have lain on Jesus’ breast and received from Jesus Mary to be his mother also. Such a one must he become who is to be another John, and to have shown to him, like John, by Jesus Himself Jesus as He is. For if Mary, as those declare who with sound mind extol her, had no other son but Jesus, and yet Jesus says to His mother, Woman, behold your son, (Jn 19:26) and not Behold you have this son also, then He virtually said to her, “Lo, this is Jesus, whom you bore”. Is it not the case that every one who is perfect lives himself no longer, (Gal 2:20) but Christ lives in him; and if Christ lives in him, then it is said of him to Mary, Behold your son Christ.

4.23 Τολμητέον τοίνυν εἰπεῖν ἀπαρχὴν μὲν πασῶν γραφῶν εἶναι τὰ εὐαγγέλια͵ τῶν δὲ εὐαγγελίων ἀπαρχὴν τὸ κατὰ Ἰωάννην͵ οὗ τὸν νοῦν οὐδεὶς δύναται λαβεῖν μὴ ἀναπεσὼν ἐπὶ τὸ στῆθος Ἰησοῦ μηδὲ λαβὼν ἀπὸ Ἰησοῦ τὴν Μαρίαν γινομένην καὶ αὐτοῦ μητέρα. Καὶ τηλικοῦτον δὲ γενέσθαι δεῖ τὸν ἐσόμενον ἄλλον Ἰωάννην͵ ὥστε οἱονεὶ τὸν Ἰωάννην δειχθῆναι ὄντα Ἰησοῦν ὑπὸ Ἰησοῦ. Εἰ γὰρ οὐδεὶς υἱὸς Μαρίας κατὰ τοὺς ὑγιῶς περὶ αὐτῆς δοξάζοντας ἢ Ἰησοῦς͵ φησὶ δὲ Ἰησοῦς τῇ μητρί· Ἴδε ὁ υἱός σου καὶ οὐχί Ἴδε καὶ οὗτος υἱός σου͵ ἴσον εἴρηκε τῷ Ἴδε οὗτός ἐστιν Ἰησοῦς ὃν ἐγέννησας. Καὶ γὰρ πᾶς ὁ τετελειωμένος ζῇ οὐκέτι͵ ἀλλ΄ ἐν αὐτῷ ζῇ Χριστός͵ καὶ ἐπεὶ ζῇ ἐν αὐτῷ Χριστός͵ λέγεται περὶ αὐτοῦ τῇ Μαρίᾳ· Ἴδε ὁ υἱός σου ὁ Χριστός.

What a mind, then, must we have to enable us to interpret in a worthy manner this work, though it be committed to the earthly treasure-house of common speech, of writing which any passer-by can read, and which can be heard when read aloud by any one who lends to it his bodily ears? What shall we say of this work? He who is accurately to apprehend what it contains should be able to say with truth, We have the mind of Christ, that we may know those things which are bestowed on us by God.

4.24 Ἡλίκου τοίνυν νοῦ ἡμῖν δεῖ͵ ἵνα τὸν ἐν τοῖς ὀστρακί νοις τῆς εὐτελοῦς λέξεως θησαυροῖς ἐναποκείμενον λόγον͵ τοῦ ὑπὸ πάντων τῶν ἐντυγχανόντων ἀναγινωσκομένου γράμ ματος καὶ ὑπὸ πάντων τῶν παρεχόντων τὰς σωματικὰς ἀκοὰς ἀκουομένου αἰσθητοῦ διὰ φωνῆς λόγου ἐκλαβεῖν κατ΄ ἀξίαν δυνηθῶμεν͵ τί δεῖ καὶ λέγειν; Τὸν γὰρ μέλλοντα ταῦτα ἀκριβῶς καταλαμβάνειν μετὰ ἀληθείας εἰπεῖν δεῖ· Ἡμεῖς δὲ νοῦν Χριστοῦ ἔχομεν͵ ἵνα εἰδῶμεν τὰ ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ χαρισθέντα ἡμῖν.

It is possible to quote one of Paul’s sayings in support of the contention that the whole of the New Testament is Gospel. He writes in a certain place: According to my Gospel. (Rom 2:16) Now we have no written work of Paul which is commonly called a Gospel. But all that he preached and said was the Gospel; and what he preached and said he was also in the habit of writing, and what he wrote was therefore Gospel.

4.25 Ἔστι δὲ προσαχθῆναι ἀπὸ τῶν ὑπὸ Παύλου λεγο μένων περὶ τοῦ πᾶσαν τὴν καινὴν εἶναι τὰ εὐαγγέλια͵ ὅταν που γράφῃ· Κατὰ τὸ εὐαγγέλιόν μου· ἐν γράμμασι γὰρ Παύλου οὐκ ἔχομεν βιβλίον εὐαγγέλιον συνήθως καλούμενον͵ ἀλλὰ πᾶν͵ ὃ ἐκήρυσσε καὶ ἔλεγε͵ τὸ εὐαγγέλιον ἦν. Ἃ δὲ ἐκήρυσσε καὶ ἔλεγε͵ ταῦτα καὶ ἔγραφε· καὶ ἃ ἔγραφεν ἄρα εὐαγγέλιον ἦν.

But if what Paul wrote was Gospel, it follows that what Peter wrote was also Gospel, and in a word all that was said or written to perpetuate the knowledge of Christ’s sojourn on earth, and to prepare for His second coming, or to bring it about as a present reality in those souls which were willing to receive the Word of God as He stood at the door and knocked and sought to come into them.

4.26 Εἰ δὲ τὰ Παύλου εὐαγγέλιον ἦν͵ ἀκόλου θον λέγειν ὅτι καὶ τὰ Πέτρου εὐαγγέλιον ἦν καὶ ἁπαξαπλῶς τὰ συνιστάντα τὴν Χριστοῦ ἐπιδημίαν καὶ κατασκευάζοντα τὴν παρουσίαν αὐτοῦ ἐμποιοῦντά τε αὐτὴν ταῖς ψυχαῖς τῶν βουλομένων παραδέξασθαι τὸν ἑστῶτα ἐπὶ τὴν θύραν καὶ κρούοντα καὶ εἰσελθεῖν βουλόμενον εἰς τὰς ψυχὰς λόγον θεοῦ.





 [7] What Good Things are Announced in the Gospels.


5 But it is time we should inquire what is the meaning of the designation Gospel, and why these books have this title. Now the Gospel is a discourse containing a promise of things which naturally, and on account of the benefits they bring, rejoice the hearer as soon as the promise is heard and believed. Nor is such a discourse any the less a Gospel that we define it with reference to the position of the hearer. A Gospel is either a word which implies the actual presence to the believer of something that is good, or a word promising the arrival of a good which is expected.

5.27 Τί δὲ βούλεται δηλοῦν ἡ εὐαγγέλιον προσηγορία͵ καὶ διὰ τί ταύτην ἔχει τὴν ἐπιγραφὴν ταῦτα τὰ βιβλία͵ ἤδη καιρὸς ἐξετάσαι. Ἔστι τοίνυν τὸ εὐαγγέλιον λόγος περιέχων ἀπαγγελίαν πραγμάτων κατὰ τὸ εὔλογον διὰ τὸ ὠφελεῖν εὐφραινόντων τὸν ἀκούοντα͵ ἐπὰν παραδέξηται τὸ ἀπαγγελλόμενον· οὐδὲν δ΄ ἧττον ὁ τοιοῦτος λόγος εὐαγγέ λιόν ἐστιν͵ ἂν καὶ πρὸς τὴν σχέσιν τοῦ ἀκούοντος ἐξετάζηται. ῍Η εὐαγγέλιόν ἐστι λόγος περιέχων ἀγαθοῦ τῷ πιστεύοντι παρουσίαν ἢ λόγος ἐπαγγελλόμενος παρεῖναι ἀγαθὸν τὸ προσδοκώμενον.

Now all these defmitions apply to those books which are named Gospels. For each of the Gospels is a collection of announcements which are useful to him who believes them and does not misinterpret them; it brings him a benefit and naturally makes him glad because it tells of the sojourn with men, on account of men, and for their salvation, of the first-born of all creation, (Col 1:15) Christ Jesus. And again each Gospel tells of the sojourn of the good Father in the Son with those minded to receive Him, as is plain to every believer.

5.28 Πάντες δὲ οἱ προειρημένοι ἡμῖν ὅροι ἐφαρμόζουσι τοῖς ἐπιγραφομένοις εὐαγγελίοις. Ἕκαστον γὰρ εὐαγγέλιον͵ σύστημα ἀπαγγελλομένων ὠφελίμων τῷ πιστεύοντι καὶ μὴ παρεκδεξαμένῳ τυγχάνον ὠφέλειαν ἐμποιοῦν͵ κατὰ τὸ εὔλογον εὐφραίνει͵ διδάσκον τὴν δι΄ ἀνθρώπους τοῦ πρωτοτόκου πάσης κτίσεως Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ σωτήριον αὐτοῖς ἐπιδημίαν. Ἀλλὰ καὶ ὅτι λόγος ἐστὶν ἕκαστον εὐαγγέλιον διδάσκων τὴν τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ πατρὸς ἐν υἱῷ τοῖς βουλομένοις παραδέξασθαι ἐπιδημίαν͵ παντὶ τῷ πιστεύοντι σαφές.

And moreover by these books a good is announced which had been formerly expected, as is by no means hard to see. For John the Baptist spoke in the name almost of the whole people when he sent to Jesus and asked, (Mt 11:3) Are you He that should come or do we look for another? For to the people the Messiah was an expected good, which the prophets had foretold, and they all alike, though under the law and the prophets, fixed their hopes on Him, as the Samaritanwoman bears witness when she says: (Jn 4:25 I) know that the Messiah comes, who is called Christ; when He comes He will tell us all things.

5.29 Ὅτι δὲ καὶ ἀγαθὸν ἐπαγγέλλεται διὰ τῶν βιβλίων τούτων τὸ προσδοκηθέν͵ οὐκ ἀσαφές. Σχεδὸν γὰρ ὁ βαπτιστὴς Ἰωάννης τὴν παντὸς τοῦ λαοῦ λαβὼν φωνήν φησι πέμψας τῷ Ἰησοῦ· Σὺ εἶ ὁ ἐρχόμενος͵ ἢ ἕτερον προσδοκῶμεν͵ προσδοκώμενον γὰρ ἀγαθὸν τῷ λαῷ ὁ Χριστὸς ἦν͵ περὶ οὗ κηρυσσόντων τῶν προφητῶν μέχρι καὶ τῶν τυχόντων πάντες εἰς αὐτὸν ἔσχον οἱ ὑπὸ νόμον καὶ προφήτας τὰς ἐλπίδας͵ ὡς μαρτυρεῖ ἡ Σαμαρεῖτις λέγουσα· Οἶδα ὅτι Μεσσίας ἔρχεται͵ ὁ λεγόμενος Χρι στός· ὅταν ἔλθῃ ἐκεῖνος͵ ἀπαγγελεῖ ἡμῖν ἅπαντα.

Simon and Cleopas too, when talking to each other about all that had happened to Jesus Christ Himself, then risen, though they did not know that He had risen from the dead, speak thus, Do you sojourn alone in Jerusalem, and know not the things which have taken place there in these days? And when he said what things? They answered, The things concerning Jesus of Nazareth, which was a prophet, mighty in deed and in word before God and all the people, and how the chief priests and our rulers delivered Him up to be sentenced to death and crucified Him. But we hoped that it was He which should redeem Israel. (Lk 24:18-21)

5.30 Ἀλλὰ καὶ Σίμων καὶ Κλεόπας͵ ὁμιλοῦντες πρὸς ἀλλήλους περὶ πάντων τῶν συμβεβηκότων τῷ Ἰησοῦ͵ αὐτῷ τῷ Χριστῷ ἀναστάντι οὐδέπω γινώσκοντες ἐγηγέρθαι αὐτὸν ἐκ νεκρῶν φασί· Σὺ μόνος παροικεῖς ἐν Ἱερουσαλήμ͵ καὶ οὐκ ἔγνως τὰ γενόμενα ἐν αὐτῇ ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις ταύταις; Εἰπόντος δὲ Ποῖα; ἀποκρίνονται· Τὰ περὶ Ἰησοῦ τοῦ Ναζαρηνοῦ͵ ὃς ἐγένετο ἀνὴρ προφήτης δυνατὸς ἐν ἔργῳ καὶ λόγῳ ἐναντίον τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ παντὸς τοῦ λαοῦ· ὅπως τε παρέδωκαν αὐτὸν οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ οἱ ἄρχοντες ἡμῶν εἰς κρίμα θανάτου καὶ ἐσταύρωσαν αὐτόν. Ἡμεῖς δὲ ἠλπίζομεν ὅτι αὐτός ἐστιν ὁ μέλλων λυτροῦσθαι τὸν Ἰσραήλ.

Again, Andrew the brother of Simon Peter found his own brother Simon and said to him, We have found the Messiah, which is, being interpreted, Christ. (John 1:42) And a little further on Philip finds Nathanael and says to him, We have found Him of whom Moses in the law, and the prophets, wrote, Jesus the son of Joseph, from Nazareth. (John 1:46)

5.31 Πρὸς τούτοις Ἀνδρέας ὁ ἀδελφὸς Σίμωνος Πέτρου εὑρὼν τὸν ἀδελφὸν τὸν ἴδιον Σίμωνα λέγει· Εὑρήκαμεν τὸν Μεσσίαν͵ ὅ ἐστι μεθερμηνευόμενον Χριστός. Καὶ μετ΄ ὀλίγα ὁ Φίλιππος εὑρὼν τὸν Ναθαναὴλ λέγει αὐτῷ· Ὃν ἔγραψεν Μωσῆς ἐν τῷ νόμῳ καὶ οἱ προφῆται εὑρήκαμεν͵ τὸν Ἰησοῦν τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ Ἰωσὴφ τὸν ἀπὸ Ναζαρέθ.





 [8] How the Gospels Cause the Other Books of Scripture Also to Be Gospel.


6. Now an objection might be raised to our first definition, because it would embrace books which are not entitled Gospels. For the law and the prophets also are to our eyes books containing the promise of things which, from the benefit they will confer on him, naturallyrejoice the hearer as soon as he takes in the message.

6.32 Δόξαι δ΄ ἄν τις ἐνίστασθαι τῷ πρώτῳ ὅρῳ͵ ἐπεὶ καὶ τὰ μὴ ἐπιγεγραμμένα εὐαγγέλια ὑποπίπτει αὐτῷ· ὁ γὰρ νόμος καὶ οἱ προφῆται λόγοι πιστεύονται εἶναι περιέχοντες ἀπαγγελίαν πραγμάτων κατὰ τὸ εὔλογον διὰ τὸ ὠφελεῖν εὐφραινόντων τοὺς ἀκούοντας͵ ἐπὰν παραδέ ξωνται τὰ ἀπαγγελλόμενα.

To this it may be said that before the sojourn of Christ, the law and the prophets, since He had not come who interpreted the mysteries they contained, did not convey such a promise as belongs to our definition of the Gospel; but the Saviour, when He sojourned with men and caused the Gospel to appear in bodily form, by the Gospel caused all things to appear as Gospel.

6.33 Λεχθείη δ΄ ἂν πρὸς τοῦτο ὅτι πρὸ τῆς Χριστοῦ ἐπιδη μίας ὁ νόμος καὶ οἱ προφῆται͵ ἅτε μηδέπω ἐληλυθότος τοῦ τὰ ἐν αὐτοῖς μυστήρια σαφηνίζοντος͵ οὐκ εἶχον τὸ ἐπάγγελμα τοῦ περὶ τοῦ εὐαγγελίου ὅρου· ὁ δὲ σωτὴρ ἐπιδημήσας καὶ τὸ εὐαγγέλιον σωματοποιηθῆναι ποιήσας τῷ εὐαγγελίῳ πάντα ὡσεὶ εὐαγγέλιον πεποίηκεν.

Here I would not think it beside the purpose to quote the example of Him who...a few things...and yet all. For when he had taken away the veil which was present in the law and the prophets, and by His divinity had proved the sons of men that the Godhead was at work, He opened the way for all those who desired it to be disciples of His wisdom, and to understand what things were true and real in the law of Moses, of which things those of old worshipped the type and the shadow, and what things were real of the things narrated in the histories which happened to them in the way of type, but these things were written for our sakes, upon whom the ends of the ages have come. (1 Cor.10:11)

6.34 Καὶ οὐκ ἂν ἀπὸ σκοποῦ χρησαίμην τῷ παραδείγματι τοῦ Μικρὰ ζύμη ὅλον τὸ φύραμα ζυμοῖ. Ὅτι       υἱοὺς τῶν ἀνθρώπων τῇ θειότητι αὐτοῦ͵ περιελὼν τὸ ἐν τῷ νόμῳ καὶ προφήταις κάλυμμα͵ πάντων τὸ θεῖον ἀπέδειξε͵ φανερῶς παραστή σας τοῖς βουληθεῖσι τῆς σοφίας αὐτοῦ γενέσθαι μαθηταῖς͵ τίνα τὰ ἀληθινὰ τοῦ Μωσέως νόμου͵ ὧν ὑποδείγματι καὶ σκιᾷ ἐλάτρευον οἱ πάλαι͵ καὶ τίς ἡ ἀλήθεια τῶν ἐν ταῖς ἱστορίαις πραγμάτων͵ ἅτινα τυπικῶς συνέβαινεν ἐκείνοις͵ ἐγράφη δὲ δι΄ ἡμᾶς͵ εἰς οὓς τὰ τέλη τῶν αἰώνων κατήν τησεν.

With whomsoever, then, Christ has sojourned, he worships God neither at Jerusalem nor on the mountain of the Samaritans; he knows that God is a spirit, and worships Him spiritually, in spirit and in truth; no longer by type does he worship the Father and Maker of all.

6.35 Πᾶς γοῦν ᾧ Χριστὸς ἐπιδεδήμηκεν οὔτε ἐν Ἱεροσολύ μοις οὔτε ἐν τῷ τῶν Σαμαρειτῶν ὄρει προσκυνεῖ τῷ θεῷ ἀλλὰ μαθὼν ὅτι πνεῦμα ὁ θεός͵ πνευματικῶς λατρεύων αὐτῷ πνεύματι καὶ ἀληθείᾳ οὐκέτι δὲ τυπικῶς προσκυνεῖ τὸν τῶν ὅλων πατέρα καὶ δημιουργόν.

Before that Gospel, therefore, which came into being by the sojourning of Christ, none of the older works was a Gospel. But the Gospel, which is the new covenant, having delivered us from the oldness of the letter, lights up for us, by the light of knowledge, the newness of the spirit, a thing which never grows old, which has its home in the New Testament, but is also present in all the Scriptures. It was fitting, therefore, that that Gospel, which enables us to find the Gospel present, even in the Old Testament, should itself receive, in a special sense, the name of Gospel.

6.36 Οὐκοῦν πρὸ τοῦ εὐαγγελίου͵ ὃ γέγονε διὰ τὴν Χριστοῦ ἐπιδημίαν͵ οὐδὲν τῶν πάλαι εὐαγγέλιον ἦν. Τὸ δὲ εὐαγγέλιον͵ ὅπερ ἐστὶ διαθήκη καινή͵ ἀποστῆσαν ἡμᾶς παλαιότητος τοῦ γράμματος τήν μηδέποτε παλαιουμένην καινότητα τοῦ πνεύματος͵ οἰκείαν τῆς καινῆς διαθήκης τυγχάνουσαν͵ ἐν πάσαις ἀνακειμένην γραφαῖς τῷ φωτὶ τῆς γνώσεως ἀνέλαμ ψεν. Ἐχρῆν δὲ τὸ ποιητικὸν τοῦ καὶ ἐν τῇ παλαιᾷ διαθήκῃ νομιζομένου εὐαγγελίου εὐαγγέλιον ἐξαιρέτως καλεῖσθαι εὐαγγέλιον.





 [9]. The Somatic and the Spiritual Gospel.


7. We must not, however, forget that the sojourning of Christ with men took place before His bodily sojourn, in an intellectual fashion, to those who were more perfect and not children, and were not under pedagogues and governors. In their minds they saw the fullness of the time to be at hand—the patriarchs, and Moses the servant, and the prophets who beheld the glory of Christ.

7.37 Πλὴν οὐκ ἀγνοητέον Χριστοῦ ἐπιδημίαν καὶ πρὸτῆς κατὰ σῶμα ἐπιδημίας τὴν νοητὴν γεγονέναι τοῖς τελειοτέροις καὶ οὐ νηπίοις οὐδὲ ὑπὸ παιδαγωγοὺς καὶ ἐπιτρόπους ἔτι τυγχάνουσιν͵ οἷς τὸ νοητὸν τοῦ χρόνου πλήρωμα ἐνέστη͵ ὥσπερ τοῖς πατριάρχαις καὶ Μωσεῖ τῷ θεράποντι καὶ τοῖς τεθεαμένοις Χριστοῦ τὴν δόξαν προφή ταις.

And as before His manifest and bodily coming He came to those who were perfect, so also, after His coming has been announced to all, to those who are still children, since they are under pedagogues and governors and have not yet arrived at the fullness of the time, forerunners of Christ have come to sojourn, discourses (logoi) suited for minds still in their childhood, and rightly, therefore, termed pedagogues. But the Son Himself, the glorified God, the Word, has not yet come; He waits for the preparation which must take place on the part of men of God who are to admit His deity.

7.38 Ὥσπερ δὲ πρὸ τῆς ἐμφανοῦς καὶ κατὰ σῶμα ἐπιδημίας ἐπεδήμησε τοῖς τελείοις͵ οὕτω καὶ μετὰ τὴν κεκηρυγμένην παρουσίαν τοῖς ἔτι νηπίοις͵ ἅτε ὑπὸ ἐπι τρόπους τυγχάνουσι καὶ οἰκονόμους καὶ μηδέπω ἐπὶ τὸ πλήρωμα τοῦ χρόνου ἐφθακόσιν· οἷς οἱ μὲν πρόδρομοι Χριστοῦ ἐπιδεδημήκασι͵ παισὶ ψυχαῖς ἁρμόζοντες λόγοι͵ εὐλόγως ἂν κληθέντες παιδαγωγοί· αὐτὸς δὲ ὁ υἱὸς ὁ δεδοξασμένος θεὸς λόγος οὐδέπω͵ περιμένων τὴν δέουσαν γενέσθαι προπαρασκευὴν τοῖς μέλλουσι χωρεῖν αὐτοῦ τὴν θεότητα ἀνθρώποις θεοῦ.

And this, too, we must bear in mind, that as the law contains a shadow of good things to come, which are indicated by that law which is announced according to truth, so the Gospel also teaches a shadow of the mysteries of Christ, the Gospel which is thought to be capable of being understood by any one.

7.39 Καὶ τοῦτο δὲ εἰδέναι ἐχρῆν͵ ὅτι ὥσπερ ἔστι νόμος σκιὰν περιέχων τῶν μελλόντων ἀγαθῶν ὑπὸ τοῦ κατὰ ἀλήθειαν καταγγελλομένου νόμου δηλουμένων͵ οὕτω καὶ εὐαγγέλιον σκιὰν μυστηρίων Χριστοῦ διδάσκει τὸ νομιζό μενον ὑπὸ πάντων τῶν ἐντυγχανόντων νοεῖσθαι.

What John calls the eternal Gospel, and what may properly be called the spiritual Gospel, presents clearly to those who have the will to understand, all matters concerning the very Son of God, both the mysteries presented by His discourses and those matters of which His acts were the enigmas. In accordance with this we may conclude that, as it is with Him who is a Jew outwardly and circumcised in the flesh, so it is with the Christian and with baptism.

7.40 Ὃ δέ φησιν Ἰωάννης εὐαγγέλιον αἰώνιον͵ οἰκείως ἂν λεχθησό μενον πνευματικόν͵ σαφῶς παρίστησι τοῖς νοοῦσιν τὰ πάντα ἐνώπιον περὶ αὐτοῦ τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ τὰ παριστάμενα μυστήρια ὑπὸ τῶν λόγων αὐτοῦ τά τε πράγματα͵ ὧν αἰνίγματα ἦσαν αἱ πράξεις αὐτοῦ. Τούτοις δὲ ἀκόλουθόν ἐστιν ἐκλαμβάνειν ὅτι ὃν τρόπον ἐν φανερῷ Ἰουδαῖός τίς ἐστι καὶ περιτετμημένος καὶ ἐν φανερῷ περιτομὴ καὶ ἄλλη ἐν κρυπτῷ͵ οὕτω χριστιανὸς καὶ βάπτισμα.

Paul and Peter were, at an earlier period, Jews outwardly and circumcised, but later they received from Christ that they should be so in secret, too; so that outwardly they were Jews for the sake of the salvation of many, and by an economy they not only confessed in words that they were Jews, but showed it by their actions. And the same is to be said about their Christianity.

7.41 Καὶ Παῦλος μὲν καὶ Πέτρος͵ ἐν φανερῷ πρότερον ὄντες Ἰουδαῖοι καὶ περιτετμημένοι͵ ὕστερον καὶ ἐν τῷ κρυπτῷ τοιοῦτοι τυγχάνειν ἀπὸ Ἰησοῦ εἰλήφασι͵ τὸ ἐν φανερῷ εἶναι Ἰουδαῖοι διὰ τὴν τῶν πολλῶν σωτηρίαν κατ΄ οἰκονομίαν οὐ μόνον λόγοις ὁμολογοῦντες ἀλλὰ καὶ διὰ τῶν ἔργων δεικνύντες Τὸ δ΄ αὐτὸ καὶ περὶ τοῦ χριστιανισμοῦ αὐτῶν λεκτέον.

As Paul could not benefit those who were Jews according to the flesh, without, when reason shows it to be necessary, circumcising Timothy, and when it appears the natural course getting himself shaved and making a vow, and, in a word, being to the Jews a Jew that he might gain the Jews— so also it is not possible for one who is responsible for the good of many to operate as he should by means of that Christianity only which is in secret. That will never enable him to improve those who are following the external Christianity, or to lead them on to better and higher things.

7.42 Καὶ ὥσπερ οὔκ ἐστιν ὠφελῆσαι δυνατὸν Παῦλον τοὺς κατὰ σάρκα Ἰουδαίους͵ ἐὰν μή͵ ὅτε ὁ λόγος αἱρεῖ͵ περιτέμῃ τὸν Τιμόθεον͵ καί͵ ὅτε εὔλογόν ἐστι͵ ξυρά μενον καὶ προσφορὰν ποιήσαντα καὶ ἁπαξαπλῶς τοῖς Ἰου δαίοις Ἰουδαῖον γενόμενον͵ ἵνα τοὺς Ἰουδαίους κερδήσῃ͵ οὕτως τὸν ἐκκείμενον εἰς πολλῶν ὠφέλειαν οὔκ ἐστι διὰ τοῦ ἐν κρυπτῷ χριστιανισμοῦ μόνον δυνατὸν τοὺς στοιχειου μένους ἐν τῷ φανερῷ χριστιανισμῷ βελτιῶσαι καὶ προαγα γεῖν ἐπὶ τὰ κρείττονα καὶ ἀνωτέρω.

We must, therefore, be Christians both somatically and spiritually, and where there is a call for the somatic (bodily) Gospel, in which a man says to those who are carnal that he knows nothing but Jesus Christ and Him crucified, so we must do. But should we find those who are perfected in the spirit, and bear fruit in it, and are enamoured of the heavenly wisdom, these must be made to partake of that Word which, after it was made flesh, rose again to what it was in the beginning, with God.

7.43 Διόπερ ἀναγκαῖον πνευματικῶς καὶ σωματικῶς χρι στιανίζειν· καὶ ὅπου μὲν χρὴ τὸ σωματικὸν κηρύσσειν εὐαγ γέλιον͵ φάσκοντα μηδὲν εἰδέναι ἐν τοῖς σαρκίνοις ἢ Ἰησοῦν Χριστὸν καὶ τοῦτον ἐσταυρωμένον͵ τοῦτο ποιητέον· ἐπὰν δὲ εὑρεθῶσι κατηρτισμένοι τῷ πνεύματι καὶ καρποφο ροῦντες ἐν αὐτῷ ἐρῶντές τε τῆς οὐρανίου σοφίας͵ μετα δοτέον αὐτοῖς τοῦ λόγου ἐπανελθόντος ἀπὸ τοῦ σεσαρκῶσθαι ἐφ΄ ὃ ἦν ἐν ἀρχῇ πρὸς τὸν θεόν.





 [10]. How Jesus Himself is the Gospel.


8. The foregoing inquiry into the nature of the Gospel cannot be regarded as useless; it has enabled us to see what distinction there is between a sensible Gospel and an intellectual and spiritual one.

8.44 Ταῦτα δὲ ἐξετάζοντες περὶ τοῦ εὐαγγελίου οὐ μάτην εἰρηκέναι ἡγούμεθα͵ οἱονεὶ αἰσθητὸν εὐαγγέλιον νοητοῦ καὶ πνευματικοῦ τῇ ἐπινοίᾳ διακρίνοντες.

What we have now to do is to transform the sensible Gospel into a spiritual one. For what would the narrative of the sensible Gospel amount to if it were not developed to a spiritual one? It would be of little account or none; any one can read it and assure himself of the facts it tells— no more.

8.45 Καὶ γὰρ νῦν πρόκειται τὸ αἰσθητὸν εὐαγγέλιον μεταλαβεῖν εἰς πνευματικόν· τίς γὰρ ἡ διήγησις τοῦ αἰσθητοῦ͵ εἰ μὴ μετα λαμβάνοιτο εἰς πνευματικόν; ῎Ητοι οὐδεμία ἢ ὀλίγη καὶ τῶν τυχόντων ἀπὸ τῆς λέξεως αὑτοὺς πεπεικότων λαμβάνειν τὰ δηλούμενα.

But our whole energy is now to be directed to the effort to penetrate to the deep things of the meaning of the Gospel and to search out the truth that is in it when divested of types.

8.46 Ἀλλὰ πᾶς ἀγὼν ἡμῖν ἐνέστηκε πειρωμένοις εἰς τὰ βάθη τοῦ εὐαγγελικοῦ νοῦ φθάσαι καὶ ἐρευνῆσαι τὴν ἐν αὐτῷ γυμνὴν τύπων ἀλήθειαν.

Now what the Gospels say is to be regarded in the light of promises of good things; and we must say that the good things the Apostles announce in this Gospel are simply Jesus. One good thing which they are said to announce is the resurrection; but the resurrection is in a manner Jesus, for Jesus says: (Jn 11:25) I am the resurrection. Jesus preaches to the poor those things which are laid up for the saints, calling them to the divine promises.

8.47 Τῶν δὴ εὐαγγελιζομένων ἐν ἀγαθῶν ἀπαγγελίᾳ νοουμένων͵ οἱ μὲν ἀπόστολοι τὸν Ἰησοῦν εὐαγγελίζονται· λέγονται μέντοι ὡς ἀγαθὸν καὶ τὴν ἀνάστασιν εὐαγγελί ζεσθαι͵ καὶ αὐτήν πως οὖσαν Ἰησοῦν· Ἰησοῦς γάρ φησιν· Ἐγώ εἰμι ἡ ἀνάστασις· Ἰησοῦς δὲ τὰ τοῖς ἁγίοις ἀποκείμενα εὐαγγελίζεται τοῖς πτωχοῖς͵ παρακαλῶν αὐτοὺς ἐπὶ τὰς θείας ἐπαγγελίας.

And the holy Scriptures bear witness to the Gospel announcements made by the Apostles and to that made by our Saviour. David says of the Apostles, perhaps also of the evangelists: The Lord shall give the word to those that preach with great power; the King of the powers of the beloved; teaching at the same time that it is not skilfully composed discourse, nor the mode of delivery, nor well practised eloquence that produces conviction, but the communication of divine power.

8.48 Καὶ μαρτυροῦσιν αἱ θεῖαι γραφαὶ τοῖς ὑπὸ τῶν ἀποστόλων εὐαγγελισμοῖς καὶ τῷ ὑπὸ τοῦ σωτῆρος ἡμῶν͵ ὁ μὲν Δαβὶδ περὶ τῶν ἀποστόλων͵ τάχα δὲ καὶ εὐαγγελιστῶν λέγων· Κύριος δώσει ῥῆμα τοῖς εὐαγγελιζομένοις δυνάμει πολλῇ· ὁ βασιλεὺς τῶν δυνάμεων τοῦ ἀγαπητοῦ͵ ἅμα καὶ διδάσκων ὅτι οὐ σύνθεσις λόγου καὶ προφορὰ φωνῶν καὶ ἠσκημένη καλλιλεξία ἀνύει πρὸς τὸ πείθειν͵ ἀλλὰ δυνάμεως θείας ἐπιχορηγία.

Hence also Paul says: I will know not the word that is puffed up, but the power; for the kingdom of God is not in word but in power. And in another passage: (1 Cor 2:4) And my word and my preaching were not persuasive words of wisdom, but in demonstration of the spirit and of power.

8.49 Διόπερ καὶ ὁ Παῦλός πού φησι· Γνώσομαι οὐ τὸν λόγον τῶν πεφυσιωμένων͵ ἀλλὰ τὴν δύνα μιν· οὐ γὰρ ἐν λόγῳ ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ θεοῦ ἀλλ΄ ἐν δυνάμει καὶ ἐν ἄλλοις· Καὶ ὁ λόγος μου καὶ τὸ κήρυγμά μου οὐκ ἐν πειθοῖς σοφίας λόγοις ἀλλ΄ ἐν ἀποδείξει πνεύματος καὶ δυνάμεως.

To this power Simon and Cleophas bear witness when they say: (Lk 24:32) Was not our heart burning within us by the way, as he opened to us the Scriptures? And the Apostles, since the quantity of the power is great which God supplies to the speakers, had great power, according to the word of David: The Lord will give the word to the preachers with great power.

8.50 Ταύτῃ τῇ δυνάμει μαρτυροῦντες ὁ Σίμων καὶ ὁ Κλεόπας φασίν· Οὐχὶ ἡ καρδία ἡμῶν καιομένη ἦν ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ͵ ὡς διήνοιγεν ἡμῖν τὰς γραφάς; Οἱ δὲ ἀπόστολοι͵ ἐπεὶ καὶ ποσότης ἐστὶ δυνάμεως ἐπιχορηγουμένης ὑπὸ θεοῦ διαφέ ρουσα τοῖς λέγουσιν͵ εἶχον κατὰ τὸ παρὰ τῷ Δαβὶδ λεγό μενον· Κύριος δώσει ῥῆμα τοῖς εὐαγγελιζομένοις δυνάμει πολλῇ͵ πολλὴν δύναμιν.

Isaiah too says: How beautiful are the feet of them that proclaim good tidings; he sees how beautiful and how opportune was the announcement of the Apostles who walked in Him who said, I am the way, and praises the feet of those who walk in the intellectual way of Christ Jesus, and through that door go in to God. They announce good tidings, those whose feet are beautiful, namely, Jesus.

8.51 Ἡσαΐας δὲ φάσκων· Ὡς ὡραῖοι οἱ πόδες τῶν εὐαγγελιζομένων ἀγαθά͵ τὸ ὡραῖον καὶ ἐν καιρῷ γινόμενον τῶν ἀποστόλων ὁδευόντων τὸν εἰπόντα· Ἐγώ εἰμι ἡ ὁδός κήρυγμα νοήσας ἐπαινεῖ πόδας τοὺς διὰ τῆς νοητῆς ὁδοῦ Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ βαδί ζοντας διά τε τῆς θύρας εἰσιόντας πρὸς τὸν θεόν. Ἀγαθὰ δὲ εὐαγγελίζονται οὗτοι͵ ὧν ὡραῖοί εἰσιν οἱ πόδες͵ τὸν Ἰησοῦν.





 [11]. Jesus is All Good Things; Hence the Gospel is Manifold.


9. Let no one wonder if we have understood Jesus to be announced in the Gospel under a plurality of names of good things. If we look at the things by the names of which the Son of God is called, we shall understand how many good things Jesus is, whom those preach whose feet are beautiful.

9.52 Καὶ μὴ θαυμάσῃ τις͵ εἰ πληθυντικῷ ὀνόματι τῷ τῶν ἀγαθῶν τὸν Ἰησοῦν ἐξειλήφαμεν εὐαγγελίζεσθαι. Ἐκλαβόντες γὰρ τὰ πράγματα καθ΄ ὧν τὰ ὀνόματα κεῖται͵ ἃ ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ ὀνομάζεται͵ συνήσομεν πῶς πολλὰ ἀγαθά ἐστιν ὁ Ἰησοῦς͵ ὃν εὐαγγελίζονται οὗτοι͵ ὧν ὡραῖοί εἰσιν οἱ πόδες.

One good thing is life; but Jesus is the life. Another good thing is the light of the world, when it is true light, and the light of men; and all these things the Son of God is said to be. And another good thing which one may conceive to be in addition to life or light is the truth. And a fourth in addition to time is the way which leads to the truth.

9.53 Ἓν μὲν γὰρ ἀγαθὸν ζωή͵ Ἰησοῦς δὲ ζωή. Καὶ ἕτερον ἀγαθὸν φῶς τοῦ κόσμου͵ φῶς τυγχάνον ἀληθινὸν καὶ φῶς τῶν ἀνθρώπων· ἅπερ πάντα ὁ υἱὸς εἶναι λέγεται τοῦ θεοῦ. Καὶ ἄλλο ἀγαθὸν κατ΄ ἐπίνοιαν παρὰ τὴν ζωὴν καὶ τὸ φῶς ἡ ἀλήθεια καὶ τέταρτον παρὰ ταῦτα ἡ ἐπὶ ταύτην φέρουσα ὁδός· ἅπερ πάντα ὁ σωτὴρ ἡμῶν διδάσκει ἑαυτὸν εἶναι λέγων. Ἐγώ εἰμι ἡ ὁδὸς καὶ ἡ ἀλήθεια καὶ ἡ ζωή.

And all these things our Saviour teaches that He is, when He says: I am the way and the truth and the life. (Jn 14:6) Ah, is not that good, to shake off earth and mortality, and to rise again, obtaining this boon from the Lord, since He is the resurrection, as He says: I am the resurrection. (Jn 11:25) But the door also is a good, through which one enters into the highest blessedness. Now Christ says: I am the door. (Jn 10:9)

9.54 Πῶς δὲ οὐκ ἀγαθὸν τὸ ἀποτιναξάμενον τὸν χοῦν καὶ τὴν νεκρότητα ἀναστῆναι͵ τούτου τυγχάνοντα ἀπὸ τοῦ κυρίου καθὸ ἀνάστασίς ἐστιν͵ ὃς καί φησιν· Ἐγώ εἰμι ἡ ἀνάστασις; Ἀλλὰ καὶ ἡ θύρα͵ δι΄ ἧς τις εἰς τὴν ἄκραν εἰσέρχεται μακαριότητα͵ ἀγαθόν· ὁ δὲ Χριστός φησιν· Ἐγώ εἰμι ἡ θύρα.

And what need is there to speak of wisdom, which the Lord created (Prov 8:22) the first principle of His ways, for His works, in whom the father of her rejoiced, delighting in her manifold intellectual beauty, seen by the eyes of the mind alone, and provoking him to love who discerns her divine and heavenly charm? A good indeed is the wisdom of God, proclaimed along with the other good foresaid by those whose feet are beautiful.

9.55 Τί δὲ δεῖ περὶ σοφίας λέγειν͵ ἣν ἔκτισεν ὁ θεὸς ἀρχὴν ὁδῶν αὐτοῦ εἰς ἔργα αὐτοῦ͵ ᾗ προσέχαιρεν ὁ πατὴρ αὐτῆς͵ ἐνευφραινόμενος τῷ πολυποικίλῳ νοητῷ κάλλει αὐτῆς ὑπὸ νοητῶν ὀφθαλμῶν μόνων βλεπομένῳ καὶ εἰς ἔρωτα τὸν τὸ θεῖον κάλλος κατανοοῦντα οὐράνιον προκαλουμένῳ; Ἀγαθὸν γὰρ ἡ σοφία τοῦ θεοῦ͵ ὅπερ μετὰ τῶν προειρημένων εὐαγγε λίζονται ὧν ὡραῖοι οἱ πόδες.

And the power of God is the eighth good we enumerate, which is Christ.

9.56 Ἀλλὰ καὶ ἡ δύναμις τοῦ θεοῦ ἤδη ὄγδοον ἡμῖν ἀγαθὸν καταλέγεται͵ ἥτις ἐστὶν ὁ Χριστός.

Nor must we omit to mention the Word, who is God after the Father of all. For this also is a good, less than no other. Happy, then, are those who accept these goods and receive them from those who announce the good tidings of them, those whose feet are beautiful.

9.57 Οὐ σιωπητέον δὲ οὐδὲ τὸν μετὰ τὸν πατέρα τῶν ὅλων θεὸν λόγον· οὐδενὸς γὰρ ἔλαττον ἀγαθοῦ καὶ τοῦτο τὸ ἀγαθόν. Μακάριοι μὲν οὖν οἱ χωρήσαντες ταῦτα τὰ ἀγαθὰ καὶ παραδεξάμενοι ἀπὸ τῶν ὡραίων τοὺς πόδας καὶ εὐαγγε λιζομένων αὐτά.

Indeed even one of the Corinthians to whom Paul declared that he knew nothing but Jesus Christ and Him crucified, should he learn Him who for our sakes became man, and so receive Him, he would become identified with the beginning of the good things we have spoken of; by the man Jesus he would be made a man of God, and by His death he would die to sin. For Christ, (Rom 6:10) in that He died, died unto sin once.

9.58 Πλὴν κἂν Κορίνθιός τις ὤν͵ κρίνοντος Παύλου μηδὲν εἰδέναι παρ΄ αὐτῷ ἢ Ἰησοῦν Χριστὸν καὶ τοῦτον ἐσταυρω μένον͵ τὸν δι΄ ἡμᾶς ἄνθρωπον μανθάνων παραδέξηται͵ ἐν ἀρχῇ τῶν ἀγαθῶν γίνεται͵ ὑπὸ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου Ἰησοῦ ἄνθρωπος γινόμενος θεοῦ καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ θανάτου αὐτοῦ ἀποθνῄσκων τῇ ἁμαρτίᾳ· καὶ γὰρ ἐκεῖνος ὃ ἀπέθανε͵ τῇ ἁμαρτίᾳ ἀπέθανεν ἐφάπαξ.

But from His life, since in that He lives, He lives unto God, every one who is conformed to His resurrection receives that living to God. But who will deny that righteousness, essential righteousness, is a good, and essential sanctification, and essential redemption? And these things those preach who preach Jesus, saying that He is made to be of God righteousness and sanctification and redemption. (1 Cor 1.30)

9.59 Ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς ζωῆς αὐτοῦ͵ ἐπεὶ Ἰησοῦς ὃ ζῇ͵ ζῇ τῷ θεῷ͵ πᾶς ὁ σύμμορφος γενό μενος τῆς ἀναστάσεως αὐτοῦ λαμβάνει τὸ ζῆν τῷ θεῷ. Τίς δὲ διστάξει͵ εἰ αὐτοδικαιοσύνη ἀγαθόν ἐστι καὶ αὐτοαγιασμὸς καὶ αὐτοαπολύτρωσις; ἅπερ καὶ αὐτὰ οἱ Ἰησοῦν εὐαγγελιζόμενοι εὐαγγελίζονται͵ λέγοντες αὐτὸν γεγονέναι ἡμῖν δικαιοσύνην ἀπὸ θεοῦ καὶ ἁγιασμὸν καὶ ἀπολύτρωσιν.





10. Hence we shall have writings about Him without number, showing that Jesus is a multitude of goods; for from the things which can scarcely be numbered and which have been written we may make some conjecture of those things which actually exist in Him in whom it pleased God that the whole fullness of the Godhead should dwell bodily, and which are not contained in writings.

10.60 Παρέσται δὲ ἀπὸ τούτων τῶν γεγραμμένων περὶ αὐτοῦ δυσεξαριθμήτων παριστάντα πῶς πλῆθος ἀγαθῶν ἐστὶν Ἰησοῦς͵ καταστοχάζεσθαι τῶν ὑπαρχόντων μὲν ἐν αὐτῷ͵ εἰς ὃν εὐδόκησεν ἅπαν τὸ πλήρωμα τῆς θεότητος κατοικῆσαι σωματικῶς͵ οὐ μὴν ὑπὸ γραμμάτων κεχωρη μένων.

Why should I say, are not contained in writings? For John speaks of the whole world in this connection, and says: I suppose that not even the world itself would contain the books which would be written. (Jn 21:25)

10.61 Καὶ τί λέγω ὑπὸ γραμμάτων͵ ὅτε καὶ περὶ ὅλου τοῦ κόσμου φησὶν ὁ Ἰωάννης ὅτι Οὐδὲ αὐτὸν οἶμαι τὸν κόσμον χωρῆσαι τὰ γραφόμενα βιβλία;

Now to say that the Apostles preach the Saviour is to say that they preach these good things. For this is He who received from the good Father that He Himself should be these good things, so that each man receiving from Jesus the thing or things he is capable of receiving may enjoy good things.

10.62 Ταὐτὸν οὖν ἐστιν εἰπεῖν ὅτι οἱ ἀπόστολοι τὸν σωτῆρα εὐαγγελίζονται͵ καὶ τὰ ἀγαθὰ εὐαγγελίζονται. Οὗτος γάρ ἐστιν ὁ ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ πατρὸς τὸ ἀγαθὰ εἶναι λαβών͵ ἵνα ἕκαστος ὃ χωρεῖ ἢ ἃ χωρεῖ διὰ Ἰησοῦ λαβὼν ἐν ἀγαθοῖς τυγχάνῃ.

But the Apostles, whose feet were beautiful, and those imitators of them who sought to preach the good tidings, could not have done so had not Jesus Himself first preached the good tidings to them, as Isaiah says: I myself that speak am here, as the opportunity on the mountains, as the feet of one preaching tidings of peace, as one preaching good things; for I will make My salvation to be heard, saying, God shall reign over you, O Zion! (Is 52:6)

10.63 Οὐχ οἷοί τε δὲ ἦσαν οἱ ἀπόστολοι͵ ὧν ὡραῖοι οἱ πόδες͵ καὶ οἱ τούτων ζηλωταὶ εὐαγγελίζεσθαι τὰ ἀγαθά͵ μὴ πρότερον Ἰησοῦ αὐτοῖς αὐτὰ εὐαγγελισαμένου͵ ὡς ὁ Ἡσαΐας φησίν· Αὐτὸς ὁ λαλῶν πάρειμι· ὡς ὥρα ἐπὶ τῶν ὀρέων͵ ὡς πόδες εὐαγγελιζομένου ἀκοὴν εἰρήνης͵ ὡς εὐαγγελιζόμενος ἀγαθά͵ ὅτι ἀκουστὴν ποιήσω τὴν σωτηρίαν σου λέγων Σιών· Βασιλεύσει σου ὁ θεός.

For what are the mountains on which the speaker declares that He Himself is present, but those who are less than none of the highest and the greatest of the earth? And these must be sought by the able ministers of the New Covenant, in order that they may observe the injunction which says: Go up into a high mountain, you that preachest good tidings to Zion; you that preachestgood tidings to Jerusalem, lift up your voice with strength! (Is 40:9)

10.64 Τίνα γὰρ τὰ ὄρη͵ ἐφ΄ ὧν αὐτὸς ὁ λαλῶν παρεῖναι ὁμολογεῖ ἢ οἱ μηδενὸς τῶν ἐπὶ γῆς ὑψηλο τάτων καὶ μεγίστων ἥττονες; Οὕστινας ζητεῖσθαι δεῖ ὑπὸ τῶν ἱκανῶν διακόνων τῆς καινῆς διαθήκης͵ ἵνα τηρήσωσι τὴν λέγουσαν ἐντολήν· Ἐπ΄ ὄρος ὑψηλὸν ἀνάβηθι ὁ εὐαγ γελιζόμενος Σιών͵ ὕψωσον τῇ ἰσχύϊ τὴν φωνήν σου ὁ εὐαγγε λιζόμενος Ἱερουσαλήμ.

Now it is not wonderful if to those who are to preach good tidings Jesus Himself preaches good tidings of good things, which are no other than Himself; for the Son of God preaches the good tidings of Himself to those who cannot come to know Him through others. And He who goes up into the mountains and preaches good things to them, being Himself instructed by His good Father, who makes His sun to rise on the evil and on the good, and sends rain on the just and on the unjust, (Mt 5:45) He does not despise those who are poor in soul.

10.65 Οὐ θαυμαστὸν δὲ εἰ τοῖς μέλλουσιν εὐαγγελίζεσθαι τὰ ἀγαθὰ Ἰησοῦς εὐαγγελίζεται τὰ ἀγαθά͵ οὐκ ἄλλα τυγχάνοντα ἑαυτοῦ· ἑαυτὸν γὰρ εὐαγγελίζεται ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ τοῖς δυνα μένοις οὐ δι΄ ἄλλων αὐτὸν μαθεῖν. Πλὴν ὁ ἐπιβαίνων τῶν ὀρῶν καὶ εὐαγγελιζόμενος αὐτοῖς τὰ ἀγαθά͵ μαθητευθεὶς τῷ ἀγαθῷ πατρὶ ἀνατέλλοντι τὸν ἥλιον ἐπὶ πονηροὺς καὶ ἀγαθοὺς καὶ βρέχοντι ἐπὶ δικαίους καὶ ἀδίκους͵ τοὺς τὴν ψυχὴν πτωχοὺς οὐχ ὑπερηφανεῖ.

To them He preaches good tidings, as He Himself bears witness to us when He takes Isaiah and reads: The spirit of the Lord is upon me, for the Lord has anointed me to preach good tidings to the poor, He has sent me to proclaim liberty to the captives, and sight to the blind. For closing the book He handed it to the minister and sat down. And when the eyes of all were fastened upon Him, He said, This day is this Scripture fulfilled in your ears.

10.66 Καὶ τούτοις γὰρ εὐαγγελίζεται͵ ὡς αὐτὸς μαρτυρεῖ λαβὼν τὸν Ἡσαΐαν καὶ ἀναγνούς· Τὸ πνεῦμα κυρίου ἐπ΄ ἐμέ͵ οὗ ἕνεκεν ἔχρισέ με εὐαγγελίσασθαι πτωχοῖς͵ ἀπέσταλκέ με κηρύξαι αἰχμαλώ τοῖς ἄφεσιν καὶ τυφλοῖς ἀνάβλεψιν· πτύξας γὰρ τὸ βιβλίον καὶ ἀποδοὺς τῷ ὑπηρέτῃ ἐκάθισε καὶ πάντων ἐνατενιζόντων αὐτῷ φησι· Σήμερον πεπλήρωται ἡ γραφὴ αὕτη ἐν τοῖς ὠσὶν ὑμῶν.





 [12]. The Gospel Contains the Ill Deeds Also Which Were Done to Jesus.


11. It ought not to be forgotten that in such a Gospel as this there is embraced every gooddeed which was done to Jesus; as, for example, the story of the woman who had been a sinner and had repented, and who, having experienced a genuine recovery from her evil state, had grace to pour her ointment over Jesus so that every one in the house smelt the sweet savour.

11.67 Ἀναγκαῖον δὲ εἰδέναι ὅτι ἐμπεριλαμβάνεται τῷ τηλικούτῳ εὐαγγελίῳ καὶ πᾶσα ἡ εἰς Ἰησοῦν γινομένη πρᾶξις ἀγαθή͵ ὥσπερ καὶ τῆς τὰ πονηρὰ ἔργα πεποιηκυίας καὶ μετανενοηκυίας εὐωδίαν δεδυνημένης διὰ τὴν ἀπὸ τῶν κακῶν γνησίαν μετάστασιν καταχέαι τοῦ Ἰησοῦ καὶ παντὶ τῷ οἴκῳ τὴν τοῦ μύρου πνοὴν εἰς αἴσθησιν πάντων τῶν ἐν αὐτῷ ἐμπεποιηκυίας.

Hence, too, the words, Wherever this Gospel shall be preached among all the nations, there also this that she has done shall be spoken of, for a memorial of her. And it is clear that whatever is done to the disciples of Jesus is done to Him. Pointing to those of them who met with kind treatment, He says to those who were kind to them, What ye did to these, you did to Me. (Mt 25:40)  So that every good deed we do to our neighbours is entered in the Gospel, that Gospel which is written on the heavenly tablets and read by all who are worthy of the knowledge of the whole of things.

11.68 Διὸ καὶ γέγραπται· Ὅπου ἂν κηρυχθῇ τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τοῦτο ἐν πᾶσι τοῖς ἔθνεσι͵ λαληθή σεται καὶ ὃ ἐποίησεν αὕτη εἰς μνημόσυνον αὐτῆς. Σαφὲς δὲ ὅτι εἰς Ἰησοῦν γίνεται τὰ εἰς τοὺς μαθητευθέντας αὐτῷ ἐπιτελούμενα· δεικνὺς γοῦν τοὺς εὖ πεπονθότας φησὶ τοῖς πεποιηκόσι· Τούτοις ὃ ἐποιήσατε ἐμοὶ ἐποιήσατε· ὥστε πᾶσα πρᾶξις ἀγαθὴ ἡ εἰς τὸν πλησίον ὑφ΄ ἡμῶν ἐπι τελουμένη εἰς τὸ εὐαγγέλιον ἀναφέρεται͵ τὸ ἐν ταῖς πλαξὶ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ γραφόμενον καὶ ὑπὸ πάντων τῶν ἠξιωμένων τῆς τῶν ὅλων γνώσεως ἀναγινωσκόμενον.

But on the other side, too, there is a part of the Gospel which is for the condemnation of the doers of the ill deeds which have been done to Jesus.

11.69 Ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐκ τοῦ ἐναντίου μέρος ἐστὶ τοῦ εὐαγγελίου εἰς κατηγορίαν τῶν πραξάντων τὰ εἰς Ἰησοῦν ἁμαρτανόμενα.

The treachery of Judas and the shouts of the wicked crowd when it said, Away with such a one from the earth, and Crucify Him, crucify Him, (Jn 19:6, 15) the mockings of those who crowned Him with thorns, and everything of that kind, is included in the Gospels.

11.70 Ἡ γοῦν Ἰούδα προδοσία καὶ ἡ τοῦ ἀσεβοῦς λαοῦ κατα βόησις φάσκοντος Αἶρε ἀπὸ τῆς γῆς τὸν τοιοῦτον καὶ Σταύρου͵ σταύρου αὐτὸν καὶ οἱ ἐμπαιγμοὶ τῶν αὐτὸν τῇ ἀκάνθῃ στεφανωσάντων καὶ τὰ τούτοις παραπλήσια ἐγκατα τέτακται τοῖς εὐαγγελίοις.

And as a consequence of this we see that every one who betrays the disciples of Jesus is reckoned as betraying Jesus Himself. To Saul, when still a persecutor it is said, Saul Saul, why do you persecute Me? and, I am Jesus whom you persecute. (Ac 9:4-5)

11.71 Ἀκόλουθον δὲ τούτοις ἐστὶ νοῆσαι ὅτι πᾶς ὁ τῶν Ἰησοῦ προδότης Ἰησοῦ προδότης εἶναι λελόγισται. Πρὸς γοῦν τὸν ἔτι διώκοντα Σαῦλον εἶπεν· Σαούλ͵ Σαούλ͵ τί με διώκεις; καὶ Ἐγώ εἰμι Ἰησοῦς͵ ὃν σὺ διώκεις.

There are those who still have thorns with which they crown and dishonour Jesus, those, namely, who are choked by the cares, and riches, and pleasures of life, and though they have received the word of God, do not bring it to perfection. (Lk 8:14)

11.72 Τίνες δὲ τὰς ἀκάνθας ἔχουσιν͵ αἷς τὸν Ἰησοῦν ἀτιμάζοντες στεφανοῦσιν; Οἳ ὑπὸ μεριμνῶν καὶ πλούτου καὶ ἡδονῶν τοῦ βίου συμπνιγόμενοι λαβόντες τὸν λόγον τοῦ θεοῦ οὐ τελεσφοροῦσιν.

We must beware, therefore, lest we also, as crowning Jesus with thorns of our own, should be entered in the Gospel and read of in this character by those who learn the Jesus, who is in all and is present in all rational and holy lives, learn how He is anointed with ointment, is entertained, is glorified, or how, on the other side, He is dishonoured, and mocked, and beaten.

11.73 Διόπερ φυλακτέον μήποτε καὶ ἡμεῖς͵ ὡς ταῖς ἰδίαις ἀκάνθαις στεφανοῦντες τὸν Ἰησοῦν͵ ἀναγραφόμενοι τοιοῦτοι ἀναγινωσκώμεθα παρὰ τοῖς τὸν ἐν πᾶσι καὶ παρὰ πᾶσι λογικοῖς ἢ ἁγίοις Ἰησοῦν μανθάνουσι͵ τίνα τε τρόπον μύρῳ ἀλείφεται καὶ δειπνίζεται καὶ δοξάζεται ἢ ἐκ τῶν ἐναντίων ἀτιμάζεται καὶ ἐμπαίζεται καὶ τύπτεται.

All this had to be said; it is part of our demonstration that our good actions, and also the sins of those who stumble, are embodied in the Gospel, either to everlasting life or to reproach and everlasting shame.

11.74 Ἀναγκαίως δὴ ταῦθ΄ ἡμῖν εἴρηται δεικνύουσιν ὡς αἱ ἀγαθαὶ ἡμῶν πράξεις καὶ αἱ ἁμαρτίαι τῶν πταιόντων τῷ εὐαγγελίῳ ἐγκατατάσσονται ἤτοι εἰς ζωὴν αἰώνιον ἢ εἰς ὀνειδισμὸν καὶ εἰς αἰσχύνην αἰώνιον.





 [13]. The Angels Also are Evangelists.


12. Now if there are those among men who are honoured with the ministry of evangelists, and if Jesus Himself brings tidings of good things, and preaches the Gospel to the poor, surely those messengers who were made spirits by God, those who are a flame of fire, ministers of the Father of all, cannot have been excluded from being evangelists also.

12.75 Εἰ δὲ ἐν ἀνθρώποις εἰσὶν οἱ τετιμη μένοι διακονίᾳ τῇ τῶν εὐαγγελιστῶν καὶ αὐτὸς ὁ Ἰησοῦς εὐαγγελίζεται ἀγαθὰ καὶ πτωχοῖς εὐαγγελίζεται͵ οὐκ ἔδει τοὺς πεποιημένους ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ πνεύματα ἀγγέλους καὶ τοὺς ὄντας πυρὸς φλόγα͵ λειτουργοὺς τοῦ τῶν ὅλων πατρός͵ ἐστερῆσθαι τοῦ καὶ αὐτοὺς εἶναι εὐαγγελιστάς;

Hence an angel standing over the shepherds made a bright light to shine round about them, and said: Fear not; behold I bring you good tidings of great joy, which shall be to all the people; for there is born to you, this day, a Saviour, who is Christ the Lord, in the city of David. (Lk 2:10-11) And at a time when there was no knowledge among men of the mystery of the Gospel, those who were greater than men and inhabitants of heaven, the army of God, praised God, saying, Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good will among men.

12.76 Διὰ τοῦτο καὶ ἄγγελος ἐπιστὰς τοῖς ποιμέσι φησί͵ δόξαν ποιήσας περιλάμπειν αὐτούς· Μὴ φοβεῖσθε͵ ἰδοὺ γὰρ εὐαγγελίζομαι ὑμῖν χαρὰν μεγάλην ἥτις ἔσται παντὶ τῷ λαῷ͵ ὅτι ἐτέχθη ὑμῖν σήμερον σωτήρ͵ ὅς ἐστι Χριστὸς κύριος͵ ἐν πόλει Δαβίδ· ὅτε καὶ μηδέπω ἀνθρώπων συνιέντων τὸ τοῦ εὐαγγελίου μυστήριον οἱ κρείττονες αὐτῶν͵ οὐράνιος τυγχά νοντες στρατιὰ θεοῦ͵ αἰνοῦντες τὸν θεὸν λέγουσι· Δόξα ἐν ὑψίστοις θεῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς εἰρήνη͵ ἐν ἀνθρώποις εὐδοκία.

And having said this, the angels go away from the shepherds into heaven, leaving us to gather how the joy preached to us through the birth of Jesus Christ is glory in the highest to God; they humbled themselves even to the ground, and then returned to their place of rest, to glorify God in the highest through Jesus Christ.

12.77 Καὶ ταῦτα εἰπόντες ἀπέρχονται ἀπὸ τῶν ποιμένων εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν οἱ ἄγγελοι͵ καταλιπόντες ἡμῖν νοεῖν͵ πῶς ἡ εὐαγ γελισθεῖσα ἡμῖν διὰ τῆς γενέσεως Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ χαρὰ δόξα ἐστὶν ἐν ὑψίστοις θεῷ τῶν ταπεινωθέντων εἰς χοῦν ἐπιστρεφόντων εἰς τὴν ἀνάπαυσιν αὐτῶν καὶ ἐν ὑψίστοις διὰ Χριστοῦ μελλόντων δοξάζειν τὸν θεόν.

But the angels also wonder at the peace which is to be brought about on account of Jesus on the earth, that seat of war, on which Lucifer, star of the morning, fell from heaven, to be warred against and destroyed by Jesus.

12.78 Ἀλλὰ καὶ θαυμάζουσιν οἱ ἄγγελοι τὴν ἐπὶ γῆς ἐσομένην διὰ Ἰησοῦν εἰρήνην͵ τοῦ πολεμικοῦ χωρίου͵ εἰς ὃ ἐκπεσὼν ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ ὁ ἑωσφόρος͵ ὁ πρωῒ ἀνατέλλων ὑπὸ Ἰησοῦ συντρίβεται.





 [14].The Old Testament, Typified by John, is the Beginning of the Gospel.


13. In addition to what we have said, there is also this to be considered about the Gospel, that in the first instance it is that of Christ Jesus, the head of the whole body of the saved; as Mark says, (Mk 1:1) The beginning of the Gospel of Jesus Christ. Then also it is the Gospel of the Apostles; whence Paul says, According to my Gospel. (Rom 2:16)

13.79 Πρὸς τοῖς εἰρημένοις καὶ τοῦτο περὶ εὐαγγελίου ἰστέον͵ ὅτι πρώτως τῆς κεφαλῆς τοῦ ὅλου τῶν σῳζομένων σώματος͵ Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ͵ ἐστὶ τὸ εὐαγγέλιον͵ ὥς φησιν ὁ Μάρκος· Ἀρχὴ τοῦ εὐαγγελίου Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ. ῎Ηδη δὲ καὶ τῶν ἀποστόλων τυγχάνει· διὸ λέγει ὁ Παῦλος· Κατὰ τὸ εὐαγγέλιόν μου.

But the beginning of the Gospel— for in respect of its extent it has a beginning, a continuation, a middle, and an end— is nothing but the whole Old Testament. John is, in this respect, a type of the Old Testament, or, if we regard the connection of the New Testament with the Old, John represents the termination of the Old.

13.80 Πλὴν ἡ ἀρχὴ τοῦ εὐαγγελίουἔστι γὰρ αὐτοῦ μέγεθος ἀρχὴν καὶ τὰ ἑξῆς καὶ μέσα καὶ τέλη ἔχοντοςἤτοι πᾶσά ἐστιν ἡ παλαιὰ διαθήκη͵ τύπου αὐτῆς ὄντος Ἰωάννου͵ ἢ διὰ τὴν συναφὴν τῆς καινῆς πρὸς τὴν παλαιὰν τὰ τέλη τῆς παλαιᾶς διὰ Ἰωάννου παριστάμενα.

For the same Mark says: The beginning of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, as it is written in Isaiah the prophet, Behold I send my messenger before your face, who shall prepare your way. The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make His paths straight.

13.81 Φησὶ γὰρ ὁ αὐτὸς Μάρκος· Ἀρχὴ τοῦ εὐαγγελίου Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ͵ καθὼς γέγραπται ἐν Ἡσαΐᾳ τῷ προφήτῃ· Ἰδοὺ ἐγὼ ἀποστέλλω τὸν ἄγγελόν μου πρὸ προσώπου σου͵ ὃς κατασκευάσει τὴν ὁδόν σου. Φωνὴ βοῶντος ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ· Ἑτοιμάσατε τὴν ὁδὸν κυρίου͵ εὐθείας ποιεῖτε τὰς τρίβους αὐτοῦ.

And here I must wonder how the dissentients can connect the two Testaments with two different Gods. These words, were there no others, are enough to convict them of their error. For how can John be the beginning of the Gospel if they suppose he belongs to a different God, if he belongs to the demiurge, and, as they hold, is not acquainted with the new deity?

13.82 Ὅθεν θαυμάζειν μοι ἔπεισι͵ πῶς δυσὶ θεοῖς προσάπτουσιν ἀμφοτέρας τὰς διαθήκας οἱ ἑτερόδοξοι͵ οὐκ ἔλαττον καὶ ἐκ τούτου τοῦ ῥητοῦ ἐλεγχόμενοι. Πῶς γὰρ δύναται ἀρχὴ εἶναι τοῦ εὐαγγελίου͵ ὡς αὐτοὶ οἴονται͵ ἑτέρου τυγχάνων θεοῦ ὁ Ἰωάννης͵ ὁ τοῦ δημιουργοῦ ἄνθρωπος καὶ ἀγνοῶν͵ ὡς νομίζουσι͵ τὴν καινὴν θεότητα;





14. And the angels are not entrusted with but one evangelical ministry, and that a short one, not only with that addressed to the shepherds. For at the end an exalted and flying angel, having the Gospel, will preach it to every nation, for the good Father has not entirely deserted those who have fallen away from Him.

14.83 Οὐ μίαν δὲ καὶ βραχεῖαν πιστεύονται διακονίαν εὐαγγελικὴν ἄγγελοι οὐδὲ μόνην τὴν πρὸς τοὺς ποιμένας γεγενημένην· ἀλλὰ γὰρ ἐπὶ τέλει μετέωρος καὶ ἱπτάμενος ἄγγελος εὐαγγέλιον ἔχων εὐαγγελιεῖται πᾶν ἔθνος͵ τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ πατρὸς οὐ πάντη καταλιπόντος τοὺς ἀποπεπτωκότας αὐτοῦ.

John, son of Zebedee, says in his Apocalypse: And I saw an angel flying in the midst of heaven, having the Eternal Gospel, to preach it to those who dwell upon the earth, and to every nation, and tribe, and tongue, and people, saying, with a loud voice, Fear God and give Him glory, for the hour of His judgment has come, and worship Him that made the heaven, and the earth, and the sea, and the fountains of waters. (Rev 14:67)

14.84 Φησὶ γοῦν ἐν τῇ Ἀποκαλύψει ὁ τοῦ Ζεβεδαίου Ἰωάννης· Καὶ εἶδον ἄγγελον πετόμενον ἐν μεσουρανήματι͵ ἔχοντα εὐαγγέλιον αἰώνιον εὐαγγελίσασθαι ἐπὶ τοὺς καθη μένους ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς καὶ ἐπὶ πᾶν ἔθνος καὶ φυλὴν καὶ γλώσσαν καὶ λαόν͵ λέγων ἐν φωνῇ μεγάλῃ· Φοβήθητε τὸν θεὸν καὶ δότε αὐτῷ δόξαν͵ ὅτι ἦλθεν ἡ ὥρα τῆς κρίσεως αὐτοῦ͵ καὶ προσκυνήσατε τὸν ποιήσαντα τὸν οὐρανὸν καὶ τὴν γῆν καὶ τὴν θάλασσαν καὶ πηγὰς ὑδάτων.





 15. The Gospel is in the Old Testament, and Indeed in the Whole Universe. Prayer for Aid to Understand the Mystical Sense of the Work in Hand.


15. As, then, we have shown that the beginning of the Gospel, according to one interpretation, is the whole Old Testament, and is signified by the person of John, we shall add, lest this should be called a mere unsupported assertion, what is said in the Acts about the eunuch of the queen of the Ethiopians and Philip. Philip, it is said, began at the passage of Isaiah: He was led as a lamb to the slaughter, and as a lamb before his shearer is dumb, and so preached to him the Lord Jesus. How can he begin with the prophet and preach Jesus, if Isaiah was not a part of the beginning of the Gospel?

15.85 Ἐπεὶ τοίνυν ἀρχὴν τοῦ εὐαγγελίου κατὰ μίαν ἐκδοχὴν τὴν πᾶσαν παρεστήσαμεν εἶναι παλαιὰν διαθήκην διὰ τοῦ ὀνόματος Ἰωάννου σημαινομένην͵ ὑπὲρ τοῦ μὴ ἀμάρ τυρον εἶναι τὴν ἐκδοχὴν ταύτην παραθησόμεθα τὸ ἐκ Πράξεων περὶ τοῦ τῆς Αἰθιόπων βασιλίδος εὐνούχου εἰρημένον καὶ Φιλίππου· Ἀρξάμενος͵ γάρ φησιν͵ ὁ Φίλιππος ἀπὸ τῆς Ἡσαΐου γραφῆς τῆς· Ὡς πρόβατον ἐπὶ σφαγὴν ἤχθη͵ καὶ ὡς ἀμνὸς ἐνώπιον τοῦ κείροντος ἄφωνος͵ εὐαγγελίσατο αὐτῷ τὸν κύριον Ἰησοῦν. Πῶς γὰρ ἀρχόμενος ἀπὸ τοῦ προφήτου εὐαγγελίζεται Ἰησοῦν͵ εἰ μὴ τῆς ἀρχῆς τοῦ εὐαγγε λίου μέρος τι ὁ Ἡσαΐας ἦν;

From this we may derive a proof of the assertion made at the outset, that every divine Scripture is Gospel. If he who preaches the Gospel preaches good things, and all those who spoke before the sojourn of Jesus in the flesh preach Christ, who is as we saw good things, then the words spoken by all of them alike are in a sense a part of the Gospel.

15.86 Ἅμα δὲ καὶ τὰ ἐν πρώτοις ἡμῖν εἰρημένα περὶ τοῦ δύνασθαι εὐαγγέλιον εἶναι πᾶσαν θείαν γραφὴν ἐντεῦθεν δύναται δηλοῦσθαι· καὶ γὰρ εἰ ὁ εὐαγγελιζόμενος ἀγαθὰ εὐαγγελίζεται͵ πάντες δὲ οἱ πρὸ τῆς σωματικῆς Χριστοῦ ἐπιδημίας Χριστὸν εὐαγγελίζονται ὄντα τὰ ἀγαθά͵ ὡς ἀπεδείξαμεν͵ πάντων πως εἰσὶν οἱ λόγοι τοῦ εὐαγγελίου μέρος.

And when the Gospel is said to be declared throughout the whole world, we infer that it is actually preached in the whole world, not, that is to say, in this earthly district only, but in the whole system of heaven and earth, or from heaven and earth.

15.87 Ὅπερ εὐαγγέλιον λεγόμενον λαλεῖσθαι ἐν ὅλῳ τῷ κόσμῳ ἡμεῖς ἐκλαμβάνομεν ἀπαγγέλλεσθαι ἐν ὅλῳ τῷ κό σμῳ͵ οὐ μόνον τῷ περιγείῳ τόπῳ ἀλλὰ καὶ παντὶ τῷ συστήματι τῷ ἐξ οὐρανοῦ καὶ γῆς ἢ ἐξ οὐρανῶν καὶ γῆς.

And why should we discuss any further what the Gospel is? What we have said is enough. Besides the passages we have adduced, passages by no means inept or unsuited for our purpose—much to the same effect might be collected from the Scriptures, so that it is clearly seen what is the glory of the good things in Jesus Christ shed forth by the Gospel, the Gospel ministered by men and angels, and, I believe, also by authorities and powers, (Eph 1:21) and thrones and dominions, and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in the world to come, and indeed even by Christ Himself. Here, then, let us bring to a close what has to be said before proceeding to read the work itself.

15.88 Καὶ τί δεῖ ἐπὶ πλεῖον μηκύνειν τὸν περὶ τοῦ τί τὸ εὐαγγέλιόν ἐστι λόγον; Αὐτάρκως δὴ τούτων εἰρημένων καὶ ἐκ τούτων τῶν μὴ ἀνεντρεχῶν δυναμένων τὰ παραπλήσια συναγαγεῖν ἀπὸ τῶν γραφῶν καὶ βλέπειν τίς ἡ δόξα τῶν ἐν Ἰησοῦ Χριστῷ ἀγαθῶν ἀπὸ τοῦ εὐαγγελίου͵ διακονουμένου ὑπὸ ἀνθρώπων καὶ ἀγγέλων͵ ἐγὼ δ΄ οἶμαι ὅτι καὶ ἀρχῶν καὶ ἐξουσιῶν καὶ θρόνων καὶ κυριοτήτων καὶ παντὸς ὀνόματος ὀνομαζομένου οὐ μόνον ἐν τούτῳ τῷ αἰῶνι ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐν τῷ μέλλοντι͵ εἴγε καὶ ὑπ΄ αὐτοῦ τοῦ Χριστοῦ͵ αὐτοῦ που καταπαύσομεν τὰ πρὸ τῆς συναναγνώσεως τῶν γεγραμμένων.

And now let us ask God to assist us through Jesus Christ by the Holy Spirit, so that we may be able to unfold the mystical sense which is treasured up in the words before us.

15.89 ῎Ηδη δὲ θεὸν αἰτώμεθα συνεργῆσαι διὰ Χριστοῦ ἡμῖν ἐν ἁγίῳ πνεύματι πρὸς ἀνάπτυξιν τοῦ ἐν ταῖς λέξεσιν ἐνα ποτεθησαυρισμένου μυστικοῦ νοῦ.





 16. Meaning of Beginning. (1) in Space.


16. In the beginning was the Word. (Jn 1:1)

16.n 1Ἐν ἀρχῇ ἦν ὁ λόγος.1

It is not only the Greeks who consider the word beginning to have many meanings. Let any one collect the Scripture passages in which the word occurs, and with a view to an accurate interpretation of it note what it stands for in each passage, and he will find that the word has many meanings in sacred discourse also.

16.90 Οὐ μόνον Ἕλληνες πολλά φασι σημαινό μενα εἶναι ἀπὸ τῆς ἀρχῆς προσηγορίας· ἀλλὰ γὰρ εἴ τις τηρήσαι συνάγων πάντοθεν τοῦτο τὸ ὄνομα καὶ ἀκριβῶς ἐξετάζων βούλοιτο κατανοεῖν ἐν ἑκάστῳ τόπῳ τῶν γραφῶν ἐπὶ τίνος τέτακται͵ εὑρήσει καὶ κατὰ τὸν θεῖον λόγον τὸ πολύσημον τῆς φωνῆς.

We speak of a beginning in reference to a transition. Here it has to do with a road and with length. This appears in the saying: (Prov 16:5) The beginning of a good way is to do justice. For since the good way is long, there have first to be considered in reference to it the question connected with action, and this side is presented in the words to do justice; the contemplative side comes up for consideration afterwards. In the latter the end of it comes to rest at last in the so-called restoration of all things, since no enemy is left them to fight against, if that be true which is said: For He must reign until He have placed His enemies under His feet. But the last enemy to be destroyed is death. (1 Cor 15:25-26)

16.91 Ἡ μὲν γάρ τις ὡς μεταβάσεως͵ αὕτη δέ ἐστιν ἡ ὡς ὁδοῦ καὶ μήκους· ὅπερ δηλοῦται ἐκ τοῦ Ἀρχὴ ὁδοῦ ἀγαθῆς τὸ ποιεῖν τὰ δίκαια. Τῆς γὰρ ἀγαθῆς ὁδοῦ μεγίστης τυγχανούσης͵ κατὰ μὲν τὰ πρῶτα νοητέον εἶναι τὸ πρακτι κόν͵ ὅπερ παρίσταται διὰ τοῦ Ποιεῖν τὰ δίκαια͵ κατὰ δὲ τὰ ἑξῆς τὸ θεωρητικόν͵ εἰς ὃ καταλήγειν οἶμαι καὶ τὸ τέλος αὐτῆς ἐν τῇ λεγομένῃ ἀποκαταστάσει διὰ τὸ μηδένα καταλείπεσθαι τότε ἐχθρόν͵ εἴγε ἀληθὲς τὸ δεῖ γὰρ αὐτὸν βασιλεύειν͵ ἄχρι οὗ θῇ πάντας τοὺς ἐχθροὺς αὐτοῦ ὑπὸ τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ· ἔσχατος δὲ ἐχθρὸς καταργεῖται ὁ θάνατος.

For then but one activity will be left for those who have come to God on account of His word which is with Him, that, namely, of knowing God, so that, being found by the knowledge of the Father, they may all be His Son, as now no one but the Son knows the Father.

16.92 Τότε γὰρ μία πρᾶξις ἔσται τῶν πρὸς θεὸν διὰ τὸν πρὸς αὐτὸν λόγον φθασάντων ἡ τοῦ κατανοεῖν τὸν θεόν͵ ἵνα γένωνται οὕτως ἐν τῇ γνώσει τοῦ πατρὸς μορφωθέντες πάντες  ἀκριβῶς υἱός͵ ὡς νῦν μόνος ὁ υἱὸς ἔγνωκε τὸν πατέρα·

For should any one enquire carefully at what time those are to know the Father to whom He who knows the Father reveals Him, and should he consider how a man now sees only through a glass and in a riddle, never having learned to know as he ought to know, he would be justified in saying that no one, no apostle even, and no prophet had known the Father, but when he became one with Him as a son and a father are one.

16.93 εἰ γὰρ ἐπιμελῶς τις ἐξετάζοι͵ πότε γνώσονται͵ οἷς ἀποκαλύπτει ὁ ἐγνωκὼς τὸν πατέρα υἱός͵ τὸν πατέρα͵ καὶ βλέποι τὸ νῦν δι΄ ἐσόπτρου καὶ ἐν αἰνίγματι τὸν βλέποντα βλέπειν͵ οὐδέπω ἐγνωκότα καθὼς δεῖ γνῶναι͵ οὐκ ἂν ἁμάρτοι λέγων μηδένα ἐγνωκέναι͵ κἂν ἀπόστολος κἂν προφήτης τις ᾖ͵ τὸν πατέρα͵ ἀλλ΄ ὅταν γένωνται ἓν ὡς ὁ υἱὸς καὶ ὁ πατὴρ ἕν εἰσιν.

And if any one says that it is a digression which has led us to this point, our consideration of that one meaning of the word beginning, we must show that the digression is necessary and useful for the end we have in view. For if we speak of a beginning in the case of a transition, and of a way and its length, and if we are told that the beginning of a good way is to do justice, then it concerns us to know in what manner every good way has for its beginning to do justice, and how after such beginning it arrives at contemplation, and in what manner it thus arrives at contemplation.

16.94 Εἰ δὲ δόξειέ τις ἡμᾶς παρεκβεβηκέναι͵ ἓν σημαινό μενον τῆς ἀρχῆς σαφηνίζοντας καὶ ταῦτα εἰρηκότας͵ δεικτέον ὅτι ἡ παρέκβασις πρὸς τὸ προκείμενον ἀναγκαία καὶ χρή σιμος ἦν. Εἰ γὰρ ἀρχὴ ὡς μεταβάσεώς ἐστι καὶ ὁδοῦ καὶ μήκους͵ ἀρχὴ δὲ ὁδοῦ ἀγαθῆς τὸ ποιεῖν τὰ δίκαια͵ ἔστιν εἰδέναι͵ εἰ πᾶσα ὁδὸς ἀγαθή πως ἀρχὴν μὲν ἔχει τὸ ποιεῖν τὰ δίκαια͵ μετὰ δὲ τὴν ἀρχὴν τὴν θεωρίαν͵ καὶ τίνα τρόπον τὴν θεωρίαν.





 17. (2) in Time. The Beginning of Creation.


17. Again, there is a beginning in a matter of origin, as might appear in the saying: (Gen 1:1) In the beginning God made the heaven and the earth. This meaning, however, appears more plainly in the Book of Job in the passage: (Job 40:19) This is the beginning of God’s creation, made for His angels to mock at.

17.95 Ἔστι δὲ ἀρχὴ καὶ ἡ ὡς γενέσεως͵ ἣ δόξαι ἂν ἐπὶ τοῦ Ἐν ἀρχῇ ἐποίησεν ὁ θεὸς τὸν οὐρανὸν καὶ τὴν γῆν· οἶμαι δὲ σαφέστερον ἐν τῷ Ἰὼβ τοῦτο καταγ γέλλεσθαι τὸ σημαινόμενον κατὰ τὸ Τοῦτ΄ ἐστιν ἀρχὴ πλάσματος κυρίου͵ πεποιημένον ἐγκαταπαίζεσθαι ὑπὸ τῶν ἀγγέλων αὐτοῦ.

One would suppose that the heavens and the earth were made first, of all that was made at the creation of the world. But the second passage suggests a better view, namely, that as many beings were framed with a body, the first made of these was the creature called dragon, but called in another passage (Job 3:8) the great whale (leviathan) which the Lord tamed.

17.96 Ὑπολάβοι γὰρ ἄν τις τῶν ἐν γενέσει τῇ τοῦ κόσμου τυγχανόντων ἐν ἀρχῇ πεποιῆσθαι τὸν οὐρανὸν καὶ τὴν γῆν· βέλτιον δὲ ὡς πρὸς τὸ δεύτερον ῥητόν͵ πολλῶν ὄντων τῶν ἐν σώμασι γεγενημένων πρῶτον τῶν ἐν σώματι τὸν καλούμενον εἶναι δράκοντα͵ ὀνομαζόμενον δέ που καὶ μέγα κῆτος͵ ὅπερ ἐχειρώσατο ὁ κύριος.

We must ask about this; whether, when the saints were living a blessed life apart from matter and from any body, the dragon, falling from the pure life, became fit to be bound in matter and in a body, so that the Lord could say, speaking through storm and clouds, This is the beginning of the creation of God, made for His angels to mock at.

17.97 Καὶ ἀναγκαῖον ἐπιστῆσαι εἰ ἄϋλον πάντη καὶ ἀσώμα τον ζωὴν ζώντων ἐν μακαριότητι τῶν ἁγίων͵ ὁ καλούμενος δράκων ἄξιος γεγένηται͵ ἀποπεσὼν τῆς καθαρᾶς ζωῆς͵ πρὸ πάντων ἐνδεθῆναι ὕλῃ καὶ σώματι͵ ἵνα διὰ τοῦτο χρηματίζων ὁ κύριος διὰ λαίλαπος καὶ νεφῶν λέγῃ Τοῦτ΄ ἐστιν ἀρχὴ πλάσματος κυρίου͵ πεποιημένον ἐγκαταπαίζεσθαι ὑπὸ τῶν ἀγγέλων αὐτοῦ.

It is possible, however, that the dragon is not positively the beginning of the creation of the Lord, but that there were many creatures made with a body for the angels to mock, and that the dragon was the first of these, while others could subsist in a body without such reproach. But it is not so.For the soul of the sun is placed in a body, and the whole creation, of which the Apostle says: The whole creation groans and travails in pain together until now,

17.98 Δυνατὸν μέντοι γε τὸν δράκοντα μὴ ἁπαξαπλῶς εἶναι ἀρχὴν πλάσματος κυρίου͵ ἀλλὰ πολλῶν ἐν σώματι ἐγκατα παίζεσθαι πεποιημένων ὑπὸ τῶν ἀγγέλων͵ τοῦτον ἀρχὴν τῶν τοιούτων εἶναι͵ δυναμένων τινῶν ὑπάρχειν ἐν σώματι οὐχ οὕτως· καὶ γὰρ ἡ ψυχὴ τοῦ ἡλίου ἐν σώματι καὶ πᾶσα ἡ κτίσις͵ περὶ ἧς ὁ ἀπόστολός φησι· Πᾶσα ἡ κτίσις στενάζει καὶ συνωδίνει ἄχρι τοῦ νῦν.

and perhaps the following is about the same: The creation was made subject to vanity, not willingly, but on account of Him who subjected it for hope; so that bodies might be in vanity, and doing the things of the body, as he who is in the body must.. ..One who is in the body does the things of the body, though unwillingly. Wherefore the creation was made subject to vanity, not willingly,

17.99 Καὶ τάχα περὶ ἐκείνης ἐστὶ τὸ Τῇ ματαιότητι ἡ κτίσις ὑπετάγη οὐχ ἑκοῦσα͵ ἀλλὰ διὰ τὸν ὑποτάξαντα  τῇ ἐλπίδι͵ ἵνα ματαιό της τὰ σώματα ᾖ καὶ τὸ ποιεῖν τὰ σωματικά͵ ὅπερ ἀναγ καῖον    τῷ ἐν σώματι         ὑπάρχῃ. Ὁ ἐν σώματι οὐχ ἑκὼν ποιεῖ τὰ σώματος· διὰ τοῦτο τῇ ματαιότητι ἡ κτίσις ὑπετάγη οὐχ ἑκοῦσα.

but he who does unwillingly the things of the body does what he does for the sake of hope, as if we should say that Paul desired to remain in the flesh, not willingly, but on account of hope. For though he thought it better (Phil 1:23) to be dissolved and to be with Christ, it was not unreasonable that he should wish to remain in the flesh for the sake of the benefit to others and of advancement in the things hoped for, not only by him, but also by those benefited by him

17.100 Καὶ ὁ οὐχ ἑκὼν ποιῶν τὰ σώματος͵ ὃ ποιεῖ͵ ποιεῖ διὰ τὴν ἐλπίδα͵ ὡς εἰ λέγοιμεν Παῦλον θέλειν ἐπιμένειν τῇ σαρκὶ οὐχ ἑκόντα ἀλλὰ διὰ τὴν ἐλπίδα· προτιμῶντα γὰρ καθ΄ αὑτὸ τὸ ἀναλῦσαι καὶ σὺν Χριστῷ εἶναι οὐκ ἄλογον ἦν βούλεσθαι ἐπιμένειν τῇ σαρκὶ διὰ τὴν ἑτέρων ὠφέλειαν καὶ προκοπὴν τὴν ἐν τοῖς ἐλπιζομένοις οὐ μόνον αὐτοῦ ἀλλὰ καὶ τῶν ὠφελου μένων ὑπ΄ αὐτοῦ.

This meaning of the term beginning, as of origin, will serve us also in the passage in which Wisdom speaks in the Proverbs. God, we read, created me the beginning of His ways, for His works. Here the term could be interpreted as in the first application we spoke of, that of a way: The Lord, it says, created me the beginning of His ways.

17.101 Κατὰ τοῦτο δὲ τὸ ὡς γενέσεως σημαινόμενον τὴν ἀρχὴν καὶ τὸ ὑπὸ τῆς σοφίας ἐν παροιμίαις λεγόμενον ἐκδέξασθαι δυνησόμεθα· Ὁ θεός͵ γάρ φησιν͵ ἔκτισέν με ἀρχὴν ὁδῶν αὐτοῦ εἰς ἔργα αὐτοῦ. Δύναται μέντοι γε καὶ ἐπὶ τὸ πρῶτον ἀνάγεσθαι͵ τουτέστι τὸ ὡς ὁδοῦ͵ διὰ τὸ λέ γεσθαι Ὁ θεὸς ἔκτισέν με ἀρχὴν ὁδῶν αὐτοῦ.

One might assert, and with reason, that God Himself is the beginning of all things, and might go on to say, as is plain, that the Father is the beginning of the Son; and the demiurge the beginning of the works of the demiurge, and that God in a word is the beginning of all that exists. This view is supported by our: In the beginning was the Word. In the Word one may see the Son, and because He is in the Father He may be said to be in the beginning.

17.102 Οὐκ ἀτόπως δὲ καὶ τὸν τῶν ὅλων θεὸν ἐρεῖ τις ἀρχὴν σαφῶς προπίπτων͵ ὅτι ἀρχὴ υἱοῦ ὁ πατὴρ καὶ ἀρχὴ δημιουργημάτων ὁ δημιουργὸς καὶ ἁπαξαπλῶς ἀρχὴ τῶν ὄντων ὁ θεός. Παραμυθήσεται δὲ διὰ τοῦ Ἐν ἀρχῇ ἦν ὁ λόγος͵ λόγον νοῶν τὸν υἱόν͵ παρὰ τὸ εἶναι ἐν τῷ πατρὶ λεγόμενον εἶναι ἐν ἀρχῇ.

18. (3) of Substance.


In the third place a beginning may be that out of which a thing comes, the underlying matter from which things are formed. This, however, is the view of those who hold matter itself to be uncreated, a view which we believers cannot share, since we believe God to have made the things that are out of the things which are not, as the mother of the seven martyrs in the Maccabees teaches, (2 Mac 7:28) and as the angel of repentance in the Shepherd [of Hermas] inculcated.

17.103 Τρίτον δὲ τὸ ἐξ οὗ οἷον τὸ ἐξ ὑποκειμένης ὕλης͵ ἀρχὴ παρὰ τοῖς ἀγένητον αὐτὴν ἐπισταμένοις͵ ἀλλ΄ οὐ πὰρ΄ ἡμῖν τοῖς πειθομένοις͵ ὅτι ἐξ οὐκ ὄντων τὰ ὄντα ἐποίησεν ὁ θεός͵ ὡς ἡ μήτηρ τῶν ἑπτὰ μαρτύρων ἐν Μακκαβαϊκοῖς καὶ ὁ τῆς μετανοίας ἄγγελος ἐν τῷ Ποιμένι ἐδίδαξε.

 19. (4) of Type and Copy.


In addition to these meanings there is that in which we speak of an arche, according to form; thus if the first-born of every creature (Col 1:15) is the image of the invisible God, then the Father is his arche. In the same way Christ is the arche of those who are made according to the image of God.

17.104 Πρὸς τούτοις ἀρχὴ καὶ τὸ καθ΄ οἷον κατὰ τὸ εἶδος͵ οὕτως· εἴπερ εἰκὼν τοῦ θεοῦ τοῦ ἀοράτου ὁ πρωτότοκος πάσης κτίσεως͵ ἀρχὴ αὐτοῦ ὁ πατήρ ἐστιν. Ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ Χριστὸς ἀρχὴ τῶν κατ΄ εἰκόνα γενομένων θεοῦ.

For if men are according to the image, but the image according to the Father; in the first case the Father is the arche of Christ, and in the other Christ is the arche of men, and men are made, not according to that of which he is the image, but according to the image. With this example our passage will agree: In the arche was the Word.

17.105 Εἰ γὰρ οἱ ἄνθρωποι κατ΄ εἰκόνα͵ ἡ εἰκὼν δὲ κατὰ τὸν πατέρα͵ τὸ μὲν καθ΄ ὃ τοῦ Χριστοῦ ὁ πατὴρ ἀρχή͵ τὸ δὲ καθ΄ ὃ τῶν ἀνθρώπων ὁ Χριστός͵ γενομένων οὐ κατὰ τὸ οὗ ἐστιν εἰκών͵ ἀλλὰ κατὰ τὴν εἰκόνα· ἁρμόσει δὲ τὸ Ἐν ἀρχῇ ἦν ὁ λόγος εἰς τὸ αὐτὸ παράδειγμα.





 [20].(5) of Elements and What is Formed from Them.


18. There is also an arche in a matter of learning, as when we say that the letters are the arche of grammar. The Apostle accordingly says: When by reason of the time you ought to be teachers, you have need again that some one teach you what are the elements of the arche of the oracles of God. (Hebrews 5:12)

18.106 Ἔστιν ἀρχὴ καὶ ὡς μαθήσεως καθ΄ ὃ τὰ στοιχεῖά φαμεν ἀρχὴν εἶναι γραμματικῆς. Κατὰ τοῦτό φησιν ὁ ἀπόστολος ὅτι Ὀφείλοντες εἶναι διδάσκαλοι διὰ τὸν χρόνον͵ πάλιν χρείαν ἔχετε τοῦ διδάσκειν ὑμᾶς τίνα τὰ στοιχεῖα τῆς ἀρχῆς τῶν λογίων τοῦ θεοῦ.

Now the arche spoken of in connection with learning is twofold; first in respect of its nature, secondly in its relation to us; as we might say of Christ, that by nature His arche is deity, but that in relation to us who cannot, for its very greatness, command the whole truth about Him, His arche is His manhood, as He is preached to babes, Jesus Christ and Him crucified. In this view, then, Christ is the arche of learning in His own nature, because He is the wisdom and power of God; but for us, the Word was made flesh, that He might tabernacle among us who could only thus at first receive Him.

18.107 Διττὴ δὲ ἡ ὡς μαθήσεως ἀρχή͵ ἡ μὲν τῇ φύσει͵ ἡ δὲ ὡς πρὸς ἡμᾶς· ὡς εἰ λέγοιμεν ἐπὶ Χριστοῦ͵ φύσει μὲν αὐτοῦ ἀρχὴ ἡ θεότης͵ πρὸς ἡμᾶς δέ͵ μὴ ἀπὸ τοῦ μεγέθους αὐτοῦ δυναμένους ἄρξασθαι τῆς περὶ αὐτοῦ ἀληθείας ἡ ἀνθρωπότης αὐτοῦ͵ καθ΄ ὃ τοῖς νηπίοις καταγγέλλεται Ἰησοῦς Χριστός͵ καὶ οὗτος ἐσταυρωμένος· ὡς κατὰ τοῦτο εἰπεῖν ἀρχὴν εἶναι μαθήσεως τῇ μὲν φύσει Χριστὸν καθ΄ ὃ σοφία καὶ δύναμις θεοῦ͵ πρὸς ἡμᾶς δὲ τὸ ὁ λόγος σὰρξ ἐγένετο͵ ἵνα σκηνώσῃ ἐν ἡμῖν͵ οὕτω μόνον πρῶτον αὐτὸν χωρῆσαι δυνα μένοις.

And perhaps this is the reason why He is not only the firstborn of all creation, but is also designated the man, Adam. For Paul says He is Adam: The last Adam was made a life-giving spirit. (1Cor 15:45)

18.108 Καὶ τάχα διὰ τοῦτο οὐ μόνον πρωτότοκός ἐστιν πάσης κτίσεως͵ ἀλλὰ καὶ Ἀδάμ͵ ὃ ἑρμηνεύεται ἄνθρωπος. Ὅτι δὲ Ἀδάμ ἐστι͵ φησὶν ὁ Παῦλος Ὁ ἔσχατος Ἀδὰμ εἰς πνεῦμα ζωοποιοῦν.

 [21]. (6) of Design and Execution.


Again we speak of the arche of an action, in which there is a design which appears after the beginning. It may be considered whether wisdom is to be regarded as the arche of the works of God because it is in this way the principle of them.

Ἔστι δὲ ἀρχὴ καὶ ὡς πράξεως͵ ἐν ᾗ πράξει ἐστί τι τέλος μετὰ τὴν ἀρχήν. Καὶ ἐπίστησον εἰ ἡ σοφία ἀρχὴ τῶν πράξεων οὖσα τοῦ θεοῦ οὕτω δύναται νοεῖσθαι ἀρχή.





 [22]. The Word Was in the Beginning, I.e., in Wisdom, Which Contained All Things in Idea, Before They Existed. Christ’s Character as Wisdom is Prior to His Other Characters.


19. So many meanings occur to us at once of the word arche.We have now to ask which of them we should adopt for our text, In the beginning was the Word. It is plain that we may at once dismiss the meaning which connects it with transition or with a road and its length. Nor, it is pretty plain, will the meaning connected with an origin serve our purpose.

19.109 Τοσούτων σημαινομένων ἐπὶ τοῦ παρόν τος ἡμῖν ὑποπεσόντων περὶ ἀρχῆς͵ ζητοῦμεν ἐπὶ τίνος δεῖ λαμβάνειν τὸ Ἐν ἀρχῇ ἦν ὁ λόγος. Καὶ σαφὲς ὅτι οὐκ ἐπὶ τοῦ ὡς μεταβάσεως ἢ ὡς ὁδοῦ καὶ μήκους· οὐκ ἄδηλον δὲ ὅτι οὐδὲ ἐπὶ τοῦ ὡς γενέσεως.

One might, however, think of the sense in which it points to the author, to that which brings about the effect, if, as we read, God commanded and they were created. For Christ is, in a manner, the Demiurge, to whom the Father says, Let there be light, and Let there be a firmament.

19.110 Πλὴν δυνατὸν ὡς τὸ ὑφ΄ οὗ͵ ὅπερ ἐστὶ ποιοῦν͵ εἴγε ἐνετείλατο ὁ θεὸς καὶ ἐκτίσθησαν. Δημιουργὸς γὰρ πως ὁ Χριστός ἐστιν͵ ᾧ λέγει ὁ πατήρ· Γενηθήτω φῶς καὶ Γενηθήτω στερέωμα.

But Christ is Demiurge as a beginning (arche) , inasmuch as He is wisdom. It is in virtue of His being wisdom that He is called arche. For Wisdom says in Solomon: God created me the beginning of His ways, for His works, (Prov 8:22) so that the Word might be in an arche, namely, in wisdom. Considered in relation to the structure of contemplation and thoughts about the whole of things, it is regarded as wisdom; but in relation to that side of the objects of thought, in which reasonable beings apprehend them, it is considered as the Word.

19.111 Δημιουργὸς δὲ ὁ Χριστὸς ὡς ἀρχή͵ καθ΄ ὃ σοφία ἐστί͵ τῷ σοφία εἶναι καλούμενος ἀρχή. Ἡ γὰρ σοφία παρὰ τῷ Σαλομῶντί φησιν· Ὁ θεὸς ἔκτισέν με ἀρχὴν ὁδῶν αὐτοῦ εἰς ἔργα αὐτοῦ͵ ἵνα ἐν ἀρχῇ ᾖ ὁ λόγος͵ ἐν τῇ σοφίᾳ· κατὰ μὲν τὴν σύστασιν τῆς περὶ τῶν ὅλων θεωρίας καὶ νοημάτων τῆς σοφίας νοουμένης͵ κατὰ δὲ τὴν πρὸς τὰ λογικὰ κοινωνίαν τῶν τεθεωρημένων τοῦ λόγου λαμβανομένου.

And there is no wonder, since, as we have said before, the Saviour is many good things, if He comprises in Himself thoughts of the first order, and of the second, and of the third. This is what John suggested when he said about the Word: That which was made was life in Him. Life then came in the Word. (Jn 1:3-4) And on the one side the Word is no other than the Christ, the Word, He who was with the Father, by whom all things were made; while, on the other side, the Life is no other than the Son of God, who says: I am the way and the truth and the life. (Jn 14:6)  As, then, life came into being in the Word, so the Word in the arche.

19.112 Καὶ οὐ θαυμαστὸν εἰ͵ ὡς προειρήκαμεν͵ πολλὰ ὢν ἀγαθὰ ὁ σωτὴρ ἐνεπινοούμενα ἔχει ἐν αὑτῷ πρῶτα καὶ δεύτερα καὶ τρίτα. Ὁ γοῦν Ἰωάννης ἐπήνεγκε φάσκων περὶ τοῦ λόγου· Ὃ γέγονεν ἐν αὐτῷ ζωὴ ἦν. Γέγονεν οὖν ἡ ζωὴ ἐν τῷ λόγῳ· καὶ οὔτε ὁ λόγος ἕτερός ἐστι τοῦ Χριστοῦ͵ ὁ θεὸς λόγος͵ ὁ πρὸς τὸν πατέρα͵ δι΄ οὗ τὰ πάντα ἐγένετο͵ οὔτε ἡ ζωὴ ἑτέρα τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ θεοῦ͵ ὅς φησιν· Ἐγώ εἰμι ἡ ὁδὸς καὶ ἡ ἀλήθεια καὶ ἡ ζωή. Ὥσπερ οὖν ἡ ζωὴ γέγο νεν ἐν τῷ λόγῳ͵ οὕτως ὁ λόγος ἦν ἐν ἀρχῇ.

Consider, however, if we are at liberty to take this meaning of arche for our text: In the beginning was the Word, so as to obtain the meaning that all things came into being according to wisdom and according to the models of the system which are present in his thoughts.

19.113 Ἐπίστησον δέ͵ εἰ οἷόν τέ ἐστι καὶ κατὰ τὸ σημαινό μενον τοῦτο ἐκδέχεσθαι ἡμᾶς τὸ Ἐν ἀρχῇ ἦν ὁ λόγος͵ ἵνα κατὰ τὴν σοφίαν καὶ τοὺς τύπους τοῦ συστήματος τῶν ἐν αὐτῷ νοημάτων τὰ πάντα γίνηται.

For I consider that as a house or a ship is built and fashioned in accordance with the sketches of the builder or designer, the house or the ship having their beginning (arche) in the sketches and reckonings in his mind, so all things came into being in accordance with the designs of what was to be, clearly laid down by God in wisdom.

19.114 Οἶμαι γάρ͵ ὥσπερ κατὰ τοὺς ἀρχιτεκτονικοὺς τύπους οἰκοδομεῖται ἢ τεκταίνεται οἰκία καὶ ναῦς͵ ἀρχὴν τῆς οἰκίας καὶ τῆς νεὼς ἐχόντων τοὺς ἐν τῷ τεχνίτῃ τύπους καὶ λόγους͵ οὕτω τὰ σύμπαντα γεγονέναι κατὰ τοὺς ἐν τῇ σοφίᾳ προ τρανωθέντας ὑπὸ θεοῦ τῶν ἐσομένων λόγους· Πάντα γὰρ ἐν σοφίᾳ ἐποίησε.

And we should add that having created, so to speak, ensouled wisdom, He left her to hand over, from the types which were in her, to things existing and to matter, the actual emergence of them, their moulding and their forms, and if I be permitted to say it – the[ir] essence.

19.115 Καὶ λεκτέον ὅτι κτίσας͵ ἵν΄ οὕτως εἴπω͵ ἔμψυχον σοφίαν ὁ θεός͵ αὐτῇ ἐπέτρεψεν ἀπὸ τῶν ἐν αὐτῇ τύπων τοῖς οὖσι καὶ τῇ ὕλῃ παρασχεῖν καὶ τὴν πλάσιν καὶ τὰ εἴδη͵ ἐγὼ δὲ ἐφίστημι εἰ καὶ τὰς οὐσίας.

For it is not hard to assert roughly [that the] beginning (arche) of real existence was the Son of God, saying: I am the beginning and the end, the A and the Ω, the first and the last. (Rev 22:13) We must, however, remember that He is not the arche in respect of every name which is applied to Him.

19.116 Οὐ χαλεπὸν μὲν οὖν παχύτερον εἰπεῖν ἀρχὴν τῶν ὄντων εἶναι τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ θεοῦ͵ λέγοντα· Ἐγώ εἰμι ἡ ἀρχὴ καὶ τὸ τέλος͵ τὸ Α καὶ τὸ Ω͵ ὁ πρῶτος καὶ ὁ ἔσχατος. Ἀναγκαῖον δὲ εἰδέναι ὅτι οὐ κατὰ πᾶν ὃ ὀνομάζεται ἀρχή ἐστιν αὐτός.

For how can He be the beginning in respect of His being life, when life came in the Word, and the Word is manifestly the arche of life? It is also tolerably evident that He cannot be the arche in respect of His being the first-born from the dead.

19.117 Πῶς γὰρ καθ΄ ὃ ζωή ἐστι δύναται εἶναι ἀρχή͵ ἥτις ζωὴ γέγονεν ἐν τῷ λόγῳ͵ δηλονότι ἀρχῇ τυγχά νοντι αὐτῆς; Ἔτι δὲ σαφέστερον ὅτι καθ΄ ὃ πρωτότοκός ἐστιν ἐκ τῶν νεκρῶν͵ οὐ δύναται εἶναι ἀρχή.

And if we go through all His titles carefully we find that He is the arche only in respect of His being wisdom. Not even as the Word is He the arche, for the Word was in the arche. And so one might venture to say that wisdom is anterior to all the thoughts that are expressed in the titles of the first-born of every creature.

19.118 Καὶ ἐὰν ἐπιμελῶς ἐξετάζωμεν αὐτοῦ πάσας τὰς ἐπινοίας͵ μόνον κατὰ τὸ εἶναι σοφία ἀρχή ἐστιν͵ οὐδὲ κατὰ τὸ εἶναι λόγος ἀρχὴ τυγχάνων͵ εἴγε ὁ λόγος ἐν ἀρχῇ ἦν· ὡς εἰπεῖν ἄν τινα τεθαρρηκότως ὡς πρεσβύτερον πάντων τῶν ἐπινοουμένων ταῖς ὀνομασίαις τοῦ πρωτοτόκου πάσης κτίσεώς ἐστιν ἡ σοφία.





20. Now God is altogether one and simple; but our Saviour, for many reasons, since God set Him forth a propitiation and a first fruits of the whole creation, (Rom 3:25)  is made many things, or perhaps all these things; the whole creation, so far as capable of redemption, stands in need of Him.

20.119 Ὁ θεὸς μὲν οὖν πάντη ἕν ἐστι καὶ ἁπλοῦν· ὁ δὲ σωτὴρ ἡμῶν διὰ τὰ πολλά͵ ἐπεὶ προέθετο αὐτὸν ὁ θεὸς ἱλαστήριον καὶ ἀπαρχὴν πάσης τῆς κτίσεως͵ πολλὰ γίνεται ἢ καὶ τάχα πάντα ταῦτα͵ καθὰ χρῄζει αὐτοῦ ἡ ἐλευθεροῦσθαι δυναμένη πᾶσα κτίσις.

And, hence, He is made the light of men, because men, being darkened by wickedness, need the light that shines in darkness, and is not overtaken by the darkness; had not men been in darkness, He would not have become the light of men.

20.120 Καὶ διὰ τοῦτο γίνεται φῶς τῶν ἀνθρώπων͵ ὅτε ἄνθρωποι ὑπὸ τῆς κακίας σκοτισθέντες δέονται φωτὸς τοῦ ἐν τῇ σκοτίᾳ φαίνοντος καὶ ὑπὸ σκοτίας μὴ καταλαμβανο μένου͵ οὐκ ἄν͵ εἰ μὴ γεγόνεισαν ἐν τῷ σκότῳ οἱ ἄνθρωποι͵ γενόμενος ἀνθρώπων φῶς.

The same thing may be observed in respect of His being the first-born of the dead. For supposing the woman had not been deceived, and Adam had not fallen, and man created for incorruption had obtained it, then He would not have descended into the grave, nor would He have died, there being no sin, nor would His love of men have required that He should die, and if He had not died, He could not have been the first­born of the dead.

20.121 Τὸ δ΄ ὅμοιον ἔστι νοῆσαι καὶ ἐπὶ τοῦ εἶναι αὐτὸν πρωτότοκον ἐκ τῶν νεκρῶν. Εἰ γὰρ καθ΄ ὑπόθεσιν ἡ γυνὴ μὴ ἠπάτητο καὶ ὁ Ἀδὰμ μὴ παραπεπτώκει͵ κτισθεὶς δὲ ὁ ἄνθρωπος ἐπὶ ἀφθαρσίᾳ κεκρατήκει τῆς ἀφθαρσίας͵ οὔτ΄ ἂν εἰς χοῦν θανάτου καταβεβήκει οὔτ΄ ἂν ἀπέθανεν οὐκ οὔσης ἁμαρτίας͵ ᾗ διὰ τὴν φιλανθρωπίαν αὐτὸν ἐχρῆν ἀποθα νεῖν· ταῦτα δὲ μὴ ποιήσας οὐκ ἂν ἐγένετο πρωτότοκος ἐκ τῶν νεκρῶν.

We may also ask whether He would ever have become a shepherd, had man not been thrown together with the beasts which are devoid of reason, and made like to them. For if God saves man and beasts, He saves those beasts which He does save, by giving them a shepherd, since they cannot have a king.

20.122 Ἐξεταστέον δέ͵ μήποτε καὶ ποιμὴν οὐκ ἂν ἐγένετο τοῦ ἀνθρώπου μὴ παρασυμβληθέντος τοῖς κτήνεσι τοῖς ἀνοήτοις μηδ΄ ὁμοιωθέντος αὐτοῖς. Εἰ γὰρ ἀνθρώπους καὶ κτήνη σῴζει ὁ θεός͵ σῴζει ἃ σῴζει κτήνη ποιμένα αὐτοῖς χαρισάμενος τοῖς μὴ χωροῦσι τὸν βασιλέα.

Thus if we collect the titles of Jesus, the question arises which of them were conferred on Him later, and would never have assumed such importance if the saints had begun and had also persevered in blessedness. Perhaps Wisdom would be the only remaining one, or perhaps the Word would remain too, or perhaps the Life, or perhaps the Truth, not the others, which He took for our sake.

20.123 Βασανιστέον οὖν συναγαγόντα τὰς ὀνομασίας τοῦ υἱοῦ͵ ποῖαι αὐτῶν ἐπιγεγόνασιν οὐκ ἂν ἐν μακαριότητι ἀρξαμένων καὶ μεινάντων τῶν ἁγίων γενόμεναι τὰ τοσάδε. Τάχα γὰρ σοφία ἔμενε μόνον ἢ καὶ λόγος ἢ καὶ ζωή͵ πάντως δὲ καὶ ἀλήθεια· οὐ μὴν δὲ καὶ τὰ ἄλλα ὅσα δι΄ ἡμᾶς προσείληφε.

And happy indeed are those who in their need for the Son of God have yet become such persons as not to need Him in His character as a physician healing the sick, nor in that of a shepherd, nor in that of redemption, but only in His characters as wisdom, as the word and righteousness, or if there be any other title suitable for those who are so perfect as to receive Him in His fairest characters. So much for the phrase In the beginning.

20.124 Καὶ μακάριοί γε ὅσοι δεόμενοι τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ θεοῦ τοιοῦτοι γεγόνασιν͵ ὡς μηκέτι αὐτοῦ χρῄζειν ἰατροῦ τοὺς κακῶς ἔχοντας θεραπεύοντος μηδὲ ποιμένος μηδὲ ἀπολυτρώ σεως͵ ἀλλὰ σοφίας καὶ λόγου καὶ δικαιοσύνης͵ ἢ εἴ τι ἄλλο τοῖς διὰ τελειότητα χωρεῖν αὐτοῦ τὰ κάλλιστα δυναμένοις. Τοσαῦτα περὶ τοῦ Ἐν ἀρχῇ.





 [23]. The Title Word Is to Be Interpreted by the Same Method as the Other Titles of Christ. The Word of God is Not a Mere Attribute of God, But a Separate Person. What is Meant When He is Called the Word.


21. Let us consider, however, a little more carefully what is the Word which is in the beginning. I am often led to wonder when I consider the things that are said about Christ, even by those who are in earnest in their belief in Him. Though there is a countless number of names which can be applied to our Saviour, they omit the most of them, and if they should remember them, they declare that these titles are not to be understood in their proper sense, but tropically. But when they come to the title Logos (Word) , and repeat that Christ alone is the Word of God, they are not consistent, and do not, as in the case of the other titles, search out what is behind the meaning of the term Word.

21.125 Ἴδωμεν δ΄ ἐπιμελέστερον τίς ὁ ἐν αὐτῇ λόγος. Θαυμάζειν μοι πολλάκις ἐπέρχεται σκοποῦντι τὰ ὑπό τινων πιστεύειν εἰς τὸν Χριστὸν βουλομένων λεγόμενα περὶ αὐτοῦ͵ τί δήποτε δυσεξαριθμήτων ὀνομάτων τασσομένων ἐπὶ τοῦ σωτῆρος ἡμῶν τὰ μὲν πλεῖστα παρασιωπῶσιν͵ ἀλλὰ καὶ εἴ ποτε μνήμη αὐτῶν γένοιτο͵ μεταλαμβάνουσιν οὐ κυρίως ἀλλὰ τροπικῶς ταῦτα αὐτὸν ὀνομάζεσθαι͵ ἐπὶ δὲ μόνης τῆς λόγος προσηγορίας ἱστάμενοι οἱονεὶ λόγον μόνον φασὶν εἶναι τὸν Χριστὸν τοῦ θεοῦ͵ καὶ οὐχὶ ἀκολούθως τοῖς λοιποῖς τῶν ὀνομαζομένων ἐρευνῶσι τοῦ σημαινομένου τὴν δύναμιν ἐκ τῆς λόγος φωνῆς.

I wonder at the stupidity of the general run of Christians in this matter. I do not mince matters; it is nothing but stupidity. The Son of God says in one passage, I am the light of the world, and in another, I am the resurrection, and again, I am the way and the truth and the life. It is also written, I am the door, and we have the saying, I am the good shepherd, and when the woman of Samaria says, We know the Messiah is coming, who is called Christ; when He comes, He will tell us all things, Jesus answers, I that speak unto you am He.

21.126 Ὃ δέ φημι θαυμάζειν τῶν πολλῶνσαφέστερον γὰρ ἐρῶτοιοῦτόν ἐστι. Φησί που ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ· Ἐγώ εἰμι τὸ φῶς τοῦ κόσμου· καὶ ἐν ἄλλοις· Ἐγώ εἰμι ἡ ἀνάστασις· καὶ πάλιν Ἐγώ εἰμι ἡ ὁδὸς καὶ ἡ ἀλήθεια καὶ ἡ ζωή· γέγραπται δὲ καὶ τὸ Ἐγώ εἰμι ἡ θύρα· εἴρηται καὶ τὸ Ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ ποιμὴν ὁ καλός· καὶ πρὸς τὴν Σαμα ρεῖτιν φάσκουσαν· Οἴδαμεν ὅτι Μεσσίας ἔρχεται͵ ὁ λεγό μενος Χριστός· ὅταν ἔλθῃ ἐκεῖνος͵ ἀναγγελεῖ ἡμῖν πάντα ἀποκρίνεται· Ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ λαλῶν σοι.

Again, when He washed the disciples’ feet, He declared Himself in these words to be their Master and Lord: You call Me Master and Lord, and you say well, for so I am. (Jn 13:13)

21.127 Πρὸς τούτοις͵ ὅτε ἔνιψε τοὺς πόδας τῶν μαθητῶν͵ κύριος καὶ διδάσκαλος αὐτῶν εἶναι διὰ τούτων ὁμολογεῖ· Ὑμεῖς φωνεῖτέ με· Ὁ διδάσκαλος καὶ ὁ κύριος͵ καὶ καλῶς λέγετε· εἰμὶ γάρ.

[[But He Himself clearly declares that he is the Son of God, saying “do you say of him whom the Father consecrated and sent into the world, ’You are blaspheming’ because I said, ‘I am the Son of God’?” (Jn 10:36) ]] and “Father, the hour has come; glorify Your Son, that the Son also may glorify You. (Jn 17:1)

21.128 Ἀλλὰ καὶ υἱὸν εἶναι θεοῦ σαφῶς ἑαυτὸν καταγγέλλει λέγων· Ὃν ὁ πατὴρ ἡγίασε καὶ ἀπέστειλεν εἰς τὸν κόσμον ὑμεῖς λέγετε ὅτι· Βλασφημεῖς͵ ὅτι εἶπον· Υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ εἰμι; καί· Πάτερ͵ ἐλήλυθεν ἡ ὥρα· δόξασόν σου τὸν υἱόν͵ ἵνα ὁ υἱὸς δοξάσῃ σε.

We also find Him declaring Himself to be a king, as when He answers Pilate’s question, (Jn 18:33, 36) Are You the King of the Jews? by saying, My kingdom is not of this world; if My kingdom were of this world, then would My servants fight, that I should not be delivered to the Jews, but now is My kingdom not from hence.

21.129 Εὑρίσκομεν δὲ καταγγέλλοντα ἑαυτὸν καὶ βασιλέα͵ ὡς ἐπὰν ἀποκρινόμενος τῷ Πιλάτῳ πρὸς τὸ Σὺ εἶ ὁ βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδαίων; λέγῃ· Ἡ βασιλεία ἡ ἐμὴ οὐκ ἔστιν ἐκ τοῦ κόσμου τούτου· εἰ ἐκ τοῦ κόσμου τούτου ἦν ἡ βασιλεία ἡ ἐμή͵ οἱ ὑπηρέται οἱ ἐμοὶ ἠγωνίζοντο ἄν͵ ἵνα μὴ παραδοθῶ τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις· νῦν δὲ ἡ βασιλεία ἡ ἐμὴ οὐκ ἔστιν ἐντεῦθεν.

We have also read the words, I am the true vine and My Father is the husbandman, and again, I am the vine, you are the branches.

21.130 Ἀνέγνωμεν καὶ τὸ Ἐγώ εἰμι ἡ ἄμπελος ἡ ἀληθινή͵ καὶ ὁ πατήρ μου ὁ γεωργός ἐστι· καὶ πάλιν· Ἐγώ εἰμι ἄμπελος͵ ὑμεῖς τὰ κλήματα.

Add to these testimonies also the saying, I am the bread of life, that came down from heaven and gives life to the world. These texts will suffice for the present, which we have picked up out of the storehouse of the Gospels, and in all of which He claims to be the Son of God.

21.131 Συναριθμείσθω τούτοις καὶ τὸ Ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ ἄρτος τῆς ζωῆς· καὶ πάλιν· Ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ ἄρτος ὁ ζῶν͵ ὁ ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ κατα βὰς καὶ ζωὴν διδοὺς τῷ κόσμῳ. Καὶ ταῦτα μὲν ἐπὶ τοῦ παρόντος ὑποπεσόντα ἀπὸ τῶν ἐν τοῖς εὐαγγελίοις κειμένων παρεθέμεθα͵ τοσαῦτα αὑτὸν λέγοντος εἶναι τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ θεοῦ.





22. But in the Apocalypse of John, too, He says, (Rev 1:18) I am the first and the last, and the living One, and I was dead. Behold, I am alive for evermore. And again, (Rev 22:13) I am the A and the Ω, and the first and the last, the beginning and the end.

22.132 Ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐν τῇ Ἰωάννου Ἀποκαλύψει λέγει· Ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ πρῶτος καὶ ὁ ἔσχατος καὶ ὁ ζῶν͵ καὶ ἐγενόμην νεκρός͵ καὶ ἰδοὺ ζῶν εἰμι εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων. Καὶ πάλιν· Γέγονα ἐγὼ τὸ Α καὶ τὸ Ω͵ καὶ ὁ πρῶτος καὶ ὁ ἔσχα τος͵ ἡ ἀρχὴ καὶ τὸ τέλος.

The careful student of the sacred books, moreover, may gather not a few similar passages from the prophets, as where He calls Himself a chosen shaft, (Is 49:2) and a servant of God, and a light of the Gentiles. (Is 49:6)

22.133 Ἔστι δὲ οὐκ ὀλίγα τὸν μετὰ παρατηρήσεως ἐντυγχά νοντα ταῖς ἁγίαις βίβλοις καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν προφητῶν παραπλήσια λαβεῖν͵ οἷον ὅτι βέλος ἐκλεκτὸν ἑαυτὸν καλεῖ καὶ δοῦ λον τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ φῶς τῶν ἐθνῶν.

Isaiah also says, From my mother’s womb has He called me by my name, and He made my mouth as a sharp sword, and under the shadow of His hand did He hide me, and He said to me, You are My servant, O Israel, and in you will I be glorified.

22.134 Λέγει δὴ οὕτω Ἡσαΐας· Ἐκ κοιλίας μητρός μου ἐκάλεσέ με τὸ ὄνομά μου καὶ ἔθηκε τὸ στόμα μου ὡς μάχαιραν ὀξεῖαν καὶ ὑπὸ τὴν σκέπην τῆς χειρὸς αὐτοῦ ἔκρυψέν με· ἔθηκέν με ὡς βέλος ἐκλεκτὸν καὶ ἐν τῇ φαρέτρᾳ αὐτοῦ ἔκρυψέ με͵ καὶ εἶπέ μοι· Δοῦλός μου εἶ σύ͵ Ἰσραήλ͵ καὶ ἐν σοὶ δοξασθήσομαι.

And a little farther on: And my God shall be my strength, and He said to me, This is a great thing for you to be called My servant, to set up the tribes of Jacob and to turn again the diaspora of Israel. Behold I have set you for a light of the Gentiles, that you should be for salvation to the end of the earth. And in Jeremiah too He likens Himself to a lamb, as thus: I was as a gentle lamb that is led to the slaughter. (Jer 11:19)

22.135 Καὶ μετ΄ ὀλίγα· Καὶ ὁ θεός μου ἔσται μοι ἰσχύς. Καὶ εἶπέ μοι· Μέγα σοί ἐστι τοῦτο κληθῆναί σε παῖδά μου͵ τοῦ στῆσαι τὰς φυλὰς Ἰακὼβ καὶ τὴν διασπορὰν τοῦ Ἰσραὴλ ἐπιστρέψαι· ἰδοὺ τέθεικά σε εἰς φῶς ἐθνῶν͵ τοῦ εἶναί σε εἰς σωτηρίαν ἕως ἐσχάτου τῆς γῆς. Ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐν τῷ Ἱερεμίᾳ οὕτως αὑτὸν ἀρνίῳ ὁμοιοῖ· Ἐγὼ ὡς ἀρνίον ἄκακον ἀγό μενον τοῦ θύεσθαι.

These and other similar sayings He applies to Himself. In addition to these one might collect in the Gospels and the Apostles and in the prophets a countless number of titles which are applied to the Son of God, as the writers of the Gospels set forth their own views of what He is, or the Apostles extol Him out of what they had learned, or the prophets proclaim in advance His coming advent and announce the things concerning Him under various names.

22.136 Ταῦτα μὲν οὖν καὶ τὰ τούτοις παραπλήσια αὐτὸς ἑαυτόν φησιν· ἔστι δὲ καὶ παρὰ τοῖς εὐαγγελίοις καὶ παρὰ τοῖς ἀποστόλοις καὶ διὰ τῶν προφητῶν μυρίας ὅσας προση γορίας συναγαγεῖν͵ ἃς καλεῖται ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ· ἤτοι τῶν τὰ εὐαγγέλια γραψάντων τὴν ἰδίαν διάνοιαν τῶν περὶ τοῦ ὅ τί ποτέ ἐστιν ἐκτιθεμένων͵ ἢ τῶν ἀποστόλων ἐξ ὧν μεμαθήκασι δοξολογούντων αὐτόν͵ ἢ τῶν προφητῶν προκηρυσσόντων αὐτοῦ τὴν ἐσομένην ἐπιδημίαν καὶ τὰ περὶ αὐτοῦ ἀπαγγελ λόντων διαφόροις ὀνόμασιν.

Thus John calls Him the Lamb of God, saying, Behold the Lamb of God which takes away the sins of the world, (Jn 1:29) and in these words he declares Him as a man, This is He about whom I said, that there comes after me a man who is there before me; for He was before me. (Jn 1:30-31)

22.137 Οἷον ὁ Ἰωάννης αὐτὸν ἀμνὸν θεοῦ ἀναγο ρεύει λέγων· Ἴδε ὁ ἀμνὸς τοῦ θεοῦ͵ ὁ αἴρων τὴν ἁμαρ τίαν τοῦ κόσμου· καὶ ἄνδρα διὰ τούτων· Οὗτός ἐστιν ὑπὲρ οὗ ἐγὼ εἶπον ὅτι ὀπίσω μου ἔρχεται ἀνὴρ ὃς ἔμπροσθέν μου γέγονεν͵ ὅτι πρῶτός μου ἦν· κἀγὼ οὐκ ᾔδειν αὐτόν.

And in his Catholic Epistle John says that He is a Paraclete for our souls with the Father, as thus: And if any one sin, we have a Paraclete with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous,

22.138 Ἐν δὲ τῇ καθολικῇ ἐπιστολῇ ὁ Ἰωάννης παρά κλητον περὶ τῶν ψυχῶν ἡμῶν πρὸς τὸν πατέρα φησὶν αὐτὸν εἶναι λέγων· Καὶ ἐάν τις ἁμάρτῃ͵ παράκλητον ἔχομεν πρὸς τὸν πατέρα͵ Ἰησοῦν Χριστὸν δίκαιον.

and he adds that He is a propitiation for our sins, and similarly Paul says He is a propitiation: Whom God set forth as a propitiation through faith in His blood, on account of forgiveness of the forepast sins, in the forbearance of God.

22.139 Ἐπιφέρει δὲ ὅτι καὶ ἱλασμός ἐστι περὶ τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ἡμῶν· ᾧ παρα πλησίως ὁ Παῦλος λέγει αὐτὸν εἶναι ἱλαστήριον͵ φάσκων· Ὃν προέθετο ὁ θεὸς ἱλαστήριον διὰ πίστεως ἐν τῷ αἵματι αὐτοῦ͵ διὰ τὴν πάρεσιν τῶν προγεγονότων ἁμαρτημάτων ἐν τῇ ἀνοχῇ τοῦ θεοῦ.

According to Paul, too, He is declared to be the wisdom and the power of God, as in the Epistle to the Corinthians: Christ the power of God and the wisdom of God. It is added that He is also sanctification and redemption: He was made to us of God, he says, wisdom and righteousness and sanctification and redemption.

22.140 Κεκήρυκται δὲ κατὰ τὸν Παῦλον σοφία εἶναι καὶ δύναμις θεοῦ͵ ὡς ἐν τῇ πρὸς Κορινθίους͵ ὅτι Χριστὸς δύναμίς ἐστι καὶ θεοῦ σοφία· πρὸς τούτοις͵ ὅτι καὶ ἁγιασμός ἐστι καὶ ἀπολύτρωσις· Ὃς ἐγενήθη͵ γάρ φησι͵ σοφία ἡμῖν ἀπὸ θεοῦ͵ δικαιοσύνη τε καὶ ἁγιασμὸς καὶ ἀπο λύτρωσις.

But he also teaches us, writing to the Hebrews, that Christ is a High-Priest: (Heb 4:14) Having, therefore, a great High-Priest, who has passed through the heavens, Jesus the Son of God, let us hold fast our profession.

22.141 Ἀλλὰ καὶ ἀρχιερέα μέγαν διδάσκει ἡμᾶς αὐτὸν τυγχάνειν͵ πρὸς Ἑβραίους γράφων· Ἔχοντες οὖν ἀρχιερέα μέγαν διεληλυθότα τοὺς οὐρανούς͵ Ἰησοῦν τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ θεοῦ͵ κρατῶμεν τῆς ὁμολογίας.





23. And the prophets have other names for Him besides these. Jacob in his blessing of his sons  says, Judah, your brethren shall extol you; your hands are on the necks of your enemies. A lion’s cub is Judah, from a shoot, my son, are you sprung up; you have lain down and slept as a lion; who shall awaken him? (Gen 49:10)We cannot now linger over these phrases, to show that what is said of Judah applies to Christ.

23.142 Οἱ δὲ προφῆται παρὰ ταῦτα καὶ ἑτέροις ὀνόμασιν αὐτὸν καλοῦσιν· ὁ μὲν Ἰακὼβ ἐν τῇ πρὸς τοὺς υἱοὺς εὐλογίᾳ Ἰούδαν· τὸ γὰρ Ἰούδα͵ σὲ αἰνέσαισαν οἱ ἀδελφοί σου· αἱ χεῖρές σου ἐπὶ νώτου τῶν ἐχθρῶν σου· σκύμνος λέοντος Ἰούδα· ἐκ βλαστοῦ͵ υἱέ μου͵ ἀνέβης· ἀναπεσὼν ἐκοιμήθης ὡς λέων καὶ ὡς σκύμνος· τίς ἐγερεῖ αὐτόν;     Οὐ κατὰ τὸν ἐνεστηκότα δὲ καιρόν ἐστι πρὸς λέξιν παραστῆσαι πῶς τὰ τῷ Ἰούδᾳ λεγόμενα περὶ Χριστοῦ ἐστιν.

What may be quoted against this view, viz., A ruler shall not part from Judah nor a leader from his loins, until He come for whom it is reserved; this can better be cleared up on another occasion.

23.143 Ἀλλὰ καὶ ἀνθυποφορὰ εὐλόγως ἐπενε χθῆναι δυναμένη Οὐκ ἐκλείψει ἄρχων ἐξ Ἰούδα͵ καὶ ἡγούμε νος ἐκ τῶν μηρῶν αὐτοῦ ἐν ἄλλοις εὐκαιρότερον λυθήσεται.

But Isaiah knows Christ to be spoken of under the names of Jacob and Israel, when he says, Jacob is my servant, I will help Him; Israel is my elect, my soul has accepted Him. He shall declare judgment to the Gentiles. He shall not strive nor cry, neither shall any one hear His voice on the streets. A bruised rod shall He not break, and smoking flax shall He not quench, till He bring forth judgment from victory, and in His name shall the nations hope. (Is 42:1-4)

23.144 Οἶδε δὲ τὸν Χριστὸν Ἰακὼβ καὶ Ἰσραὴλ ὀνομαζό μενον Ἡσαΐας λέγων· Ἰακὼβ ὁ παῖς μου͵ ἀντιλήψομαι αὐτοῦ· Ἰσραὴλ ὁ ἐκλεκτός μου͵ προσεδέξατο αὐτὸν ἡ ψυχὴ μου· κρίσιν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν ἀπαγγελεῖ. Οὐκ ἐρίσει οὐδὲ κράξει οὐδὲ ἀκούσει τις ἐν ταῖς πλατείαις τὴν φωνὴν αὐτοῦ· κάλαμον συντετριμμένον οὐ κατεάξει καὶ λίνον τυφόμενον οὐ σβέσει͵ ἕως ἂν ἐκβάλῃ ἐκ νίκους τὴν κρίσιν͵ καὶ τῷ ὀνόματι αὐτοῦ ἔθνη ἐλπιοῦσιν.

That it is Christ about whom such prophecies are made, Matthew shows in his Gospel, where he quotes from memory and says: That the saying might be fulfilled, He shall not strive nor cry, etc.

23.145 Ὅτι γὰρ ὁ Χριστός ἐστι͵ περὶ οὗ ταῦτα προφητεύεται͵ σαφῶς ὁ Ματθαῖος δηλοῖ ἐν τῷ εὐαγγε λίῳ͵ μνησθεῖς ἀπὸ μέρους τῆς περικοπῆς͵ εἰπών· Ἵνα πληρωθῇ τὸ εἰρημένον· Οὐκ ἐρίσει οὐδὲ κράξει καὶ τὰ ἑξῆς.

David also is called Christ, as where Ezekiel in his prophecy to the shepherds adds as from the mouth of God: I will raise up David my servant, who shall be their shepherd. (Ez 34:23) For it is not the patriarch David who is to rise and be the shepherd of the saints, but Christ.

23.146 Καλεῖται δὲ καὶ Δαβὶδ ὁ Χριστός͵ ὡς ἐπὰν Ἰεζεκιὴλ προφητεύσας πρὸς τοὺς ποιμένας ἐπιφέρῃ ἐκ προσώπου θεοῦ· Ἀναστήσω Δαβὶδ τὸν παῖδά μου͵ ὃς ποιμανεῖ αὐτούς· οὐ γὰρ Δαβὶδ ὁ πατριάρχης ἀναστήσεται ποιμαίνειν μέλλων τοὺς ἁγίους͵ ἀλλὰ Χριστός.

Isaiah also called Christ the rod and the flower: There shall come forth a rod out of the root of Jesse, and a flower shall spring out of this root, and the spirit of God shall rest upon Him, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and of might, the spirit of knowledge and of godliness, and He shall be full of the spirit of the fear of the Lord. (Is 11:1-3)

23.147 Ἔτι δὲ ὁ Ἡσαΐας ῥάβδον καὶ ἄνθος ὀνομά ζει τὸν Χριστὸν ἐν τῷ· Ἐξελεύσεται ῥάβδος ἐκ τῆς ῥίζης Ἰεσσαὶ καὶ ἄνθος ἐκ τῆς ῥίζης ἀναβήσεται͵ καὶ ἐπαναπαύσεται ἐπ΄ αὐτὸν πνεῦμα τοῦ θεοῦ͵ πνεῦμα σοφίας καὶ συνέσεως͵ πνεῦμα βουλῆς καὶ ἰσχύος͵ πνεῦμα γνώσεως καὶ εὐσεβείας͵ καὶ ἐμπλήσει αὐτὸν πνεῦμα φόβου θεοῦ.

And in the Psalms our Lord is called the stone, as follows: The stone which the builders rejected is made the head of the corner. It is from the Lord, and it is wonderful in our eyes.

23.148 Καὶ λίθος δὲ ἐν τοῖς ψαλμοῖς ὁ κύριος ἡμῶν εἶναι λέγεται οὕτως· Λίθον ὃν ἀπεδοκίμασαν οἱ οἰκοδο μοῦντες͵ οὗτος ἐγενήθη εἰς κεφαλὴν γωνίας· παρὰ κυρίου ἐγένετο αὕτη͵ καὶ ἔστι θαυμαστὴ ἐν ὀφθαλμοῖς ἡμῶν.

And the Gospel shows, as also does Luke in the Acts, that the stone is no other than Christ; the Gospel as follows: Have ye never read, the stone which the builders rejected is made the head of the corner. Whosoever falls on this stone shall be broken, but on whomsoever it shall fall, it will scatter him as dust. (Mt 21:42, 44)

23.149 Δηλοῖ δὲ τὸ εὐαγγέλιον καὶ ἐν ταῖς Πράξεσιν ὁ Λουκᾶς͵ οὐκ ἄλλον ἢ τὸν Χριστὸν εἶναι τὸν λίθον· τὸ μὲν εὐαγγέ λιον οὕτως· Οὐδέποτε ἀνέγνωτε· Λίθος ὃν ἀπεδοκίμασαν οἱ οἰκοδομοῦντες͵ οὗτος ἐγενήθη εἰς κεφαλὴν γωνίας; πᾶς ὁ πεσὼν ἐπὶ τὸν λίθον τοῦτον συνθλασθήσεται· ἐφ΄ ὃν δ΄ ἂν πέσῃ͵ λικμήσει αὐτόν·

And Luke writes in Acts: This is the stone, which was set at naught of you the builders, which has become the head of the corner. (Ac 4:11) And one of the names applied to the Saviour is that which He Himself does not utter, but which John records—the Word who was in the beginning with God, God the Word.

23.150 ἐν δὲ ταῖς Πράξεσιν ὁ Λουκᾶς γράφει· Οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ λίθος ὁ ἐξουδενωθεὶς ὑφ΄ ὑμῶν τῶν οἰκοδόμων͵ ὁ γενόμενος εἰς κεφαλὴν γωνίας. Ἓν δὴ τῶν ἐπὶ τοῦ σωτῆρος τεταγμένων ὀνομάτων͵ ἀλλ΄ οὐχ ὑπ΄ αὐτοῦ λεγόμενον ὑπὸ δὲ τοῦ Ἰωάννου ἀναγεγραμ μένον͵ ἐστὶ καὶ Ὁ ἐν ἀρχῇ λόγος πρὸς τὸν θεὸν θεὸς λόγος.

And it is worth our while to fix our attention for a moment on those scholars who omit consideration of most of the great names we have mentioned and regard this as the most important one. As to the former titles, they look for any account of them that any one may offer, but in the case of this one they proceed differently and ask, What is the Son of God when called the Word? The passage they employ most is that in the Psalms, My heart has produced a good Word; and they imagine the Son of God to be the utterance of the Father deposited, as it were, in syllables, and accordingly they do not allow Him, if we examine them farther, any independent hypostasis, nor are they clear about His essence. I do not mean that they confuse its qualities, but the fact of His having an essence of His own.

24.151 Καὶ ἔστιν ἄξιον ἐπιστῆσαι τοῖς τὰ τοσαῦτα τῶν ὀνομαζομένων παραπεμπομένοις καὶ τούτῳ ὡς ἐξαιρέτῳ χρωμένοις καὶ πάλιν ἐπ΄ ἐκείνοις μὲν διήγησιν ζητοῦσιν͵ εἴ τις αὐτοῖς προσάγοι αὐτά͵ ἐπὶ δὲ τούτῳ ὡς σαφὲς προσιεμέ νοις τὸ τί ποτέ ἐστιν ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ λόγος ὀνομαζόμενος͵ καὶ μάλιστα ἐπεὶ συνεχῶς χρῶνται τῷ· Ἐξηρεύξατο ἡ καρδία μου λόγον ἀγαθόν͵ οἰόμενοι προφορὰν πατρικὴν οἱονεὶ ἐν συλλαβαῖς κειμένην εἶναι τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ θεοῦ͵ καὶ κατὰ τοῦτο ὑπόστασιν αὐτῷ͵ εἰ ἀκριβῶς αὐτῶν πυνθανοίμεθα͵ οὐ διδόασιν οὐδὲ οὐσίαν αὐτοῦ σαφηνίζουσιν͵ οὐδέπω φαμὲν τοιάνδε ἢ τοιάνδε͵ ἀλλ΄ ὅπως ποτὲ οὐσίαν.

For no one can understand how that which is said to be Word can be a Son. And such an animated Word, not being a separate entity from the Father, and accordingly as it, having no subsistence. is not a Son, or if he is a Son, let them say that God the Word is a separate being and has an essence of His own.

24.152 Λόγον γὰρ ἀπαγγελ λόμενον υἱὸν εἶναι νοῆσαι καὶ τῷ τυχόντι ἐστὶν ἀμήχανον. Καὶ λόγον τοιοῦτον καθ΄ αὑτὸν ζῶντα καὶ ἤτοι οὐ κεχωρισμένον τοῦ πατρὸς καὶ κατὰ τοῦτο τῷ μὴ ὑφεστάναι οὐδὲ υἱὸν τυγχάνοντα ἢ καὶ κεχωρισμένον καὶ οὐσιωμένον ἀπαγγελ λέτωσαν ἡμῖν θεὸν λόγον.

We insist, therefore, that as in the case of each of the titles spoken of above we turn from the title to the concept it suggests and apply it and demonstrate how the Son of God is suitably described by it, the same course must be followed when we find Him called the Word.

24.153 Λεκτέον οὖν ὅτι ὥσπερ καθ΄ ἕκαστον τῶν προειρη μένων ὀνομάτων ἀπὸ τῆς ὀνομασίας ἀναπτυκτέον τὴν ἔννοιαν τοῦ ὀνομαζομένου καὶ ἐφαρμοστέον μετὰ ἀποδείξεως πῶς ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ τοῦτο τὸ ὄνομα εἶναι λέγεται͵ οὕτως καὶ ἐπὶ τοῦ λόγον αὐτὸν ὀνομάζεσθαι ποιητέον.

What caprice it is, in all these cases, not to stand upon the term employed, but to enquire in what sense Christ is to be understood to be the door, and in what way the vine, and why He is the way; but in the one case of His being called the Word, to follow a different course.

24.154 Τίς γὰρ ἡ ἀποκλήρωσις ἐφ΄ ἑνὸς μὲν ἑκάστου μὴ ἵστασθαι ἐπὶ τῆς λέξεως͵ ἀλλὰ φέρε εἰπεῖν ζητεῖν πῶς αὐτὸν ἐκδεκτέον θύ ραν καὶ τίνα τρόπον ἄμπελον τίνι τε αἰτίᾳ ὁδόν͵ ἐπὶ δὲ μόνου τοῦ λόγον αὐτὸν ἀναγεγράφθαι τὸ παραπλή σιον οὐ ποιητέον;

To add to the authority, therefore, of what we have to say on the question, how the Son of God is the Word, we must begin with those names of which we spoke first as being applied to Him.

24.155 Ἵνα τοίνυν μᾶλλον δυσωπητικώτερον παραδεξώμεθα τὰ λεχθησόμενα εἰς τὰ περὶ τοῦ πῶς λόγος ἐστὶν ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ͵ ἀρκτέον ἀπὸ τῶν ἐξ ἀρχῆς ἡμῖν προτεθέντων ὀνομάτων αὐτοῦ.

This, we cannot deny, will seem to some to be superfluous and a digression, but the thoughtful reader will not think it useless to ask as to the concepts for which the titles are used; to observe these matters will clear the way for what is coming.

24.156 Καὶ ὅτι μὲν δόξει τισὶ σφόδρα παρεκβατικὸν εἶναι τὸ τοιοῦτον οὐκ ἀγνοοῦμεν· πλὴν ἐπιστήσαντι καὶ πρὸς τὸ προκείμενον χρήσιμον ἔσται τὸ βασανίσαι τὰς ἐννοίας καθ΄ ὧν τὰ ὀνόματα κεῖται͵ καὶ πρὸ ὁδοῦ τῶν ἐπιφερομένων ὑπάρξει ἡ κατανόησις τῶν πραγμάτων.

And once we have entered upon the theology concerning the Saviour, as we seek with what diligence we can and find the various things that are taught about Him, we shall necessarily understand more about Him not only in His character as the Word, but in His other characters also.

24.157 Ἅπαξ δὲ εἰς τὴν περὶ τοῦ σωτῆρος θεολογίαν ἐμπε σόντες͵ ἀναγκαίως ὅση δύναμις τὰ περὶ αὐτοῦ μετὰ ἐρεύνης εὑρίσκοντες πληρέστερον αὐτὸν οὐ μόνον ᾗ λόγος ἐστὶ νοήσομεν ἀλλὰ καὶ τὰ λοιπά.





 [24].Christ as Light; How He, and How His Disciples are the Light of the World


25. He said, then, that He was the light of the world; and we have to examine, along with this title, those which are parallel to it; and, indeed, are thought by some to be not merely parallel, but identical with it.

25.158 Ἔλεγεν οὖν ἑαυτὸν εἶναι φῶς τοῦ κόσμου· καὶ τὰ παρακείμενα ταύτῃ τῇ ὀνομασίᾳ συνεξε ταστέον͵ δόξαντα ἄν τισιν οὐχὶ παρακείμενα μόνον ἀλλὰ καὶ τὰ αὐτὰ τυγχάνειν.

He is the true light, and the light of the Gentiles. In the opening of the Gospel now before us He is the light of men: That which was made, (Jn 1:35) it says, was life in Him, and the life was the light of men; and the light shines in darkness, and the darkness did not overtake it. A little further on, in the same passage, He is called the true light: (Jn 1:9) The true light, which lightens every man, was coming into the world. In Isaiah, He is the light of the Gentiles, as we said before. Behold, (Is 49:6) I have set You for a light of the Gentiles, that You should be for salvation to the end of the earth.

25.159 Ἔστι δὲ τὸ φῶς τῶν ἀνθρώπων καὶ τὸ φῶς τὸ ἀληθινὸν καὶ φῶς ἐθνῶν· φῶς μὲν ἀνθρώπων ἐν τῇ τοῦ προκειμένου εὐαγγελίου ἀρχῇ· Ὃ γέ γονε͵ γάρ φησιν͵ ἐν αὐτῷ ζωὴ ἦν͵ καὶ ἡ ζωὴ ἦν τὸ φῶς τῶν ἀνθρώπων· καὶ τὸ φῶς ἐν τῇ σκοτίᾳ φαίνει͵ καὶ ἡ σκοτία αὐτὸ οὐ κατέλαβε· φῶς δὲ ἀληθινὸν ἐν τοῖς ἑξῆς τῆς αὐτῆς γραφῆς ἐπιγέγραπται· ῏Ην τὸ φῶς τὸ ἀληθινόν͵ ὃ φωτίζει πάντα ἄνθρωπον͵ ἐρχόμενον εἰς τὸν κόσμον. Φῶς δὲ ἐθνῶν ἐν τῷ Ἡσαΐᾳ͵ ὡς προείπομεν παρατιθέμενοι τὸ Ἰδοὺ τέθεικά σε εἰς φῶς ἐθνῶν͵ τοῦ εἶναί σε εἰς σωτηρίαν ἕως ἐσχάτου τῆς γῆς.

Now the sensible light of the world is the sun, and after it comes very worthily the moon, and the same title may be applied to the stars;

25.160 Φῶς δὴ κόσμου αἰσθητὸν ὁ ἥλιός ἐστιν͵ καὶ μετὰ τοῦτον οὐκ ἀπᾳδόντως ἡ σελήνη καὶ οἱ ἀστέρες τῷ αὐτῷ ὀνόματι προσαγορευθήσονται.

but those lights of the world are said in Moses to have come into existence on the fourth day, and as they shed light on the things on the earth, they are not the true light. But the Saviour shines on creatures which have intellect and sovereign reason, that their minds may behold their proper objects of vision, and so he is the light of the intellectual world, that is to say, of the reasonable souls which are in the sensible world, and if there be any beings beyond these in the world from which He declares Himself to be our Saviour. He is, indeed, the most determining and distinguished part of that world, and, as we may say, the sun who makes the great day of the Lord.

25.161 Ἀλλὰ φῶς μὲν αἰσθητὸν τυγχάνοντες οἱ γεγονέναι παρὰ Μωσεῖ λεγόμενοι τῇ τετάρτῃ ἡμέρᾳ͵ καθὸ φωτίζουσι τὰ ἐπὶ γῆς͵ οὐκ εἰσὶ φῶς ἀληθινόν· ὁ δὲ σωτὴρ ἐλλάμπων τοῖς λογικοῖς καὶ ἡγεμονικοῖς͵ ἵνα αὐτῶν ὁ νοῦς τὰ ἴδια ὁρατὰ βλέπῃ͵ τοῦ νοητοῦ κόσμου ἐστὶ φῶς· λέγω δὲ τῶν λογικῶν ψυχῶν τῶν ἐν τῷ αἰσθητικῷ κόσμῳ͵ καὶ εἴ τι παρὰ ταῦτα συμπληροῖ τὸν κόσμον͵ ἀφ΄ οὗ ὁ σωτὴρ εἶναι ἡμᾶς διδάσκει͵ τάχα μέρος αὐτοῦ τὸ κυριώτατον καὶ διαφέρον τυγχάνων καί͵ ὡς ἔστιν εἰπεῖν͵ ἥλιος ἡμέρας μεγάλης κυρίου ποιητής.

In view of this day He says to those who partake of His light, Work (Jn 9:4-5) while it is day; the night comes when no man can work. As long as I am in the world, I am the light of the world. Then He says to His disciples, You are the light of the world, and Let your light shine before men.

25.162 Δι΄ ἣν ἡμέραν φησὶ τοῖς τοῦ φωτὸς αὐτοῦ μεταλαμβάνουσιν· Ἐργάζεσθε ἕως ἡμέρα ἐστίν· ἔρχεται νὺξ ὅτε οὐκέτι οὐδεὶς δύναται ἐργάζεσθαι. Ὅταν ἐν τῷ κόσμῳ ὦ͵ φῶς εἰμι τοῦ κόσμου. Ἔτι δὲ καὶ τοῖς μαθηταῖς φησιν· Ὑμεῖς ἐστε τὸ φῶς τοῦ κόσμου καὶ Λαμψάτω τὸ φῶς ὑμῶν ἔμπροσθεν τῶν ἀνθρώπων.

Thus we see the Church, the bride, to present an analogy to the moon and stars, and the disciples have a light, which is their own or borrowed from the true sun, so that they are able to illuminate those who have no command of any spring of light in themselves. We may say that Paul and Peter are the light of the world, and that those of their disciples who are enlightened themselves, but are not able to enlighten others, are the world of which the Apostles were the light.

25.163 Τὸ δ΄ ἀνάλογον σελήνῃ καὶ ἄστροις ὑπολαμβάνομεν εἶναι περὶ τὴν νύμφην ἐκκλησίαν καὶ τοὺς μαθητάς͵ ἔχοντας οἰκεῖον φῶς ἢ ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀληθινοῦ ἡλίου ἐπίκτητον͵ ἵνα φωτίσωσι μὴ δεδυνημένους πηγὴν ἐν αὑτοῖς κατασκευάσαι φωτός· οἷον Παῦλον μὲν καὶ Πέτρον φῶς ἐροῦμεν τοῦ κόσμου͵ τοὺς δὲ τυχόντας τῶν παρ΄ αὐτοῖς μαθητευομένων͵ φωτιζομένους μέν͵ οὐ μὴν φωτίζειν ἑτέρους δυναμένους͵ τὸν κόσμον͵ οὗ κόσμου φῶς οἱ ἀπόστολοι ἦσαν.

But the Saviour, being the light of the world, illuminates not bodies, but by His incorporeal power the incorporeal intellect, to the end that each of us, enlightened as by the sun, may be able to discern the rest of the things of the mind.

25.164 Ὁ δὲ σωτήρ͵ φῶς ὢν τοῦ κόσμου͵ φωτίζει οὐ σώματα ἀλλὰ ἀσωμάτῳ δυνάμει τὸν ἀσώματον νοῦν͵ ἵνα ὡς ὑπὸ ἡλίου ἕκαστος ἡμῶν φωτιζόμενος καὶ τὰ ἄλλα δυνηθῇ βλέπειν νοητά.

And as when the sun is shining the moon and the stars lose their power of giving light, so those who are irradiated by Christ and receive His beams have no need of the ministering apostles and prophets—we must have courage to declare this truth— nor of the angels; I will add that they have no need even of the greater powers when they are disciples of that first-born light.

25.165 Ὥσπερ δὲ ἡλίου φωτίζοντος ἀμαυροῦται τὸ δύνασθαι φωτίζειν σελήνην καὶ ἀστέρας͵ οὕτως οἱ ἐλλαμ πόμενοι ὑπὸ Χριστοῦ καὶ τὰς αὐγὰς αὐτοῦ κεχωρηκότες οὐδέν τινων διακονουμένων ἀποστόλων καὶ προφητῶν δέονται τολμητέον γὰρ λέγειν τὴν ἀλήθειανοὐδὲ ἀγγέλων͵ προσθήσω δὲ ὅτι οὐδὲ τῶν κρειττόνων δυνάμεων͵ αὐτῷ τῷ πρωτογεννήτῳ μαθητευόμενοι φωτί.

To those who do not receive the solar beams of Christ, the ministering saints do afford an illumination much less than the former; this illumination is as much as those persons can receive, and it completely fills them.

25.166 Τοῖς δὲ μὴ χωροῦσι τὰς ἡλιακὰς Χριστοῦ ἀκτῖνας οἱ ἅγιοι διακονοῦντες παρέχουσι φωτισμὸν πολλῷ τοῦ προειρημένου ἐλάττονα͵ μόγις καὶ τοῦτον χωρεῖν δυναμένοις καὶ ὑπ΄ αὐτοῦ πληρου μένοις.





26. Christ, again, the light of the world, is the true light as distinguished from the light of sense; nothing that is sensible is true. Yet though the sensible is other than the true, it does not follow that the sensible is false, for the sensible may have an analogy with the intellectual, and not everything that is not true can correctly be called false.

26.167 Ἔστι δὲ ὁ Χριστός͵ φῶς τυγχάνων κόσμου͵ φῶς ἀληθινὸν πρὸς ἀντιδιαστολὴν αἰσθητοῦ͵ οὐδενὸς αἰσθητοῦ ὄντος ἀληθινοῦ. Ἀλλ΄ οὐχὶ ἐπεὶ οὐκ ἀληθινὸν τὸ αἰσθητόν͵ ψεῦδος τὸ αἰσθητόν· δύναται γὰρ ἀναλογίαν ἔχειν τὸ αἰσθη τὸν πρὸς τὸ νοητόν͵ οὐ μὴν τὸ ψεῦδος ὑγιῶς παντὸς κατη γορεῖσθαι τοῦ οὐκ ἀληθινοῦ.

Now I ask whether the light of the world is the same thing with the light of men, and I conceive that a higher power of light is intended by the former phrase than by the latter, for the world in one sense is not only men.

26.168 Ζητῶ δὲ εἰ ταὐτόν ἐστι τὸ φῶς τοῦ κόσμου τῷ φωτὶ τῶν ἀνθρώπων͵ καὶ ἡγοῦμαι πλείονα δύναμιν παρί στασθαι τοῦ φωτὸς ὅτε φῶς τοῦ κόσμου προσαγορεύεται ἤπερ φῶς τῶν ἀνθρώπων· ὁ γὰρ κόσμος κατὰ μίαν ἐκδοχὴν οὐ μόνον ἄνθρωποι.

Paul shows that the world is something more than men when he writes to the Corinthians in his first Epistle: (1Cor 4:9) We are made a spectacle unto the world, and to angels, and to men.

26.169 Καὶ παραστήσει τὸ πλεῖον ἢ ἕτερον εἶναι τὸν κόσμον παρὰ τοὺς ἀνθρώπους ὁ Παῦλος ἐν τῇ πρὸς Κορινθίους προτέρᾳ λέγων· Θέατρον ἐγενήθημεν τῷ κόσμῳ καὶ ἀγγέλοις καὶ ἀνθρώποις.

In one sense, too, it may be considered, the world is the creation which is being delivered from the bondage of corruption into the liberty of the glory of the children of God, whose earnest expectation is waiting for the manifestation of the sons of God.

26.170 Ἐπίστησον δὲ εἰ κατὰ μίαν ἐκδοχὴν κόσμος ἐστὶν ἡ ἐλευθερουμένη κτίσις ἀπὸ τῆς δουλείας τῆς φθορᾶς εἰς τὴν ἐλευθερίαν τῆς δόξης τῶν τέκνων τοῦ θεοῦ͵ ἧς ἡ ἀποκαραδοκία τὴν ἀποκάλυψιν τῶν υἱῶν τοῦ θεοῦ ἀπεκδέχεται.

We also draw attention to the comparison which may be drawn between the statement, I am the light of the world, and the words addressed to the disciples, You are the light of the world.

26.171 Ἐπίστησον δὲ προσεθήκαμεν διὰ τὸ παρακεῖσθαι τὸ δυνάμενον τῷ Ἐγὼ φῶς εἰμι τοῦ κόσμου συνεξετάζεσθαι ἐπὶ τῶν μαθητῶν ὑπὸ Ἰησοῦ λεγόμενον· Ὑμεῖς ἐστε τὸ φῶς τοῦ κόσμου.

Some suppose that the genuine disciples of Jesus are greater than other creatures, some seeking the reason of this in the natural growth of these disciples, others inferring it from their harder struggle.

26.172 Εἰσὶ γὰρ οἱ ὑπο λαμβάνοντες μείζονας εἶναι τοὺς ἀνθρώπους τοὺς τῷ Ἰησοῦ γνησίως μεμαθητευμένους τῶν ἄλλων κτισμάτων͵ οἱ μὲν φύσει τοιούτους γεγενημένους͵ οἱ δὲ καὶ ἐν λόγῳ τῷ κατὰ τὸν χαλε πώτερον ἀγῶνα.

For those beings which are in flesh and blood have greater labours and a life more full of dangers than those which are in an ethereal body, and the lights of heaven might not, if they had put on bodies of earth, have accomplished this life of ours free from danger and from error. Those who incline to this argument may appeal to those texts of Scripture which say the most exalted things about men, and to the fact that the Gospel is addressed directly to men; not so much is said about the creation, or, as we understand it, about the world.

26.173 Πλείους γὰρ οἱ πόνοι καὶ ἐπισφαλὴς ἡ ζωὴ τῶν ἐν σαρκὶ καὶ αἵματι παρὰ τοὺς ἐν αἰθερίῳ σώματι͵ οὐκ ἂν τῶν ἐν οὐρανῷ φωστήρων ἐν τῷ ἀναλαβεῖν τὰ γήϊνα σώματα ἀκινδύνως καὶ πάντως ἀναμαρτήτως διανυσάντων τὴν ἐνταῦθα ζωήν· οἱ δὲ τῷ λόγῳ τούτῳ παριστάμενοι ταῖς τὰ μέγιστα περὶ ἀνθρώπων ἀποφαινομέναις χρήσονται λέξεσι τῶν γραφῶν τὸ ἀνυπέρθετον τῆς ἐπαγγελίας ὅτι τὸν ἄνθρωπον φθάνει φασκούσαις͵ οὐ μὴν ταὐτὸν τοῦτο καὶ περὶ τῆς κτίσεως ἤ͵ ὡς ἐδεξάμεθα͵ κόσμου ἀπαγγελλούσαις.

We read, (Jn 17:21) As I and Thou are one, that they also may be one in Us, and Where I am, there will also My servant be. These sayings, plainly, are about men; while about the creation it is said that it is delivered from the bondage of corruption into the liberty of the glory of the children of God. It might be added that not even when it is delivered will it take part in the glory of the sons of God.

26.174 Τὸ γὰρ Ὡς ἐγὼ καὶ σὺ ἕν ἐσμεν͵ ἵνα καὶ αὐτοὶ ἐν ἡμῖν ἓν ὦσι καὶ Ὅπου εἰμὶ ἐγώ͵ ἐκεῖ καὶ ὁ διάκονος ὁ ἐμὸς ἔσται σαφῶς περὶ ἀνθρώπων ἀναγέγραπται· περὶ δὲ τῆς κτίσεως͵ ὅτι ἐλευθεροῦται ἀπὸ τῆς δουλείας τῆς φθορᾶς εἰς τὴν ἐλευθερίαν τῆς δόξης τῶν τέκνων τοῦ θεοῦ· καὶ προσθή σουσιν ὅτι οὐχί͵ εἰ ἐλευθεροῦται͵ ἤδη καὶ κοινωνεῖ τῆς δόξης τῶν τέκνων τοῦ θεοῦ.

Nor will those who hold this view forget that the first-born of every creature, honouring man above all else, became man, and that it was not any of the constellations existing in the sky, but one of another order, appointed for this purpose and in the service of the knowledge of Jesus, that was made to be the Star of the East, whether it was like the other stars or perchance better than they, to be the sign of Him who is the most excellent of all.

26.175 Οὐκ ἀποσιωπήσουσι δὲ οὗτοι καὶ τὸ τὸν πρωτότοκον πάσης κτίσεως διὰ τὴν πρὸς τὸν ἄνθρωπον ὑπὲρ πάντα τιμὴν ἄνθρωπον μὲν γεγονέναι͵ οὐ μὴν ζῷόν τι τῶν ἐν οὐρανῷ· ἀλλὰ καὶ δεύτερον καὶ διάκονον καὶ δοῦλον τῆς γνώσεως Ἰησοῦ τὸν ἐν τῇ ἀνατολῇ φανέντα ἀστέρα δεδημιουργῆσθαι͵ ἤτοι ὅμοιον ὄντα τοῖς λοιποῖς ἄστροις ἢ τάχα καὶ κρείττονα͵ ἅτε τοῦ πάντων διαφέροντος γενόμενον σημεῖον.

And if the boasting of the saints is in their tribulations, since tribulation works patience, and patience probation, and probation hope, and hope makes not ashamed, (Rom 5:3-5) then the afflicted creation cannot have the like patience with man, nor the like probation, nor the like hope, but another degree of these, since the creation was made subject to vanity, not willingly, but on account of Him who subjected it, for hope. (Rom 8:20)

26.176 Καὶ εἰ τὰ καυχήματα τῶν ἁγίων ἐστιν ἐν θλίψεσιν͵ εἰδότων ὅτι ἡ θλίψις ὑπομονὴν κατεργάζεται͵ ἡ δὲ ὑπομονὴ δοκιμήν͵ ἡ δὲ δοκιμὴ ἐλπίδα͵ ἡ δὲ ἐλπὶς οὐ καταισχύνει͵ οὔτε ὑπομονὴν οὔτε δοκιμὴν οὔτε ἐλπίδα ἕξει ἡ μὴ τεθλιμμένη κτίσις τὴν ἴσην ἀλλ΄ ἑτέραν͵ ἐπεὶ τῇ ματαιότητι ἡ κτίσις ὑπετάγη͵ οὐχ ἑκοῦσα ἀλλὰ διὰ τὸν ὑποτάξαντα͵ ἐπ΄ ἐλπίδι.

Now he who shrinks from conferring such great attributes on man will turn to another direction and say that the creature being subjected to vanity groans and suffers greater affliction than those who groan in this tabernacle, for has she not suffered for the utmost extent of time in her service of vanity— nay, many times as long as man?

26.177 Ὁ δὲ μὴ τολμῶν τὰ τηλικαῦτα τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ καταχα ρίσασθαι͵ ὁμόσε χωρήσας τῷ προβλήματι φήσει τῇ ματαιότητι τὴν κτίσιν ὑποτασσομένην θλίβεσθαι͵ μᾶλλον στενάζουσαν ἢ οἱ ὄντες ἐν τῷ σκήνει στενάζουσιν͵ ἅτε καὶ πλεῖστον ὅσον χρόνον καὶ πολλαπλασίονα τοῦ ἀνθρωπίνου ἀγῶνος τῇ ματαιότητι δουλεύουσαν.

For why does she do this not willingly, but that it is against her nature to be subject to vanity, and not to have the best arrangement of her life, that which she shall receive when she is set free, when the world is destroyed and released even from the vanity of bodies.

26.178 Διὰ τί γὰρ οὐχ ἑκοῦσα τοῦτο ποιεῖ͵ ἢ ὅτι παρὰ φύσιν ἐστὶν αὐτῇ τῇ ματαιότητι ὑποτετάχθαι καὶ μὴ τὴν προηγουμένην ἔχειν τῆς ζωῆς κατάστασιν͵ ἣν ἀπολήψεται ἐλευθερουμένη ἐν τῇ τοῦ κόσμου φθορᾷ καὶ τῆς τῶν σωμάτων ματαιότητος ἀπολυομένη;

Here, however, we may appear to be stretching too far, and aiming at more than the question now before us requires. We may return, therefore, to the point from which we set out, and ask for what reason the Saviour is called the light of the world, the true light, and the light of men. Now we saw that He is called the true light with reference to the sensible light of the world, and that the light of the world is the same thing as the light of men, or that we may at least enquire whether they are the same.

26.179 Ἀλλ΄ ἐπεὶ πλείονα καὶ οὐ κατὰ τὸ προκείμενον πρόβλημα δοκοῦμεν εἰρηκέναι͵ ἐπανελευσόμεθα ἐπὶ τὸ ἐξ ἀρχῆς͵ ὑπομιμνήσκοντες διὰ τί φῶς τοῦ κόσμου ὁ σωτὴρ λέγεται καὶ φῶς ἀληθινὸν καὶ φῶς τῶν ἀνθρώπων. Ἀποδέδοται μὲν γὰρ ὅτι διὰ τὸ φῶς τοῦ κόσμου τὸ αἰσθητὸν λέγεται φῶς ἀληθινόν͵ καὶ ὅτι ἤτοι ταὐτόν ἐστι τὸ φῶς τοῦ κόσμου τῷ φωτὶ τῶν ἀνθρώπων ἢ ἐπιδέχεται ἐξέ τασιν ὡς οὐ ταὐτόν.

This discussion is not superfluous. Some students do not take anything at all out of the statement that the Saviour is the Word; and it is important for us to assure ourselves that we are not chargeable with caprice in fixing our attention on that notion. If it admits of being taken in a metaphorical sense we ought not to take it literally. When we apply the mystical and allegorical method to the expression light of the world and the many analogous terms mentioned above, we should surely do so with this expression also.

26.180 Ἀναγκαίως δὲ διὰ τοὺς μηδὲν ἐξειληφότας ἐκ τοῦ λόγον εἶναι τὸν σωτῆρα ταῦτα ἠρεύνηται͵ ἵνα πειθώμεθα μὴ κατὰ ἀποκλήρωσιν ἵστασθαι μὲν ἐπὶ τῆς λόγος ἐννοίας καὶ προσηγορίας χωρὶς μεταλήψεως τῆς δυναμένης μεταλαμβάνεσθαι͵ ἀνάγειν δὲ καὶ ἀλληγορεῖν τὴν φῶς τοῦ κόσμου φωνὴν καὶ τὰ λοιπὰ τῶν πολλῶν ἃ παρεθέμεθα.





 [25]. Christ as the Resurrection.


27.  Now He is called the light of men and the true light and the light of the word, because He brightens and irradiates the higher parts of men, or, in a word, of all reasonable beings. And similarly it is from and because of the energy with which He causes the old deadness to be put aside and that which is par excellence life to be put on, so that those who have truly received Him rise again from the dead, that He is called the resurrection.

27.181 Ὥσπερ δὲ παρὰ τὸ φωτίζειν καὶ καταλάμπειν τὰ ἡγεμονικὰ τῶν ἀνθρώπων ἢ ἁπαξαπλῶς τῶν λογικῶν͵ φῶς ἐστιν ἀνθρώπων καὶ φῶς ἀληθινὸν καὶ φῶς τοῦ κόσμου͵ οὕτως ἐκ τοῦ ἐνεργεῖσθαι τὴν ἀπόθεσιν πάσης νεκρότητος καὶ ἐμφύεσθαι τὴν κυρίως καλου μένην ζωήν͵ ἐκ νεκρῶν ἀνισταμένων τῶν αὐτὸν γνησίως κεχωρηκότων͵ καλεῖται ἡ ἀνάστασις.

And this He does not only at the moment at which a man says, We are buried with Christ through baptism and have risen again with Him, (Rom 6:4) but much rather when a man, having laid off all about him that belongs to death, walks in the newness of life which belongs to Him, the Son, while here. We always (2 Cor 4:10) carry about in our body the dying of the Lord Jesus, and thus we reap the vast advantage, that the life of the Lord Jesus might be made manifest in our bodies.

27.182 Τοῦτο δὲ οὐ μόνον ἐπὶ τοῦ παρόντος ἐνεργεῖ τοῖς δυναμένοις λέγειν· Συνετάφημεν τῷ Χριστῷ διὰ τοῦ βαπτίσματος καὶ συνανέστημεν αὐτῷ· ἀλλὰ πολλῷ μᾶλλον ὅτε ἄκρως πᾶσάν τις ἀποθέμενος νεκρότητα καὶ τὴν αὐτοῦ τοῦ υἱοῦ ἐν και νότητι ζωῆς περιπατεῖ· τὴν οὖν νέκρωσιν τοῦ Ἰησοῦ ἐν τῷ σώματι πάντοτε ἐνταῦθα περιφέρομενὅτε ἀξιο λόγως ὠφελήμεθαἵνα ἡ ζωὴ τοῦ Ἰησοῦ ἐν τοῖς σώμασιν ἡμῶν φανερωθῇ.

 [26]. Christ as the Way.


But that progress too, which is in wisdom and which is found by those who seek their salvation in it to do for them what they require both in respect of exposition of truth in the divine word and in respect of conduct according to true righteousness, it lets us understand how Christ is the way. In this way we have to take nothing with us, (Mt 10:10) neither wallet nor coat; we must travel without even a stick, nor must we have shoes on our feet.

27.183 Ἀλλὰ καὶ ἡ ἐν σοφίᾳ πορεία καὶ πρακτικὴ τῶν σῳζομένων ἐν αὐτῷ γινομένη κατὰ τὰς περὶ ἀληθείας ἐν λόγῳ θείῳ διεξόδους καὶ πράξεις τὰς κατὰ τὴν ἀληθῆ δικαιο σύνην͵ παρίστησιν ἡμῖν νοεῖν πῶς αὐτός ἐστιν ἡ ὁδός͵ ἐφ΄ ἣν ὁδὸν οὐδὲν αἴρειν δεῖ͵ οὔτε πήραν οὔτε ἱμάτιον͵ ἀλλ΄ οὐδὲ ῥάβδον ἔχοντα ὁδεύειν χρή͵ οὐδὲ ὑποδήματα ὑποδεδέσθαι κατὰ τοὺς πόδας.

For this road is itself sufficient for all the supplies of our journey; and every one who walks on it wants nothing. He is clad with a garment which is fit for one who is setting out in response to an invitation to a wedding; and on this road he cannot meet anything that can annoy him. No one, Solomon says, (Prov 30:19) can find out the way of a serpent upon a rock. I would add, or that of any other beast.

27.184 Αὐτάρκης γὰρ ἀντὶ παντὸς ἐφοδίου αὐτὴ ἡ ὁδός͵ καὶ ἀνενδεὴς τυγχάνει πᾶς ὁ ταύτης ἐπιβαίνων͵ κεκοσμημένος ἐνδύματι ᾧ πρέπει κεκοσμῆσθαι τὸν ἐπὶ τὴν κλῆσιν τοῦ γάμου ἀπιόντα͵ οὐδενός τε χαλεποῦ δυναμένου ἀπαντῆσαι κατὰ ταύτην τὴν ὁδόν. Ἀμήχανον γὰρ ὁδοὺς ὄφεως ἐπὶ πέτρας εὑρεῖν͵ κατὰ τὸν Σαλομῶντα͵ φημὶ δ΄ ἐγώ͵ ὅτι καὶ οὗ δήποτε θηρίου.

Hence there is no need of a staff on this road, on which there is no trace of any hostile creature, and the hardness of which, whence also it is called rock (petra) , makes it incapable of harbouring anything hurtful.

27.185 Διὸ οὐδὲ χρεία ῥάβδου ἐν ὁδῷ οὐδὲ ἴχνη τῶν ἐναντίων ἐχούσῃ καὶ ἀνεπιδέκτῳ διὰ τὸ στερρόν͵ δι΄ ὅπερ καὶ πέτρα λέγεται͵ τῶν χειρόνων τυγ χανούση.

 [27]. Christ as the Truth.


Further, the Only-begotten is the truth, because He embraces in Himself according to the Father’s will the whole reason of all things, and that with perfect clearness, and being the truth communicates to each creature in proportion to its worthiness.

27.186 Ἀλήθεια δὲ ὁ μονογενής ἐστι πάντα ἐμπεριει ληφὼς τὸν περὶ τῶν ὅλων κατὰ τὸ βούλημα τοῦ πατρὸς μετὰ πάσης τρανότητος λόγον καὶ ἑκάστῳ κατὰ τὴν ἀξίαν αὐτοῦ͵ ᾗ ἀλήθειά ἐστι͵ μεταδιδούς.

And should any one enquire whether all that the Father knows, according to the depth of His riches and His wisdom and His knowledge, is known to our Saviour also, and should he, imagining that he will thereby glorify the Father, show that some things known to the Father are unknown to the Son, although He might have had an equal share of the apprehensions of the unbegotten God, we must remind him that it is from His being the truth that He is Saviour, and add that if He is the truth complete, then there is nothing true which He does not know; truth must not limp for the want of the things which, according to those persons, are known to the Father only. Or else let it be shown that some things are known to which the name of truth does not apply, but which are above the truth.

27.187 Ἐὰν δέ τις ζητῇ͵ εἰ πᾶν ὅ τί ποτε ἐγνωσμένον ὑπὸ τοῦ πατρὸς κατὰ τὸ βάθος τοῦ πλούτου καὶ τῆς σοφίας καὶ τῆς γνώσεως αὐτοῦ ἐπίσταται ὁ σωτὴρ ἡμῶν͵ καὶ φαντασίᾳ τοῦ δοξάζειν τὸν πατέρα ἀπο φαίνηταί τινα γινωσκόμενα ὑπὸ τοῦ πατρὸς ἀγνοεῖσθαι ὑπὸ τοῦ υἱοῦ͵ διαρκοῦντος ἐξισωθῆναι ταῖς καταλήψεσι τοῦ ἀγεννήτου θεοῦ͵ ἐπιστατέον αὐτὸν ἐκ τοῦ ἀλήθειαν εἶναι τὸν σωτῆρα καὶ προσακτέον ὅτι͵ εἰ ὁλόκληρός ἐστιν ἡ ἀλήθεια͵ οὐδὲν ἀληθὲς ἀγνοεῖ͵ ἵνα μὴ σκάζῃ λείπουσα ἡ ἀλήθεια οἷς οὐ γινώσκει͵ κατ΄ ἐκείνους τυγχάνουσιν ἐν μόνῳ τῷ πατρί͵ ἢ δεικνύτω τις ὅτι ἐστὶν ἃ γινωσκόμενα τῆς ἀληθείας προση γορίας οὐ τυγχάνοντα ἀλλὰ ὑπὲρ αὐτὴν ὄντα.

 [28]. Christ as Life.


It is clear also that the principle of that life which is pure and unmixed with any other element, resides in Him who is the first-born of all creation, taking from which those who have a share in Christ live the life which is true life, while all those who are thought to live apart from this, as they have not the true light, have not the true life either.

27.188 Σαφὲς δὲ ὅτι κυρίως τῆς εἰλικρινοῦς καὶ ἀμιγοῦς πρός τι ἕτερον ζωῆς ἡ ἀρχὴ ἐν τῷ πρωτοτόκῳ πάσης κτίσεως τυγχάνει· ἀφ΄ ἧς οἱ μέτοχοι τοῦ Χριστοῦ λαμβά νοντες τὴν ἀληθῶς ζῶσι ζωὴν͵ τῶν παρ΄ αὐτὸν νομιζομένων ζῆν ὥσπερ οὐκ ἐχόντων τὸ ἀληθινὸν φῶς͵ οὕτως οὐδὲ τὸ ἀληθινὸν ζῆν.



 [29]. Christ as the Door and as the Shepherd.


But as one cannot be in the Father or with the Father except by ascending from below upwards and coming first to the divinity of the Son, through which one may be led by the hand and brought to the blessedness of the Father Himself, so the Saviour has the inscription The Door.

27.189 Καὶ ἐπεὶ ἐν τῷ πατρὶ οὐκ ἔστι γενέσθαι ἢ παρὰ τῷ πατρὶ μὴ φθάσαντα πρῶτον κάτωθεν ἀναβαίνοντα ἐπὶ τὴν τοῦ υἱοῦ θεότητα͵ δι΄ ἧς τις χειραγωγηθῆναι δύναται καὶ ἐπὶ τὴν πατρικὴν μακαριότητα͵ θύρα ὁ σωτὴρ ἀναγέγραπται.

And as He is a lover of men, and approves the impulse of human souls to better things, even of those who do not hasten to reason (the Logos) , but like sheep have a weakness and gentleness apart from all accuracy and reason, so He is the Shepherd. For the Lord saves men and beasts, and Israel and Juda are sowed with the seed not of men only but also of beasts. (Jer 31:27)

27.190 Φιλάνθρωπος δὲ ὢν καὶ τὴν ὅπως ποτὲ ἐπὶ τὸ βέλτιον ἀποδεχόμενος τῶν ψυχῶν ῥοπὴν τῶν ἐπὶ τὸν λόγον μὴ σπευ δόντων ἀλλὰ δίκην προβάτων οὐκ ἐξητασμένον ἀλλὰ ἄλογον τὸ ἥμερον καὶ πρᾷον ἐχόντων ποιμὴν γίνεται· Ἀνθρώπους γὰρ καὶ κτήνη σῴζει ὁ κύριος· καὶ ὁ Ἰσραὴλ δὲ καὶ ὁ Ἰούδας σπείρεται σπέρμα οὐ μόνον ἀνθρώπων ἀλλὰ καὶ κτηνῶν.





  [30]. Christ as Anointed (keChristhai) and as King.


28. In addition to these titles we must consider at the outset of our work that of Christ, and we must also consider that of King, and compare these two so as to find out the difference between them. Now it is said in the forty-fourth Psalm, You have loved righteousness and hated iniquity, whence You are anointed (keChristhai) above Your fellows. His loving righteousness and hating iniquity were thus added claims in Him; His anointing was not contemporary with His being nor inherited by Him from the first. Anointing is a symbol of entering on the kingship, and sometimes also on the priesthood; and must we therefore conclude that the kingship of the Son of God is not inherited nor congenital to Him?

28.191 Πρὸς τούτοις ἐπισκοπητέον ἐξ ἀρχῆς τὴν Χριστὸς προσηγορίαν καὶ προσληπτέον τὴν βασιλεύς͵ ἵνα τῇ παραθέσει ἡ διαφορὰ νοηθῇ. Λέγεται δὴ ἐν τῷ τεσσαρα κοστῷ τετάρτῳ ψαλμῷ ὁ ἠγαπηκὼς δικαιοσύνην καὶ ἀνομίαν μεμισηκὼς παρὰ τοὺς μετόχους αἰτίαν τοῦ κεχρίσθαι τὸ οὕτω δικαιοσύνῃ προσεληλυθέναι ἐσχηκέναι καὶ τὴν ἀνομίαν μεμισηκέναι͵ ὡς οὐχ ἅμα τῷ εἶναι τὴν χρίσιν συνυπάρχουσαν καὶ συγκτισθεῖσαν λαβών͵ ἥτις χρίσις βασιλείας ἐπὶ γεννητοῖς ἐστι σύμβολον͵ ἔσθ΄ ὅτε δὲ καὶ ἱερωσύνης· ἆρ΄ οὖν ἐπιγενητή ἐστιν ἡ τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ θεοῦ βασιλεία καὶ οὐ συμφυὴς αὐτῷ;

But how is it conceivable that the First-born of all creation was not a king and became a king afterwards because He loved righteousness, when, moreover, He Himself was righteousness? We cannot fail to see that it is as a man that He is Christ, in respect of His soul, which was human and liable to be troubled and sore vexed, but that He is conceived as king in respect of the divine in Him.

28.192 Καὶ πῶς οἷόν τε τὸν πρωτότοκον πάσης κτίσεως͵ οὐκ ὄντα βασιλέα͵ ὕστερον βασιλέα γεγονέναι διὰ τὸ ἠγαπηκέναι δικαιοσύνην͵ καὶ ταῦτα τυγχάνοντα δικαιοσύνην; μήποτε δὲ λανθάνει ἡμᾶς ὁ μὲν ἄνθρωπος αὐτοῦ Χριστὸς ὤν͵ κατὰ τὴν ψυχὴν διὰ τὸ ἀνθρώπινον καὶ τεταραγμένην καὶ περίλυπον γεγενημένην μάλιστα νοούμενος͵ ὁ δὲ βασιλεὺς κατὰ τὸ θεῖον.

I find support for this in the seventy-first Psalm, which says, Give the king Your judgment, O God, and Your righteousness to the king’s Son, to judge Your people in righteousness and Your poor in judgment. This Psalm, though addressed to Solomon, is evidently a prophecy of Christ,

28.193 Παραμυθοῦμαι δὲ τοῦτο ἐξ ἑβδομηκοστοῦ πρώτου ψαλμοῦ λέγοντος· Ὁ θεός͵ τὸ κρίμα σου τῷ βασιλεῖ δός͵ καὶ τὴν δικαιοσύνην σου τῷ υἱῷ τοῦ βασιλέως͵ κρίνειν τὸν λαόν σου ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ καὶ τοὺς πτωχούς σου ἐν κρίσει· σαφῶς γὰρ εἰς Σαλομῶντα ἐπιγεγραμμένος ὁ ψαλμὸς περὶ Χριστοῦ προφητεύεται.

and it is worth while to ask to what king the prophecy desires judgment to be given by God, and to what king’s Son, and what king’s righteousness is spoken of.

28.194 Καὶ ἄξιον ἰδεῖν τίνι βασιλεῖ τὸ κρίμα εὔχεται δοθῆναι ὑπὸ θεοῦ ἡ προφητεία καὶ τίνι υἱῷ βασιλέως καὶ ποίου βασιλέως τὴν δικαιοσύνην.

I conceive, then, that what is called the King is the leading nature of the First-born of all creation, to which judgment is given on account of its eminence; and that the man whom He assumed, formed and moulded by that nature, according to righteousness, is the King’s Son.

28.195 Ἡγοῦμαι οὖν βασιλέα μὲν λέγεσθαι τὴν προηγουμένην τοῦ πρωτο τόκου πάσης κτίσεως φύσιν͵ ᾗ δίδοται διὰ τὸ ὑπερέχειν τὸ κρίνειν· τὸν δὲ ἄνθρωπον͵ ὃν ἀνείληφεν͵ ὑπ΄ ἐκείνης μορφού μενον κατὰ δικαιοσύνην καὶ ἐκτυπούμενον͵ υἱὸν τοῦ βασιλέως.

I am the more led to think that this is so, because the two beings are here brought together in one sentence, and are spoken of as if they were not two but one.

28.196 Καὶ προσάγομαι εἰς τὸ τοῦθ΄ οὕτως ἔχειν παραδέξασθαι ἀπὸ τοῦ εἰς ἕνα λόγον συνῆχθαι ἀμφότερα καὶ τὰ ἐπιφερόμενα οὐκέτι ὡς περὶ δύο τινῶν ἀπαγγέλλεσθαι ἀλλ΄ ὡς περὶ ἑνός.

For the Saviour made both one, (Eph 2:14) that is, He made them according to the prototype of the two which had been made one in Himself before all things. The two I refer to human nature, since each man’s soul is mixed with the Holy Spirit, and each of those who are saved is thus made spiritual.

28.197 Πεποίηκε γὰρ ὁ σωτὴρ τὰ ἀμφότερα ἕν͵ τάχα τὴν ἀπαρχὴν τῶν γινομένων ἀμφοτέρων ἓν ἐν ἑαυτῷ πρὸ πάντων ποιήσας· ἀμφοτέρων δὲ λέγω καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν ἀνθρώπων͵ ἐφ΄ ὧν ἀνακέκραται τῷ ἁγίῳ πνεύματι ἡ ἑκάστου ψυχὴ καὶ γέγονεν ἕκαστος τῶν σῳζομένων πνευ ματικός.

Now as there are some to whom Christ is a shepherd, as we said before, because of their meek and composed nature, though they are less guided by reason; so there are those to whom He is a king, those, namely, who are led in their approach to religion rather by the reasonable part of their nature.

28.198 Ὥσπερ οὖν εἰσί τινες ποιμαινόμενοι ὑπὸ Χριστοῦ διὰ τὸ σφῶν αὐτῶν͵ ὡς προειρήκαμεν͵ πρᾷον μὲν καὶ εὐσταθὲς ἀλογώτερον δέ͵ οὕτω καὶ βασιλευόμενοι κατὰ τὸ λογικώ τερον προσιέναι τῇ θεοσεβείᾳ.

And among those who are under a king there are differences; some experience his rule in a more mystic and hidden and more divine way, others in a less perfect fashion.

28.199 Καὶ βασιλευομένων διαφοραί͵ ἤτοι μυστικώτερον καὶ ἀπορρητότερον καὶ θεοπρε πέστερον βασιλευομένων ἢ ὑποδεέστερον.

I should say that those who, led by reason, apart from all agencies of sense, have beheld incorporeal things, the things which Paul speaks of as invisible, or not seen, that they are ruled by the leading nature of the Only-begotten, but that those who have only advanced as far as the reason which is conversant with sensible things, and on account of these glorify their Maker, that these also are governed by the Word, by Christ. No offense need be taken at our distinguishing these notions in the Saviour; we draw the same distinctions in His substance.

28.200 Καὶ εἴποιμ΄ ἂν τοὺς μὲν τεθεωρηκότας τὰ ἔξω σωμάτων͵ καλούμενα παρὰ τῷ Παύλῳ ἀόρατα καὶ μὴ βλεπόμενα͵ ἔξω παντὸς αἰσθητοῦ λόγῳ γεγενημένους͵ βασιλευομένους ὑπὸ τῆς προηγουμένης φύσεως τοῦ μονογενοῦς· τοὺς δὲ μέχρι τοῦ περὶ τῶν αἰσθητῶν λόγου ἐφθακότας καὶ διὰ τούτων δοξάζοντας τὸν πεποιηκότα καὶ αὐτοὺς ὑπὸ λόγου βασι λευομένους ὑπὸ τοῦ Χριστοῦ βασιλεύεσθαι. Μηδεὶς δὲ προσκοπτέτω διακρινόντων ἡμῶν τὰς ἐν τῷ σωτῆρι ἐπινοίας͵ οἰόμενος καὶ τῇ οὐσίᾳ ταὐτὸν ἡμᾶς ποιεῖν.





  [31]. Christ as Teacher and Master.


29. It is plain to all how our Lord is a teacher and an interpreter for those who are striving towards godliness, and on the other hand a master of those servants who have the spirit of bondage to fear, (Rom 8:15) who make progress and hasten towards wisdom, and are found worthy to possess it. For the servant knows not what the master wills, since he is no longer his master, but has become his friend.

29.201 Πάνυ δὲ καὶ τοῖς τυχοῦσιν σαφὲς͵ πῶς ἐστι διδάσκαλος καὶ σαφηνιστὴς τῶν εἰς εὐσέβειαν συντει νόντων ὁ κύριος ἡμῶν καὶ κύριος δούλων τῶν ἐχόντων πνεῦμα δουλείας εἰς φόβον. Προκοπτόντων δὲ καὶ ἐπὶ τὴν σοφίαν σπευδόντων καὶ ταύτης ἀξιουμένωνἐπεὶ ὁ δοῦλος οὐκ οἶδε τί θέλει ὁ κύριος αὐτοῦοὐ μένει κύριος͵ γινόμενος αὐτῶν φίλος.

The Lord Himself teaches this, for He says to hearers who were still servants: You call Me Master and Lord, and you say well, for so I am, (Jn 13:13) but in another passage, I call you no longer servants, for the servant knows not what is the will of his master, but I call you friends, (Jn 15:15 ) because you have continued with Me in all My temptations. (Lk 22:28)

29.202 Καὶ αὐτὸς τοῦτο διδάσκει͵ ὅπου μὲν ὅτε ἔτι δοῦλοι ὑπῆρχον οἱ ἀκροώμενοι φάσκων· Ὑμεῖς φωνεῖτέ με ὁ διδάσκαλος καὶ ὁ κύριος͵ καὶ καλῶς λέγετε͵ εἰμὶ γάρ· ὅπου δέ· Οὐκέτι ὑμᾶς λέγω δούλους͵ ὅτι ὁ δοῦλος οὐκ οἶδε͵ τί τὸ θέλημα τοῦ κυρίου αὐτοῦ· ἀλλὰ λέγω ὑμᾶς φίλους͵ ὅτι διαμεμενήκατε μετ΄ ἐμοῦ ἐν πᾶσι τοῖς πειρασμοῖς μου.

They, then, who live according to fear, which God exacts from those who are not good servants, as we read in Malachi, If I am a Master, where is My fear? are servants of a master who is called their Saviour.

29.203 Οἱ οὖν κατὰ φόβον βιοῦντες͵ ὃν ἀπαιτεῖ ἀπὸ τῶν οὐ καλῶν δούλων ὁ θεὸςὡς ἀνέγνωμεν ἐν τῷ Μαλαχίᾳ· Εἰ κύριός εἰμι ἐγώ͵ ποῦ ἐστιν ὁ φόβος μου; δοῦλοι τυγχάνουσι κυρίου τοῦ σωτῆρος αὐτῶν καλουμένου.



 [32]. Christ as Son.


None of these testimonies, however, sets forth distinctly the Saviour’s exalted birth; but when the words are addressed to Him, You are My Son, this day have I begotten You, this is spoken to Him by God, with whom all time is today, for there is no evening with God, as I consider, and there is no morning, nothing but time that stretches out, along with His unbeginning and unseen life. The day is today with Him in which the Son was begotten, and thus the beginning of His birth is not found, as neither is the day of it.

29.204 Ἀλλὰ διὰ τούτων πάντων οὐ σαφῶς ἡ εὐγένεια παρίσταται τοῦ υἱοῦ͵ ὅτε δὲ τὸ Υἱός μου εἶ σύ͵ ἐγὼ σήμερον γεγέννηκά σε λέγεται πρὸς αὐτὸν ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ͵ ᾧ ἀεί ἐστι τὸ σήμερον͵ οὐκ ἔνι γὰρ ἑσπέρα θεοῦ͵ ἐγὼ δὲ ἡγοῦμαι͵ ὅτι οὐδὲ πρωΐα͵ ἀλλὰ ὁ συμπαρεκτείνων τῇ ἀγενήτῳ καὶ ἀϊδίῳ αὐτοῦ ζωῇ͵ ἵν΄ οὕτως εἴπω͵ χρόνος ἡμέρα ἐστὶν αὐτῷ σήμερον͵ ἐν ᾗ γεγέννηται ὁ υἱός͵ ἀρχῆς γενέσεως αὐτοῦ οὕτως οὐχ εὑρισκομένης ὡς οὐδὲ τῆς ἡμέρας.





 [33]. Christ the True Vine, and as Bread.


30. To what we have said must be added how the Son is the true vine. Those will have no difficulty in apprehending this who understand, in a manner worthy of the propheticgrace, the saying: Wine makes glad the heart of man.

30.205 Προσθετέον τοῖς εἰρημένοις πῶς ἐστιν ὁ υἱὸς ἀληθινὴ ἄμπελος. Τοῦτο δὲ δῆλον ἔσται τοῖς συνιεῖσιν ἀξίως χάριτος προφητικῆς τὸ Οἶνος εὐφραίνει καρδίαν ἀνθρώπου.

For if the heart be the intellectual part, and what rejoices it is the Word most pleasant of all to drink which takes us off human things, makes us feel ourselves inspired, and intoxicates us with an intoxication which is not irrational but divine, that, I conceive, with which Joseph made his brethren merry, (Gen 43:34) then it is very clear how He who brings wine thus to rejoice the heart of man is the true vine. He is the true vine, because the grapes He bears are the truth, the disciples are His branches, and they, also, bring forth the truth as their fruit.

30.206 Εἰ γὰρ ἡ καρδία τὸ διανοητικόν ἐστι͵ τὸ δὲ εὐφραῖνον αὐτὸ ὁ ποτιμώτατός ἐστι λόγος͵ ἐξιστῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ἀνθρωπικῶν καὶ ἐνθουσιᾶν ποιῶν καὶ μεθύειν μέθην οὐκ ἀλόγιστον ἀλλὰ θείαν͵ ἣν οἶμαι καὶ Ἰωσὴφ τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς μεθύειν ποιεῖ͵ εὐλόγως ὁ τὸν εὐφραί νοντα καρδίαν ἀνθρώπου οἶνον φέρων ἄμπελός ἐστιν ἀληθινή· διὰ τοῦτο ἀληθινή͵ ἐπεὶ βότρυς ἔχει τὴν ἀλήθειαν καὶ κλήματα τοὺς μαθητάς͵ μιμητὰς αὐτοῦ καὶ αὐτοὺς καρποφοροῦντας τὴν ἀλήθειαν.

It is somewhat difficult to show the difference between the vine and bread, for He says, not only that He is the vine, but that He is the bread of life.

30.207 Ἔργον δὲ διαφορὰν παραστῆσαι ἄρτου καὶ ἀμπέλου͵ ἐπεὶ οὐ μόνον ἄμπελος ἀλλὰ καὶ ἄρτος ζωῆς εἶναί φησιν.

May it be that as bread nourishes and makes strong, and is said to strengthen the heart of man, but wine, on the contrary, pleases and rejoices and melts him, so ethical studies, bringing life to him who learns them and reduces them to practice, are the bread of life, but cannot properly be called the fruit of the vine, while secret and mystical speculations, rejoicing the heart and causing those to feel inspired who take them in, delighting in the Lord, and who desire not only to be nourished but to be made happy, are called the juice of the true vine, because they flow from it.

30.208 Ὅρα δὲ μήποτε͵ ὥσπερ ὁ ἄρτος τρέφει καὶ ἰσχυροποιεῖ καὶ στηρίζειν λέγεται καρδίαν ἀνθρώπου͵ ὁ δὲ οἶνος ἥδει καὶ εὐφραίνει καὶ διαχεῖ͵ οὕτως τὰ μὲν ἠθικὰ μαθήματα͵ ζωὴν περιποιοῦντα τῷ μανθάνοντι καὶ πράττοντι͵ ἄρτος ἐστὶ τῆς ζωῆςοὐκ ἂν ταῦτα γεννήματα λέγοιτο τῆς ἀμπέλου͵ τὰ δὲ εὐφραίνοντα καὶ ἐνθουσιᾶν ποιοῦντα ἀπόρρητα καὶ μυστικὰ θεωρήματα͵ τοῖς κατατρυφῶσι τοῦ κυρίου ἐγγινόμενα καὶ οὐ μόνον τρέ φεσθαι ἀλλὰ καὶ τρυφᾶν ποθοῦσιν͵ ἔστιν ἀπὸ τῆς ἀληθινῆς ἀμπέλου ἐρχόμενα͵ οἶνος καλούμενα.





  [34]. Christ as the First and the Last; He is Also What Lies Between These.


31. Further, we have to ask in what sense He is called in the Apocalypse the First and the Last, and how, in His character as the First, He is not the same as the Alpha and the beginning, while in His character as the Last He is not the same as the Omega and the end.

31.209 Πρὸς τούτοις δὲ ἐπιστατέον τῷ πῶς πρῶτος καὶ ἔσχατος εἶναι ἐν τῇ Ἀποκαλύψει ἀνα γέγραπται͵ ἕτερος κατὰ τὸ πρῶτος εἶναι τυγχάνων τοῦ Α καὶ τῆς ἀρχῆς͵ καὶ κατὰ τὸ ἔσχατος οὐχ ὁ αὐτὸς τῷ Ω καὶ τῷ τέλει.

It appears to me, then, that the reasonable beings which exist are characterized by many forms, and that some of them are the first, some the second, some the third, and so on to the last.

31.210 Ἡγοῦμαι τοίνυν τῶν λογικῶν ζῴων ἐν πολλοῖς εἴδεσι χαρακτηριζομένων͵ εἶναί τι πρῶτον αὐτῶν καὶ δεύτερον καὶ τρίτον καὶ τὰ καθεξῆς ἕως ἐσχάτου.

To pronounce exactly, however, which is the first, what kind of a being the second is, which may truly be designated third, and to carry this out to the end of the series, this is not a task for man, but transcends our nature. We shall yet venture, such as we are, to stand still a little at this point, and to make some observations on the matter.

31.211 Καὶ τὸ μὲν ἀκριβὲς εἰπεῖν τί πρῶτον καὶ ποῖον τὸ δεύτερον καὶ ἐπὶ τίνος ἀληθὲς τὸ τρίτον καὶ οὕτως μέχρι τοῦ τελευταίου φθάσαι οὐ πάνυ τι ἀνθρώπινον͵ ἀλλὰ ὑπὲρ τὴν ἡμετέραν ἐστὶ φύσιν. Στῆναι δὲ καὶ περιλαλῆσαι τὰ εἰς τὸν τόπον ὡς οἷοί τέ ἐσμεν πειρα σόμεθα.

There are some gods of whom God is god, as we hear in prophecy, Thank ye the God of gods, and The God of gods has spoken, and called the earth. Now God, according to the Gospel, is not the God of the dead but of the living. (Mt 20:2) Those gods, then, are living of whom God is god.

31.212 Εἰσί τινες θεοὶ ὧν ὁ θεὸς θεός ἐστιν͵ ὡς αἱ προφητεῖαί φασιν· Ἐξομολογεῖσθε τῷ θεῷ τῶν θεῶν καὶ Θεὸς θεῶν ἐλάλησε κύριος͵ καὶ ἐκάλεσε τὴν γῆν· θεὸς δὲ κατὰ τὸ εὐαγγέλιον οὐκ ἔστιν νεκρῶν ἀλλὰ ζώντων· ζῶντες ἄρα εἰσὶ καὶ οἱ θεοί͵ ὧν ὁ θεὸς θεός ἐστι.

The Apostle, too, writing to the Corinthians, says: (1Cor 8:5) As there are gods many and lords many, and so we have spoken of these gods as really existing.

31.213 Καὶ ὁ ἀπόστολος δὲ γράφων ἐν τῇ πρὸς Κορινθίους· Ὥσπερ εἰσὶ θεοὶ πολλοὶ καὶ κύριοι πολλοί κατὰ τὰ προφητικὰ τὸ τῶν θεῶν ἐξείληφεν ὄνομα ὡς τυγχανόντων.

Now there are, besides the gods of whom God is god, certain others, who are called thrones, and others called dominions, lordships, also, and powers in addition to these.

31.214 Εἰσὶ δὲ παρὰ τοὺς θεούς͵ ὧν ὁ θεὸς θεός ἐστιν͵ ἕτεροί τινες οἳ καλοῦνται θρόνοι καὶ ἄλλοι λεγόμενοι ἀρχαί͵ κυριότητές τε καὶ ἐξουσίαι παρὰ τούτους ἄλλοι.

The phrase, above every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come, (Eph 1:21) leads us to believe that there are yet others besides these which are less familiar to us; one kind of these the Hebrews called Sabai, from which Sabaoth was formed, who is their ruler, and is none other than God. Add to all these the reasonable being who is mortal, man.

31.215 Διὰ δὲ τὸ Ὑπὲρ πᾶν ὄνομα ὀνομαζόμενον οὐ μόνον ἐν τούτῳ τῷ αἰῶνι ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐν τῷ μέλλοντι καὶ ἄλλα παρὰ ταῦτα οὐ πάνυ συνήθως ἡμῖν ὀνομαζόμενα δεῖ πιστεύειν εἶναι λογικά͵ ὧν ἕν τι γένος ἐκάλει Σαβαὶ ὁ Ἑβραῖος͵ παρ΄ ὃ ἐσχημα τίσθαι τὸν Σαβαώθ͵ ἄρχοντα ἐκείνων τυγχάνοντα͵ οὐχ ἕτερον τοῦ θεοῦ. Καὶ ἐπὶ πᾶσι θνητὸν λογικὸν ὁ ἄνθρωπος.

Now the God of all things made first in honour some race of reasonable beings; this I consider to be those who are called gods, and the second order, let us say, for the present, are the thrones, and the third, undoubtedly, the dominions. And thus we come down in order to the last reasonable race, which, perhaps, cannot be any other than man.

31.216 Ὁ τοίνυν τῶν ὅλων θεὸς πρῶτόν τι τῇ τιμῇ γένος λογικὸν πεποίηκεν͵ ὅπερ οἶμαι τοὺς καλουμένους θεούς͵ καὶ δεύτερον ἐπὶ τοῦ παρόντος καλείσθωσαν θρόνοι͵ καὶ τρίτον χωρὶς διστάσεως ἀρχαί. Οὕτω δὲ τῷ λογικῷ κατα βατέον ἐπὶ ἔσχατον λογικόν͵ τάχα οὐκ ἄλλο τι τοῦ ἀνθρώπου τυγχάνον.

The Saviour accordingly became, in a more divine way than Paul, all things to all, that He might either gain all or perfect them; it is clear that to men He became a man, and to the angels an angel.

31.217 Ὁ τοίνυν σωτὴρ θειότερον πολλῷ ἢ Παῦλος γέγονε τοῖς πᾶσι πάντα͵ ἵνα πάντα ἢ κερδήσῃ ἢ τελειώσῃ͵ καὶ σαφῶς γέγονεν ἀνθρώποις ἄνθρωπος καὶ ἀγγέλοις ἄγγελος.

As for His becoming man no believer has any doubt, but as to His becoming an angel, we shall find reason for believing it was so, if we observe carefully the appearances and the words of the angels, in some of which the powers of the angels seem to belong to Him. In several passages angels speak in such a way as to suggest this, as when the angel of the Lord appeared in a flame of fire. And he said, I am the God of Abraham and of Isaac and of Jacob. But Isaiah also says: His name is called Angel of Great Counsel. (Is 9:6)

31.218 Καὶ περὶ μὲν τοῦ ἄνθρωπον αὐτὸν γεγονέναι οὐδεὶς τῶν πεπιστευκότων διστάξει· περὶ δὲ τοῦ ἄγγελον πειθώμεθα τηροῦντες τὰς τῶν ἀγγέλων ἐπιφανείας καὶ λόγους͵ ὅτε τῆς τῶν ἀγγέλων ἐξουσίας φαίνεται ἔν τισι τόποις τῆς γραφῆς ἀγγέλων λεγόντων͵ ὥσπερ ἐπὶ τοῦ Ὤφθη ἄγγελος κυρίου ἐν πυρὶ φλογὸς βάτου. Καὶ εἶπεν· Ἐγὼ θεὸς Ἀβραὰμ καὶ Ἰσαὰκ καὶ Ἰακώβ. Ἀλλὰ καὶ ὁ Ἡσαΐας φησί· Καλεῖται τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ μεγάλης βουλῆς ἄγγελος.

The Saviour, then, is the first and the last, not that He is not what lies between, but the extremities are named to show that He became all things. Consider, however, whether the last is man, or the things said to be under the earth, of which are the demons, all of them or some.

31.219 Πρῶτος οὖν καὶ ἔσχατος ὁ σωτήρ͵ οὐχ ὅτι οὐ τὰ μεταξύ͵ ἀλλὰ τῶν ἄκρων͵ ἵνα δηλωθῇ͵ ὅτι τὰ πάντα γέγονεν αὐτός. Ἐπίστησον δὲ πότερον ἄνθρωπός ἐστι τὸ ἔσχατον ἢ τὰ καλούμενα καταχθόνια͵ ὧν εἰσι καὶ οἱ δαίμονες͵ ἤτοι πάντες ἤ τινες.

We must ask, too, about those things which the Saviour became which He speaks of through the prophet David, And I became as a man without any to help him, free among the dead. His birth from the Virgin and His life so admirably lived showed Him to be more than man, and it was the same among the dead. He was the only free person there, and His soul was not left in hell. Thus, then, He is the first and the last.

31.220 Ζητητέον τὰ εἰς ἃ καὶ αὐτὰ γενόμενος ὁ σωτὴρ διὰ τοῦ προφήτου Δαβίδ φησι· Καὶ ἐγενόμην ὡσεὶ ἄνθρωπος ἀβοήθητος͵ ἐν νεκροῖς ἐλεύθερος͵ ὥσπερ πλέον ἔχων παρὰ ἀνθρώπους κατὰ τὴν ἐκ παρθένου γένεσιν καὶ κατὰ τὸν λοιπὸν ἐν παραδόξοις βίον͵ οὕτως ἐν νεκροῖς κατὰ τὸ μόνος ἐκεῖ εἶναι ἐλεύθερος· οὐκ ἐγκαταλέ λειπται ἡ ψυχὴ αὐτοῦ εἰς τὸν ᾅδην. Οὕτως μὲν οὖν πρῶτος καὶ ἔσχατος.

Again, if there be letters of God, as such there are, by reading which the saints may say they have read what is written on the tablets of heaven, these letters, by which heavenly things are to be read, are the notions, divided into small parts, into A and so on to Ω, the Son of God.

31.221 Εἰ δέ ἐστι γράμματα θεοῦ͵ ὥσπερ ἔστιν͵ ἅπερ ἀναγι νώσκοντες οἱ ἅγιοί φασιν ἀνεγνωκέναι τὰ ἐν ταῖς πλαξὶ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ͵ τὰ στοιχεῖα ἐκεῖνα͵ ἵνα δι΄ αὐτῶν τὰ οὐράνια ἀνα γνωσθῇ͵ αἱ ἔννοιαι τυγχάνουσιν κατακερματιζόμεναι εἰς Α καὶ τὰ ἑξῆς μέχρι τοῦ Ω͵ τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ θεοῦ.

Again, He is the beginning and the end, but He is this not in all His aspects equally. For He is the beginning, as the Proverbs teach us, inasmuch as He is wisdom; it is written: The Lord founded Me in the beginning of His ways, for His works. In the respect of His being the Logos He is not the beginning. The Word was in the beginning.

31.222 Πάλιν δὲ ἀρχὴ καὶ τέλος ὁ αὐτός͵ ἀλλ΄ οὐ κατὰ τὰς ἐπινοίας ὁ αὐτός. Ἀρχὴ γάρ͵ ὡς ἐν ταῖς παροιμίαις μεμαθήκαμεν͵ καθ΄ ὃ σοφία τυγχάνει͵ ἐστί· γέγραπται γοῦν· Ὁ θεὸς ἔκτισέ με ἀρχὴν ὁδῶν αὐτοῦ εἰς ἔργα αὐτοῦ· καθ΄ ὃ δὲ λόγος ἐστίν͵ οὐκ ἔστιν ἀρχή· Ἐν ἀρχῇ γὰρ ἦν ὁ λόγος.

Thus in His aspects one comes first and is the beginning, and there is a second after the beginning, and a third, and so on to the end, as if He had said, I am the beginning. inasmuch as I am wisdom, and the second, perhaps, inasmuch as I am invisible, and the third in that I am life, for what was made was life in Him.

31.223 Οὐκοῦν αἱ ἐπίνοιαι αὐτοῦ ἔχουσιν ἀρχὴν καὶ δεύτερόν τι παρὰ τὴν ἀρχὴν καὶ τρίτον καὶ οὕτως μέχρι τέλους· ὡσεὶ ἔλεγεν ἀρχή εἰμι καθ΄ ὃ σοφία εἰμί͵ δεύτερον δέ͵ εἰ οὕτω τύχοι͵ καθ΄ ὃ ἀόρατός εἰμι͵ καὶ τρίτον καθ΄ ὃ ζωή͵ ἐπεὶ ὃ γέγονεν ἐν αὐτῷ ζωὴ ἦν.

One who was qualified to examine and to discern the sense of Scripture might, no doubt, find many members of the series; I cannot say if he could find them all. The beginning and the end is a phrase we usually apply to a thing that is a completed unity; the beginning of a house is its foundation and the end the parapet.

31.224 Καὶ εἴ τις ἱκανὸς βασανίζων τὸν νοῦν τῶν γραφῶν ὁρᾶν͵ τάχα εὑρήσει πολλὰ τῆς τάξεως καὶ τὸ τέλος· οὐκ οἶμαι γὰρ ὅτι πάντα. Σαφέστερον δ΄ ἡ ἀρχὴ καὶ τὸ τέλος δοκεῖ κατὰ τὴν συνήθειαν ὡς ἐπὶ ἡνωμένου λέγεσθαι͵ οἷον ἀρχὴ οἰκίας ὁ θεμέλιος καὶ τέλος ἡ στεφάνη.

We cannot but think of this figure, since Christ is the stone which is the head of the corner, to the great unity of the body of the saved. For Christ the only-begotten Son is all and in all, He is as the beginning in the man He assumed, He is present as the end in the last of the saints, and He is also in those between, or else He is present as the beginning in Adam, as the end in His life on earth, according to the saying: The last Adam was made a quickening spirit. This saying harmonizes well with the interpretation we have given of the first and the last.

31.225 Καὶ ἐφαρμο στέον γε διὰ τὸ ἀκρογωνιαῖον εἶναι λίθον τὸν Χριστὸν τῷ ἡνωμένῳ παντὶ σώματι τῶν σῳζομένων τὸ παράδειγμα τὸ πάντα γὰρ καὶ ἐν πᾶσι Χριστὸς ὁ μονογενής͵ ὡς μὲν ἀρχὴ ἐν ᾧ ἀνείληφεν ἀνθρώπῳ͵ ὡς δὲ τέλος ἐν τῷ τελευταίῳ τῶν ἁγίων δηλονότι τυγχάνων καὶ ἐν τοῖς μεταξύ͵ ἢ ὡς μὲν ἀρχὴ ἐν Ἀδάμ͵ ὡς δὲ τέλος ἐν τῇ ἐπιδημίᾳ͵ κατὰ τὸ εἰρημένον· Ὁ ἔσχατος Ἀδὰμ εἰς πνεῦμα ζωοποιοῦν. Πλὴν τοῦτο τὸ ῥητὸν ἐφαρμόσει καὶ τῇ ἀποδό σει τοῦ πρῶτος καὶ ἔσχατος.

 [35]. Christ as the Living and the Dead.


In what has been said about the first and the last, and about the beginning and the end, we have referred these words at one point to the different forms of reasonable beings, at another to the different conceptions of the Son of God. Thus we have gained a distinction between the first and the beginning, and between the last and the end, and also the distinctive meaning of A and Ω.

31.226 Τηρήσαντες μέντοι τὰ εἰρημένα περὶ πρώτου καὶ ἐσχάτου καὶ περὶ ἀρχῆς καὶ τέλους͵ ὅπου μὲν εἰς εἴδη λογικῶν ἀνηνέγκαμεν͵ ὅπου δὲ εἰς διαφόρους ἐπινοίας τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ θεοῦ τὸν λόγον͵ καὶ ἔχομεν τὴν διαφορὰν πρώτου καὶ ἀρχῆς͵ καὶ ἐσχάτου καὶ τέλους͵ ἔτι δὲ καὶ τοῦ Α καὶ τοῦ Ω.

It is not hard to see why he is called the Living and the Dead, (Rev 1:17-18) and after being dead He that is alive for evermore. For since we were not helped by His original life, sunk as we were in sin, He came down into our deadness in order that, He having died to sin, we, (2 Cor 4:10) bearing about in our body the dying of Jesus might then receive that life of His which is for evermore. For those who always carry about in their body the dying of Jesus shall obtain the life of Jesus also, manifested in their bodies.

31.227 Οὐκ ἄδηλον οὐδὲ τὸ ζῶν καὶ νεκρός͵ καὶ μετὰ τὸ νεκρὸς ζῶν εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων. Ἐπεὶ γὰρ οὐκ ὠφελήμεθα ἀπὸ τῆς προηγουμένης ζωῆς αὐτοῦ γενόμενοι ἐν ἁμαρτίᾳ͵ κατέβη ἐπὶ τὴν νεκρότητα ἡμῶν͵ ἵνα ἀποθανόντος αὐτοῦ τῇ ἁμαρτίᾳ τὴν νέκρωσιν τοῦ Ἰησοῦ ἐν τῷ σώματι περιφέροντες͵ τὴν μετὰ τὴν νεκρότητα ζωὴν αὐτοῦ εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων ἐν τάξει χωρῆσαι δυνηθῶμεν· οἱ γὰρ τὴν νέκρωσιν τοῦ Ἰησοῦ πάντοτε ἐν τῷ σώματι περιφέροντες καὶ τὴν ζωὴν τοῦ Ἰησοῦ ἕξουσιν ἐν τοῖς σώμασιν αὐτῶν φανερουμένην.





  [36]. Christ as a Sword.


32. The texts of the New Testament, which we have discussed, are things said by Himself about Himself. Isaiah, however, He said (Is 49:2-3) that His mouth had been set by His Father as a sharp sword, and that He was hidden under the shadow of His hand, made like to a chosen shaft and kept close in the Father’s quiver, called His servant by the God of all things, and Israel, and Light of the Gentiles.

32.228 Καὶ ταῦτα μὲν ἀπὸ τῶν τῆς καινῆς διαθήκης βιβλίων ἐλέγετο ὑπ΄ αὐτοῦ περὶ ἑαυτοῦ. Ἐν δὲ τῷ Ἡσαΐᾳ ἔφασκεν ὑπὸ τοῦ πατρὸς τεθεῖσθαι αὐτοῦ τὸ στόμα ὡς μάχαιραν ὀξεῖαν καὶ κεκρύφθαι ὑπὸ τὴν σκέπην τῆς χειρὸς αὐτοῦ͵ βέλει ἐκλεκτῷ ὡμοιωμένος καὶ ἐν τῇ φαρέτρᾳ τοῦ πατρὸς κεκρυμμένος͵ δοῦλος τοῦ θεοῦ τῶν ὅλων ὑπ΄ αὐτοῦ καλούμενος καὶ Ἰσραὴλ καὶ φῶς ἐθνῶν.

The mouth of the Son of God is a sharp sword, for The word of God is living, and active, and sharper than any two-edged sword, and piercing to the dividing of soul and spirit, of both joints and marrow, and quick to discern the thoughts and intents of the heart. (Heb 4:12) And indeed He came not to bring peace on the earth, that is, to corporeal and sensible things, but a sword, and to cut through, if I may say so, the disastrous friendship of soul and body, so that the soul, committing herself to the spirit which was against the flesh, may enter into friendship with God. Hence, according to the prophetic word, He made His mouth as a sword, as a sharp sword. Can any one behold so many wounded by the divine love, like her in the Song of Songs, who complained that she was wounded: I am wounded with love, (Song 2:5) and find the dart that wounded so many souls for the love of God, in any but Him who said, He has made Me as a chosen shaft.

32.229 Μάχαιρα μὲν οὖν ὀξεῖά ἐστι τὸ στόμα τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ θεοῦ͵ ἐπεὶ ζῶν τυγχάνει ὁ λόγος τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ ἐνεργὴς καὶ τομώτερος ὑπὲρ πᾶσαν μάχαιραν δίστομον καὶ διϊκνούμενος ἄχρι μερισμοῦ ψυχῆς καὶ πνεύματος͵ ἁρμῶν τε καὶ μυελῶν͵ καὶ κριτικὸς ἐνθυμήσεων καὶ ἐννοιῶν καρδίας· ἄλλως τε καὶ ἐλθὼν οὐκ εἰρήνην ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν͵ τοῦτ΄ ἔστιν ἐπὶ τὰ σωματικὰ καὶ αἰσθητά͵ βαλεῖν ἀλλὰ μάχαιραν͵ καὶ διακόπτων τήν͵ ἵν΄ οὕτως εἴπω͵ ἐπιβλαβῆ φιλίαν ψυχῆς καὶ σώματος͵ ἵν΄ ἡ ψυχὴ ἐπιδιδοῦσα αὑτὴν τῷ στρατευομένῳ κατὰ τῆς σαρκὸς πνεύματι φιλιωθῇ τῷ θεῷ͵ μάχαιραν ἢ ὡς μάχαιραν ὀξεῖαν κατὰ τὸν προφητικὸν λόγον ἔσχε τὸ στόμα· ἀλλὰ καὶ βλέπων τοσούτους τετρωμένους τῇ θείᾳ ἀγάπῃ ὁμοίως τῇ ὁμολογούσῃ τοῦτο πεπονθέναι ἐν τῷ Ἄισματι τῶν ᾀσμάτων διὰ τοῦ Ὅτι τετρωμένη ἀγάπης ἐγώ τὸ τρῶσαν βέλος τὰς τῶν τοσούτων εἰς ἀγάπην θεοῦ ψυχὰς οὐκ ἄλλο τι εὑρήσει ἢ τὸν εἰπόντα· Ἔθηκέ με ὡς βέλος ἐκλεκτόν.

 [37]. Christ as a Servant, as the Lamb of God, and as the Man Whom John Did Not Know.


Again, let any one consider how Jesus was to His disciples, not as He who sits at meat, but as He who serves, and how though the Son of God He took on Him the form of a servant for the sake of the freedom of those who were enslaved in sin, and he will be at no loss to account for the Father’s saying to Him: You are My servant, and a little further on: It is a great thing that you should be called My servant.

32.230 Ἔτι δὲ πᾶς ὁ συνιεὶς πῶς τοῖς μαθητευομένοις ὁ Ἰησοῦς γεγένηται οὐχ ὡς ὁ ἀνακείμενος ἀλλ΄ ὡς ὁ διακο νῶν͵ μορφὴν δούλου ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ ὑπὲρ ἐλευθερίας τῶν δουλευσάντων τῇ ἁμαρτίᾳ λαβών͵ οὐκ ἀγνοήσει τίνα τρόπον ὁ πατήρ φησι πρὸς αὐτὸν τὸ Δοῦλός μου εἶ σύ καὶ μετ΄ ὀλίγα· Μέγα σοί ἐστι τοῦτο κληθῆναί σε παῖδά μου.

For we do not hesitate to say that the goodness of Christ appears in a greater and more divine light, and more according to the image of the Father, because He humbled Himself, becoming obedient unto death, even the death of the cross, (Phil 2:6, 8) than if He had judged it a thing to be grasped to be equal with God, and had shrunk from becoming a servant for the salvation of the world.

32.231 Τολμητέον γὰρ εἰπεῖν πλείονα καὶ θειοτέραν καὶ ἀληθῶς κατ΄ εἰκόνα τοῦ πατρὸς τὴν ἀγαθότητα φαίνεσθαι τοῦ Χριστοῦ͵ ὅτε ἑαυτὸν ἐταπείνωσε γενόμενος ὑπήκοος μέχρι θανάτου͵ θανάτου δὲ σταυροῦ͵ ἢ εἰ ἁρπαγμὸν ἡγήσατο τὸ εἶναι ἴσα θεῷ͵ καὶ μὴ βουληθεὶς ἐπὶ τῇ τοῦ κόσμου σωτηρίᾳ γενέ σθαι δοῦλος.

Hence He says, desiring to teach us that in accepting this state of servitude He had received a great gift from His Father: And My God shall be My strength. And He said to Me, It is a great thing for You to be called My servant. (Is 49:5-6) For if He had not become a servant, He would not have raised up the tribes of Jacob, nor have turned the heart of the diaspora of Israel, and neither would He have become a light of the Gentiles to be for salvation to the ends of the earth.

32.232 Διὰ τοῦτο διδάξαι ἡμᾶς βουλόμενος μέγα δῶρον εἰληφέναι ἀπὸ τοῦ πατρὸς τὸ οὕτως δεδουλευκέναι φησί· Καὶ ὁ θεός μου ἔσται μοι ἰσχύς. Καὶ εἶπέ μοι· Μέγα σοί ἐστι τοῦτο κληθῆναί σε παῖδά μου. Μὴ γενόμενος γὰρ δοῦλος οὐκ ἂν ἔστησε τὰς φυλὰς τοῦ Ἰακὼβ οὐδὲ τὴν διασπορὰν τοῦ Ἰσραὴλ ἐπέστρεψεν͵ ἀλλ΄ οὐδὲ γεγόνει ἂν εἰς φῶς ἐθνῶν͵ τοῦ εἶναι εἰς σωτηρίαν ἕως ἐσχάτου τῆς γῆς.

And it is no great thing for Him to become a servant, even if it is called a great thing by His Father, for this is in comparison with His being called with an innocent sheep and with a lamb. For the Lamb of God became like an innocent sheep being led to the slaughter, that He may take away the sin of the world. He who supplies reason (logos) to all is made like a lamb which is dumb before her shearer, that we might be purified by His death, which is given as a sort of medicine against the opposing power, and also against the sin of those who open their minds to the truth. For the death of Christ reduced to impotence those powers which war against the human race, and it set free from sin by a power beyond our words the life of each believer.

32.233 Καὶ μέτριόν γε τὸ δοῦλον αὐτὸν γενέσθαι͵ εἰ καὶ μέγα ὑπὸ τοῦ πατρὸς εἶναι τοῦτο λέγεται͵ συγκρίσει ἀρνίου ἀκάκου καὶ ἀμνοῦ. Ὡς γὰρ ἀρνίον ἄκακον γεγένηται ἀγόμενον τοῦ θύεσθαι ὁ ἀμνὸς τοῦ θεοῦ͵ ἵνα ἄρῃ τὴν ἁμαρτίαν τοῦ κό σμου͵ ὁ πᾶσι τοῦ λόγου χορηγός͵ ὁμοιωθεὶς ἀμνῷ ἐνώ πιον τοῦ κείροντος ἀφώνῳ͵ ὅπως τῷ θανάτῳ αὐτοῦ ἡμεῖς πάντες καθαρθῶμεν͵ ἀναδιδομένῳ τρόπον φαρμάκου ἐπὶ τὰς ἀντικειμένας ἐνεργείας καὶ τὴν τῶν βουλομένων ἀναδέξασθαι τὴν ἀλήθειαν ἁμαρτίαν· ἀτονῆσαι γὰρ ὁ θάνατος τοῦ Χριστοῦ τὰς πολεμούσας τῷ τῶν ἀνθρώπων γένει πεποίηκε δυνάμεις͵ καὶ  ἐξελεύσεσθαι τὴν ἐν ἑκάστῳ τῶν πιστευόντων ζωὴν τῇ ἁμαρτίᾳ ἀφάτῳ δυνάμει.

Since, then, He takes away sin until every enemy shall be destroyed and death last of all, in order that the whole world may be free from sin, therefore John points to Him and says: Behold the Lamb of God which takes away the sin of the world. (Jn 1:29) It is not said that He will take it away in the future, nor that He is at present taking it, nor that He has taken it, but is not taking it away now.

32.234 Ἐπεὶ δὲ ἕως πᾶς ἐχθρὸς αὐτοῦ καταργηθῇ καὶ τελευταῖός γε ὁ θάνατος͵ αἴρει τὴν ἁμαρτίαν͵ ἵνα ὁ πᾶς γένηται χωρὶς ἁμαρτίας κόσμος͵ διὰ τοῦτο ὁ Ἰωάννης δεικνὺς αὐτόν φησιν· Ἴδε ὁ ἀμνὸς τοῦ θεοῦ ὁ αἴρων τὴν ἁμαρτίαν τοῦ κόσμου· οὐχὶ ὁ μέλλων μὲν αἴρειν οὐχὶ δὲ καὶ αἴρων ἤδη͵ καὶ οὐχὶ ὁ ἄρας μὲν οὐχὶ δὲ καὶ αἴρων ἔτι·

His taking away sin is still going on, He is taking it away from every individual in the world, till sin be taken away from the whole world, and the Saviour deliver the kingdom prepared and completed to the Father, a kingdom in which no sin is left at all, and which, therefore, is ready to accept the Father as its king, and which on the other hand is waiting to receive all God has to bestow, fully, and in every part, at that time when the saying  is fulfilled, That God may be all in all. (1Cor 5.28)

32.235 τὸ γὰρ αἴρειν ἐνεργεῖ ἐπὶ ἑνὸς ἑκάστου τῶν ἐν τῷ κόσμῳ͵ ἕως ἀπὸ παντὸς τοῦ κόσμου ἀφαιρεθῇ ἡ ἁμαρτία καὶ παραδῷ ἕτοιμον βασιλείαν τῷ πατρὶ ὁ σωτήρ͵ τῷ μὴ εἶναι μηδὲ τὴν τυχοῦσαν ἁμαρτίαν χωροῦσαν τὸ ὑπὸ πατρὸς βασιλεύεσθαι καὶ πάλιν ἐπιδεχομένην τὰ πάντα τοῦ θεοῦ ἐν ὅλῃ ἑαυτῇ καὶ πάσῃ͵ ὅτε πληροῦται τὸ ἵνα γένηται ὁ θεὸς τὰ πάντα ἐν πᾶσιν.

Further, we hear of a man who is said to be coming after John, who was made before him and was before him. This is to teach us that the man also of the Son of God, the man who was mixed with His divinity, was older than His birth from Mary.

32.236 Ἀλλὰ καὶ ἀνὴρ πρὸς τούτοις λέγεται ὀπίσω Ἰωάννου ἐρχόμενος͵ ἔμπροσθεν αὐτοῦ γεγενημένος καὶ πρὸ αὐτοῦ ὤν͵ ἵνα διδαχθῶμεν καὶ τὸν ἄνθρωπον τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ θεοῦ τὸν τῇ θεότητι αὐτοῦ ἀνακεκραμένον πρεσβύτερον εἶναι τῆς ἐκ Μαρίας γενέσεως͵ ὅντινα ἄνθρωπόν φησιν ὁ βαπτιστὴς ὅτι οὐκ ᾔδει.

John says he does not know this man, but must he not have known Him when he leapt for joy when yet a babe unborn in Elisabeth’s womb, as soon as the voice of Mary’s salutation sounded in the ears of the wife of Zacharias?

32.237 Πῶς δὲ οὐκ ᾔδει ὁ σκιρτήσας ἐν ἀγαλλιάσει ἔτι βρέφος τυγχάνων ἐν τῇ κοιλίᾳ τῆς Ἐλισάβετ͵ ὅτε ἐγένετο ἡ φωνὴ τοῦ ἀσπασμοῦ τῆς Μαρίας εἰς τὰ ὦτα τῆς Ζαχαρίου γυναικός;

Consider, therefore, if the words I know Him not may have reference to the period before the bodily existence. Though he did not know Him before He assumed His body, yet he knew Him when yet in his mother’s womb, and perhaps he is here learning something new about Him beyond what was known to him before, namely, that on whomsoever the Holy Spirit shall descend and abide on him, that is he who is to baptize with the Holy Spirit and with fire.

32.238 Ἐπίστησον οὖν͵ εἰ δύναται τὸ οὐκ ᾔδειν κατὰ τὰ πρὸ σώματος λέγειν· εἰ δὲ καὶ οὐκ ᾔδει μὲν αὐτὸν πρὸ τοῦ ἥκειν εἰς σῶμα͵ ἔγνω δὲ ἔτι ὄντα ἐν τῇ κοιλίᾳ τῆς μητρός͵ τάχα μανθάνει τι περὶ αὐτοῦ ἕτερον παρ΄ ὃ ἐγίνωσκεν͵ ὅτι ἐφ΄ ὃν ἂν τὸ πνεῦμα καταβὰν μείνῃ ἐπ΄ αὐτόν͵ οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ βαπτίζων ἐν πνεύματι ἁγίῳ καὶ πυρί.

He knew him from his mother’s womb, but not all about Him. He did not know perhaps that this is He who baptizes with the Holy Spirit and with fire, when he saw the Spirit descending and abiding on Him. Yet that He was indeed a man, and the first man, John did not know.

32.239 Καὶ γὰρ εἰ ᾔδει αὐτὸν ἔτι ἐκ κοιλίας μητρός͵ οὔτι γε ἐγίνωσκε πάντα τὰ περὶ αὐτοῦ τάχα δὲ καὶ ἠγνόει͵ ὅτι οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ βαπτίζων ἐν πνεύματι ἁγίῳ καὶ πυρί͵ ὅτε τεθέαται τὸ πνεῦμα καταβαῖνον καὶ μένον ἐπ΄ αὐτόν. Πλὴν ἄνδρα αὐτὸν τυγχάνοντα καὶ πρῶτον οὐκ ᾔδει ὁ Ἰωάννης.





 [38]. Christ as Paraclete, as Propitiation, and as the Power of God.


33. But none of the names we have mentioned expresses His representation of us with the Father, as He pleads for human nature, and makes atonement for it; the Paraclete, and the propitiation, and the atonement. He has the name Paraclete in the Epistle of John: If any man sin, we have a Paraclete with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous. (1Jn 2:1-2) And He is said in the same epistle to be the atonement for our sins. Similarly, in the Epistle to the Romans, He is called a propitiation: Whom God set forth to be a propitiation through faith. Of this proportion there was a type in the inmost part of the temple, the Holy of Holies, namely, the golden mercy-seat placed upon the two cherubim.

33.240 Οὐδὲν δὲ τῶν προειρημένων ὀνο μάτων τὴν περὶ ἡμῶν πρὸς τὸν πατέρα προστασίαν αὐτοῦ δηλοῖ͵ παρακαλοῦντος ὑπὲρ τῆς ἀνθρώπων φύσεως καὶ ἱλασκο μένου͵ ὡς ὁ παράκλητος καὶ ὁ ἱλασμὸς καὶ τὸ ἱλαστήριον· ὁ μὲν παράκλητος ἐν τῇ Ἰωάννου λεγόμενος ἐπιστολῇ· Ἐὰν γάρ τις ἁμάρτῃ͵ παράκλητον ἔχομεν πρὸς τὸν πατέρα Ἰησοῦν Χριστὸν δίκαιον͵ καὶ οὗτος ἱλασμός ἐστι περὶ τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ἡμῶν· καὶ ὁ ἱλασμὸς ἐν τῇ αὐτῇ ἐπιστολῇ λεγόμενος ἱλασμὸς εἶναι περὶ τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ἡμῶν͵ ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ ἐν τῇ πρὸς Ρωμαίους ἱλαστήριον· Ὃν προέθετο ὁ θεὸς ἱλαστήριον διὰ πίστεως· οὗ ἱλαστηρίου εἰς τὰ ἐσώτατα καὶ ἅγια τῶν ἁγίων σκιά τις ἐτύγχανεν τὸ χρυσοῦν ἱλαστήριον͵ ἐπικείμενον τοῖς δυσὶ Χερουβείμ.

But how could He ever be the Paraclete, and the atonement, and the propitiation without the power of God, which makes an end of our weakness, flows over the souls of believers, and is administered by Jesus, who indeed is prior to it and Himself the power of God, who enables a man to say: I can do all things through Jesus Christ who strengthens me. (Phil 4:13)

33.241 Πῶς δ΄ ἂν παράκλητος καὶ ἱλασμὸς καὶ ἱλαστήριον χωρὶς δυνάμεως θεοῦ ἐξαφανιζούσης ἡμῶν τὴν ἀσθένειαν γενέσθαι οἷός τε ἦν͵ ἐπιρρεούσης ταῖς τῶν πιστευόντων ψυχαῖς͵ ὑπὸ Ἰησοῦ διακονουμένης͵ ἧς πρῶτός ἐστιν͵ αὐτο δύναμις θεοῦ͵ δι΄ ὃν εἴποι τις ἄν· Πάντα ἰσχύω ἐν τῷ ἐνδυναμοῦντί με Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ;

Whence we know that Simon Magus, who gave himself the title of The power of God, which is called great, was consigned to perdition and destruction, he and his money with him. We, on the contrary, who confess Christ as the true power of God, believe that we share with Him, inasmuch as He is that power, all things in which any energy resides.

33.242 Διόπερ Σίμωνα μὲν τὸν μάγον αὐτὸν ἀναγορεύοντα δύναμιν θεοῦ τὴν καλουμένην μεγάλην͵ ἴσμεν ἅμα τῷ ἀργυρίῳ αὐτοῦ εἰς ὄλεθρον καὶ ἀπώλειαν κεχωρηκέναι· Χριστὸν δὲ ὁμολο γοῦντες ἀληθῶς εἶναι δύναμιν θεοῦ͵ πάντα τὰ ὅπου ποτὲ δυναμούμενα μετέχειν αὐτοῦ͵ καθ΄ ὃ δύναμίς ἐστι͵ πεπιστεύκαμεν.





 [39]. Christ as Wisdom and Sanctification and Redemption.


34.  We must not, however, pass over in silence that He is of right the wisdom of God, and hence is called by that name. For the wisdom of the God and Father of all things does not apprehend His substance in mere visions, like the phantasms of human thoughts.

34.243 Μὴ παρασιωπηθήτω δ΄ ἡμῖν μηδὲ θεοῦ σοφία εὐλόγως τυγχάνων καὶ διὰ τοῦτο τοῦτ΄ εἶναι λεγόμενος. Οὐ γὰρ ἐν ψιλαῖς φαντασίαις τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ πατρὸς τῶν ὅλων τὴν ὑπόστασιν ἔχει ἡ σοφία αὐτοῦ κατὰ τὰ ἀνὰ λόγον τοῖς ἀνθρωπίνοις ἐννοήμασι φαντάσματα.

Whoever is able to conceive a bodiless existence of manifold speculations which extend to the rationale of existing things, living and, as it were, ensouled, he will see how well the Wisdom of God which is above every creature speaks of herself, when she says: God created me the beginning of His ways, for His works. (Prov 8:22) By this creating act the whole creation was enabled to exist, not being unreceptive of that divine wisdom according to which it was brought into being; for God, according to the prophet David, made all things in wisdom.

34.244 Εἰ δέ τις οἷός τέ ἐστιν ἀσώματον ὑπόστασιν ποικίλων θεωρημάτων περιεχόντων τοὺς τῶν ὅλων λόγους ζῶσαν καὶ οἱονεὶ ἔμψυχον ἐπινοεῖν͵ εἴσεται τὴν ὑπὲρ πᾶσαν κτίσιν σοφίαν τοῦ θεοῦ καλῶς περὶ αὑτῆς λέγουσαν· Ὁ θεὸς ἔκτισέ με ἀρχὴν ὁδῶν αὐτοῦ εἰς ἔργα αὐτοῦ. Δι΄ ἣν κτίσιν δεδύνηται καὶ πᾶσα κτίσις ὑφεστάναι͵ οὐκ ἀνένδοχος οὖσα θείας σοφίας͵ καθ΄ ἣν γεγένηται· Πάντα γὰρ κατὰ τὸν προφήτην Δαβὶδ ἐν σοφίᾳ ἐποίησεν ὁ θεός.

But many things came into being by the help of wisdom, which do not lay hold of that by which they were created: and few things indeed there are which lay hold not only of that wisdom which concerns themselves, but of that which has to do with many things besides, namely, of Christ who is the whole of wisdom.

34.245 Ἀλλὰ πολλὰ μὲν μετοχῇ σοφίας γεγένηται͵ οὐκ ἀντιλαμβανόμενα αὐτῆς͵ ᾗ ἔκτισται͵ σφόδρα δὲ ὀλίγα οὐ μόνον τὴν περὶ αὑτῶν καταλαμβάνει σοφίαν ἀλλὰ καὶ περὶ πολλῶν ἑτέρων͵ Χριστοῦ τῆς πάσης τυγχάνοντος σοφίας.

But each of the sages, in proportion as he embraces wisdom, partakes to that extent of Christ, in that He is wisdom; just as every one who is greatly gifted with power, in proportion as he has power, in that proportion also has a share in Christ, inasmuch as He is power.

34.246 Ἕκαστος δὲ τῶν σοφῶν καθ΄ ὅσον χωρεῖ σοφίας͵ τοσοῦτον μετέχει Χριστοῦ͵ καθ΄ ὃ σοφία ἐστίν· ὥσπερ ἕκαστος τῶν δύναμιν ἐχόντων κρείττονα ὅσον εἴληχε τῆς δυνάμεως͵ τοσοῦτον Χριστοῦ͵ καθ΄ ὃ δύναμίς ἐστι͵ κεκοινώνηκεν.

The same is to be thought about sanctification and redemption; for Jesus Himself is made sanctification to us and redemption. Each of us is sanctified with that sanctification, and redeemed with that redemption.

34.247 Τὸ παραπλήσιον δὲ καὶ περὶ ἁγιασμοῦ καὶ ἀπολυτρώ σεως νοητέον· αὐτὸς μὲν γὰρ ἁγιασμός͵ ὅθεν οἱ ἅγιοι ἁγιάζον ται͵ ἡμῖν ὁ Ἰησοῦς γεγένηται καὶ ἀπολύτρωσις· ἕκαστος δὲ ἡμῶν ἐκείνῳ τῷ ἁγιασμῷ ἁγιάζεται καὶ κατ΄ ἐκείνην τὴν ἀπο λύτρωσιν ἀπολυτροῦται.

Consider, moreover, if the words to us, added by the Apostle, have any special force. Christ, he says, was made to us of God, wisdom, and righteousness, and sanctification, and redemption. In other passages, he speaks about Christ as being wisdom, without any such qualification, and of His being power, saying that Christ is the power of God and the wisdom of God, though we might have conceived that He was not the wisdom of God or the power of God, absolutely, but only for us. Now, in respect of wisdom and power, we have both forms of the statement, the relative and the absolute; but in respect of sanctification and redemption, this is not the case.

34.248 Ἐπίστησον δὲ εἰ μὴ μάτην τὸ ἡμῖν παρὰ τῷ ἀποστόλῳ προσκαλεῖται λέγοντι· Ὃς ἐγενήθη σοφία ἡμῖν ἀπὸ θεοῦ͵ δικαιοσύνη τε καὶ ἁγιασμὸς καὶ ἀπολύτρωσις· καὶ εἰ μὴ ἐν ἄλλοις περὶ τοῦ Χριστοῦ͵ καθ΄ ὃ σοφία ἐστίν͵ ἀπολελυμένως ἐλέγετο καὶ καθ΄ ὃ δύναμις͵ ὅτι Χριστὸς θεοῦ δύναμίς ἐστι καὶ θεοῦ σοφία͵ κἂν ὑπενοήσαμεν μὴ καθάπαξ αὐτὸν εἶναι σοφίαν μηδὲ δύναμιν θεοῦ͵ ἀλλὰ ἡμῖν· νῦν δὲ ἐπὶ μὲν τῆς σοφίας καὶ δυνάμεως πρὸς τῷ ἡμῖν καὶ τὸ ἀπόλυτον ἀναγέγραπται͵ ἐπὶ δὲ τοῦ ἁγιασμοῦ καὶ τῆς ἀπολυτρώσεως ἡ αὐτὴ ἀπόφασις οὐκ εἴρηται.

Consider, therefore, since He that sanctifies and they that are sanctified are all of one, (Heb 2:11) whether the Father is the sanctification of Him who is our sanctification, as, Christ being our head, God is His head.

34.249 Διόπερ ὅρα͵ ἐπεὶ ὁ ἁγιάζων καὶ οἱ ἁγιαζόμενοι ἐξ ἑνὸς πάντες͵ εἰ αὐτοῦ τοῦ ἡμετέρου ἁγιασμοῦ ἁγιασμός ἐστιν ὁ πατήρ͵ ὥσπερ Χριστοῦ ὄντος ἡμετέρας κεφαλῆς ὁ πατὴρ αὐτοῦ ἐστι κεφαλή.

But Christ is our redemption because we had become prisoners and needed ransoming. I do not enquire as to His own redemption, for though He was tempted in all things as we are, He was without sin, and His enemies never reduced Him to captivity.

34.250 Ἀπολύτρωσις δὲ ἡμῶν ὁ Χριστὸς τῶν διὰ τὸ ᾐχμαλωτεῦσθαι ἀπολυτρώσεως δεδεημένων· αὐτοῦ δὲ τὴν ἀπολύτρωσιν οὐ ζητῶ τοῦ πεπειραμένου κατὰ πάντα καθ΄ ὁμοιότητα χωρὶς ἁμαρτίας καὶ μηδέποτε ὑπὸ τῶν ἐχθρῶν εἰς αἰχμαλωσίαν κεκρατημένου.

 [40]. Christ as Righteousness; As the Demiurge,
      the Agent of the Good God, and as High-Priest.


Having explicated the to us and the absolutely— sanctification and redemption being to us and not absolute, wisdom and redemption both to us and absolute— we must not omit to enquire into the position of righteousness in the same passage. That Christ is righteousness relatively to us appears clearly from the words: Who was made to us of God wisdom and righteousness and sanctification and redemption.

34.251 Ἅπαξ δὲ διασταλέντων τοῦ ἡμῖν καὶ τοῦ ἁπλῶς͵ ἡμῖν μὲν καὶ οὐχ ἁπλῶς τοῦ ἁγιασμοῦ καὶ τῆς ἀπολυτρώσεως͵ καὶ ἡμῖν δὲ καὶ ἁπλῶς τῆς σοφίας καὶ τῆς δυνάμεως͵ οὐκ ἀνεξέταστον ἐατέον τὸν περὶ τῆς δικαιο σύνης λόγον. Καὶ ὅτι μὲν ἡμῖν δικαιοσύνη ὁ Χριστὸς δῆλον ἐκ τοῦ Ὃς ἐγενήθη σοφία ἡμῖν ἀπὸ θεοῦ͵ δικαιοσύνη τε καὶ ἁγιασμὸς καὶ ἀπολύτρωσις.

And if we do not find Him to be righteousness absolutely as He is the wisdom and the power of God absolutely, then we must enquire whether to Christ Himself, as the Father is sanctification, so the Father is also righteousness. There is, we know, no unrighteousness with God; (Jn 7:18) He is a righteous and holy Lord, and His judgments are in righteousness, and being righteous, (Rev 16:5, 7) He orders all things righteously.

34.252 Ἐὰν δὲ μὴ εὑρίσκωμεν ἁπλῶς αὐτὸν δικαιοσύνην͵ ὥσπερ ἁπλῶς σοφίαν καὶ δύναμιν θεοῦ͵ βασανιστέον εἰ καὶ αὐτῷ τῷ Χριστῷ ὥσπερ ἁγιασμὸς ὁ πατήρ͵ οὕτω καὶ δικαιοσύνη ὁ πατήρ· καὶ γὰρ οὐκ ἀδικία παρὰ τῷ θεῷ͵ καὶ δίκαιος καὶ ὅσιος κύριος καὶ ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ τὰ κρίματα αὐτοῦ· δίκαιος δὲ ὢν δικαίως τὰ πάντα διέπει.





35. The heretics drew a distinction for purposes of their own between the just and the good. They did not make the matter very clear, but they considered that the demiurge was just, while the Father of Christ was good. That distinction may, I think, if carefully examined, be applied to the Father and the Son; the Son being righteousness, and having received power (Jn 5:27) to execute judgment, because He is the Son of Man and will judge the world in righteousness, but the Father doing good to those who have been disciplined by the righteousness of the Son. This is after the kingdom of the Son; then the Father will manifest in His works His name the Good, when God becomes all in all.

35.253 Τὸ δὲ σῆναν τοὺς ἀπὸ τῶν αἱρέσεων εἰς τὸ ἕτερον εἰπεῖν τὸν δίκαιον τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ͵ μὴ τρανωθὲν δὲ πὰρ΄ αὐτοῖς͵ οἰηθεῖσι δίκαιον μὲν εἶναι τὸν δημιουργόν͵ ἀγαθὸν δὲ τὸν τοῦ Χριστοῦ πατέρα͵ οἶμαι μετ΄ ἐξετάσεως ἀκριβῶς βασανισθὲν δύνασθαι λέγεσθαι ἐπὶ τοῦ πατρὸς καὶ τοῦ υἱοῦ· τοῦ μὲν υἱοῦ τυγχάνοντος δικαιοσύνης͵ ὃς ἔλαβεν ἐξουσίαν κρίσιν ποιεῖν͵ ὅτι υἱὸς ἀνθρώπου ἐστὶ καὶ κρινεῖ τὴν οἰκου μένην ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ τοῦ δὲ πατρὸς τοὺς ἐν τῇ δικαιοσύνῃ τοῦ υἱοῦ παιδευθέντας μετὰ τὴν Χριστοῦ βασιλείαν εὐεργε τοῦντος͵ τὴν ἀγαθὸς προσηγορίαν ἔργοις δείξοντος͵ ὅταν γένηται ὁ θεὸς τὰ πάντα ἐν πᾶσιν.

And perhaps by His righteousness the Saviour prepares everything at the fit times, and by His word, by His ordering, by His chastisements, and, if I may use such an expression, by His spiritual healing aids, disposes all things to receive at the end the goodness of the Father. It was from His sense of that goodness that He answered him who addressed the Only-begotten with the words Good Master, (Heb 2:9) and said, Why do you call Me good? None is good but one, God, the Father.

35.254 Καὶ τάχα τῇ αὑτοῦ δικαιοσύνῃ ὁ σωτὴρ εὐτρεπίζει τὰ πάντα καιροῖς ἐπιτηδείοις καὶ λόγῳ καὶ τάξει καὶ κολάσεσι καὶ τοῖς͵ ἵν΄ οὕτως εἴπω͵ πνευματικοῖς αὐτοῦ ἰατρικοῖς βοηθήμασι πρὸς τὸ χωρῆσαι ἐπὶ τέλει τὴν ἀγαθότητα τοῦ πατρός· ἥντινα νοήσας πρὸς τὸν μονογενῆ λέγοντα Διδά σκαλε ἀγαθέ φησί· Τί με λέγεις ἀγαθόν; Οὐδεὶς ἀγαθὸς εἰ μὴ εἷς ὁ θεός͵ ὁ πατήρ.

This we have treated of elsewhere, especially in dealing with the question of the greater than the demiurge; Christ we have taken to be the demiurge, and the Father the greater than He. Such great things, then, He is, the Paraclete, the atonement, the propitiation, the sympathizer with our weaknesses, who was tempted in all human things, as we are, without sin; and in consequence He is a great High-Priest, having offered Himself as the sacrifice which is offered once for all, and not for men only but for every rational creature.

35.255 Τὸ δ΄ ὅμοιον ἐν ἑτέροις ἐδείξαμεν καὶ ἐπὶ τοῦ μείζονά τινα εἶναι τοῦ δημιουργοῦ͵ δημιουργὸν μὲν ἐκλαβόντες τὸν Χριστόν͵ μείζονα δὲ τούτου τὸν πατέρα. Αὐτὸς δὴ ὁ τὰ τοσαῦτα τυγχάνων͵ ὁ παράκλητος͵ ὁ ἱλασμός͵ τὸ ἱλαστήριον͵ συμπαθήσας ταῖς ἀσθε νείαις ἡμῶν τῷ πεπειρᾶσθαι κατὰ πάντα τὰ ἀνθρώπινα καθ΄ ὁμοιότητα χωρὶς ἁμαρτίας͵ μέγας ἐστὶν ἀρχιερεύς͵ οὐχ ὑπὲρ ἀνθρώπων μόνων ἀλλὰ καὶ παντὸς λογικοῦ τὴν ἅπαξ θυσίαν προσενεχθεῖσαν ἑαυτὸν ἀνενεγκών· χωρὶς γὰρ θεοῦ ὑπὲρ παντὸς ἐγεύσατο θανάτου͵ ὅπερ ἔν τισι κεῖται τῆς πρὸς Ἑβραίους ἀντιγράφοις χάριτι θεοῦ.

For without God He tasted death for every one. In some copies of the Epistle to the Hebrews the words are by the grace of God. Now, whether He tasted death for every one without God, He died not for men only but for all other intellectual beings too, or whether He tasted death for every one by the grace of God, He died for all without God, for by the grace of God He tasted death for every one.

35.256 Εἴτε δὲ χωρὶς θεοῦ ὑπὲρ παντὸς ἐγεύσατο θανάτου͵ οὐ μόνον ὑπὲρ ἀνθρώπων ἀπέθανεν͵ ἀλλὰ καὶ ὑπὲρ τῶν λοιπῶν λογικῶν· εἴτε χάριτι θεοῦ ἐγεύσατο τοῦ ὑπὲρ παντὸς θανάτου͵ ὑπὲρ πάντων χωρὶς θεοῦ ἀπέθανε· χάριτι γὰρ θεοῦ ὑπὲρ παντὸς ἐγεύσατο θανάτου.

It would surely be absurd to say that He tasted death for human sins and not for any other being besides man which had fallen into sin, as for example for the stars. For not even the stars are clean in the eyes of God, as we read in Job, The stars are not clean in His sight, (Job 25:5) unless this is to be regarded as a hyperbole.

35.257 Καὶ γὰρ ἄτοπον ὑπὲρ ἀνθρωπίνων μὲν αὐτὸν φάσκειν ἁμαρτημάτων γεγεῦ σθαι θανάτου͵ οὐκ ἔτι δὲ καὶ ὑπὲρ ἄλλου τινὸς παρὰ τὸν ἄνθρωπον ἐν ἁμαρτήμασι γεγενημένου͵ οἷον ὑπὲρ ἄστρων͵ οὐδὲ τῶν ἄστρων πάντως καθαρῶν ὄντων ἐνώπιον τοῦ θεοῦ͵ ὡς ἐν τῷ Ἰὼβ ἀνέγνωμεν· Ἄστρα δὲ οὐ καθαρὰ ἐνώπιον αὐτοῦ͵ εἰ μὴ ἄρα ὑπερβολικῶς τοῦτο εἴρηται.

Hence he is a great High-Priest, since He restores all things to His Father’s kingdom, and arranges that whatever defects exist in each part of creation shall be filled up so as to be full of the glory of the Father.

35.258 Διὰ τοῦτο μέγας ἐστὶν ἀρχιερεύς͵ ἐπειδήπερ πάντα ἀποκαθίστησι τῇ τοῦ πατρὸς βασιλείᾳ͵ οἰκονομῶν τὰ ἐν ἑκάστῳ τῶν γενητῶν ἐλλιπῆ ἀναπληρωθῆναι πρὸς τὸ χωρῆσαι δόξαν πατρικήν.

This High-Priest is called, from some other notion of him than those we have noticed, Judas, that those who are Jews secretly (Rom 2:29) may take the name of Jew not from Judah, son of Jacob, but from Him, since they are His brethren, and praise Him for the freedom they have attained. For it is He who sets them free, saving them from their enemies on whose backs He lays His hand to subdue them.

35.259 Οὗτος ὁ ἀρχιερεὺς κατά τινα ἑτέραν παρὰ τὰ εἰρημένα ἐπίνοιαν Ἰούδας ὀνομάζεται͵ ἵνα οἱ ἐν κρυπτῷ Ἰουδαῖοι μὴ ἀπὸ τοῦ υἱοῦ Ἰακὼβ Ἰούδα Ἰουδαῖοι χρηματίζωσιν͵ ἀλλὰ ἀπὸ τούτου͵ ὄντες αὐτοῦ ἀδελφοὶ καὶ αἰνοῦντες αὐτόν͵ ἀντιλαμβανόμενοι τῆς ἐλευθερίας͵ ἣν ἠλευθέρωνται ὑπ΄ αὐτοῦ ῥυσθέντες ἀπὸ τῶν ἐχθρῶν͵ αὐτοῦ τὰς χεῖρας αὐτοῦ τῷ νώτῳ αὐτῶν ἐπιθέντος καὶ ὑποτάξαντος αὐτούς.

When He has put under His feet the opposing power, and is alone in presence of His Father, then He is Jacob and Israel; and thus as we are made light by Him, since He is the light of the world, so we are made Jacob since He is called Jacob, and Israel since He is called Israel.

35.260 Ἀλλὰ καὶ πτερνίσας τὴν ἀντικειμένην ἐνέργειαν μόνος τε ὁρῶν τὸν πατέρα καί͵ ὅτε ἄνθρωπος γεγένηται͵ Ἰακώβ ἐστι καὶ Ἰσραήλ· ἀφ΄ οὗ͵ ὥσπερ γινόμεθα φῶς͵ φωτὸς ὄντος τοῦ κόσμου͵ οὕτως Ἰακὼβ καλουμένου Ἰακὼβ καὶ Ἰσραὴλ ὀνομαζομένου Ἰσραήλ.





 [41]. Christ as the Rod, the Flower, the Stone.


36. Now He receives the kingdom from the king whom the children of Israel appointed, beginning the monarchy not at the divine command and without even consulting God. He therefore fights the battles of the Lord and so prepares peace for His Son, His people, and this perhaps is the reason why He is called David. Then He is called a rod; (Is 11:1) such He is to those who need a harder and severer discipline, and have not submitted to the love and gentleness of God.

36.261 Ἔτι δὲ παραλαμβάνει τὴν βασιλείαν ἀπὸ βασιλέως͵ ὃν ἑαυτοῖς ἐβασίλευσαν οἱ υἱοὶ Ἰσραὴλ καὶ  οὐ διὰ τοῦ θεοῦ ἄρξαντες αὐτὸν καὶ μὴ γνωρίσαντες τῷ θεῷ͵ πολέμους τε τοῦ κυρίου πολεμῶν ἑτοιμάζει εἰρήνην τῷ υἱῷ αὐτοῦ͵ λαῷ· τάχα δὲ διὰ τοῦτο Δαβὶδ προσαγορεύεται καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα ῥάβδος τοῖς δεομένοις ἐπιπόνου καὶ σκληροτέρας ἀγωγῆς καὶ μὴ ἐμπαρεσχηκόσιν ἑαυτοὺς τῇ ἀγάπῃ καὶ τῇ πραότητι τοῦ πατρός.

On this account, if He is a rod, He has to go forth; He does not remain in Himself, but appears to go beyond His earlier state.

36.262 Διὰ τοῦτο ἐὰν ῥάβδος καλῆται͵ ἐξελεύσεται· οὐ γὰρ μένει ἐν αὑτῷ͵ ἀλλ΄ ἔξω τῆς προηγουμένης καταστάσεως εἶναι δοκεῖ.

Going forth, then, and becoming a rod, He does not remain a rod, but after the rod He becomes a flower that rises up, and after being a rod He is made known as a flower to those who, by His being a rod, have met with visitation. For God will visit their iniquities with a rod, that is, Christ. But His mercy He will not take from him, for He will have mercy on him, for on whom the Son has mercy the Father has mercy also. An interpretation may be given which makes Him a rod and a flower in respect of different persons, a rod to those who have need of chastisement, a flower to those who are being saved; but I prefer the account of the matter given above.

36.263 Ἐξελ θὼν δὲ καὶ γενόμενος ῥάβδος οὐ μένει ῥάβδος͵ ἀλλὰ μετὰ τὴν ῥάβδον ἄνθος γίνεται ἀναβαῖνον͵ καὶ πέρας τοῦ εἶναι ῥάβδος τὸ ἄνθος ἀποδείκνυται τοῖς διὰ τοῦ αὐτὸν γεγονέναι ῥάβδον ἐπισκοπῆς τετευχόσιν· ἐπισκέ ψεται γὰρ ὁ θεὸς ἐν ῥάβδῳ͵ τῷ Χριστῷ͵ τὰς ἀνομίας αὐτῶν͵ ὧν ἐπισκέψεται. Τὸ δὲ ἔλεος οὐ διασκεδάσει ἀπ΄ αὐτοῦ· αὐτὸν γὰρ ἐλεεῖ͵ ὅτε οὓς βούλεται ὁ υἱὸς ἐλεεῖσθαι ὁ πατὴρ ἐλεεῖ. Ἔστι δὲ καὶ μὴ ἐπὶ τῶν αὐτῶν λαμβάνειν ῥάβδον αὐτὸν γίνεσθαι καὶ ἄνθος͵ ἀλλὰ ῥάβδον μὲν τοῖς δεομένοις κολάσεως͵ ἄνθος δὲ τοῖς σῳζο μένοις· βέλτιον δ΄ οἶμαι τὸ πρότερον.

We must add here, however, that, perhaps, looking to the end, if Christ is a rod to any man He is also a flower to him, while it is not the case that he who receives Him as a flower must also know Him as a rod. And yet as one flower is more perfect than another and plants are said to flower, even though they bring forth no perfect fruit, so the perfect receive that of Christ which transcends the flower. Those, on the other hand, who have known Him as a rod will partake along with it, not in His perfection, but in the flower which comes before the fruit.

36.264 Πλὴν τοῦτο προσθετέον κατὰ τὸν τόπον͵ ὅτι τάχα διὰ τὸ τέλος͵ εἴ τινι μὲν γίνεται ῥάβδος͵ ἔσται πάντως ἄνθος͵ οὐ μὴν εἴ τινι ἄνθος͵ ἐκείνῳ πάντως καὶ ῥάβδος· εἰ μὴ ἄρα͵ ἐπεί ἐστιν ἄνθος τελειότερον τοῦ ἄνθους͵ καὶ τοῦ ἀνθεῖν ἐπὶ τῶν μηδέπω τελείως καρποφορούντων ὀνομαζο μένου͵ οἱ τέλειοι τὸ ὑπὲρ τὸ ἄνθος χωροῦσι τοῦ Χριστοῦ͵ οἱ δὲ ῥάβδου αὐτοῦ πεπειραμένοι ἅμα τῇ ῥάβδῳ οὐ τῆς τελειότητος αὐτοῦ ἀλλὰ τοῦ ἄνθους τοῦ πρὸ τῶν καρπῶν αὐτοῦ μεταλήψονται.

Last of all, before we come to the word Logos, Christ was a stone, set at naught by the builders but placed on the head of the corner, for the living stones are built up as on a foundation on the other stones of the Apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus Himself our Lord being the chief corner-stone, because He is a part of the building made of living stones in the land of the living; therefore He is called a stone.

36.265 Τελευταῖον πρὸ τοῦ λόγου ἦν λίθος ὁ Χριστός͵ ἀποδοκιμαζόμενος ὑπὸ τῶν οἰκοδόμων καὶ εἰς κεφαλὴν γωνίας κατατασσόμενος· ἐπεὶ γὰρ λίθοι ζῶντες οἰκοδο μοῦνται ἐπὶ θεμελίῳ ἑτέροις λίθοις τῶν ἀποστόλων καὶ προφητῶν͵ ὄντος ἀκρογωνιαίου αὐτοῦ Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν͵ διὰ τὸ εἶναι αὐτὸν μέρος τῆς ἐκ λίθων ζώντων ἐν χώρᾳ ζώντων οἰκοδομῆς λίθος προ σαγορεύεται.

All this we have said to show how capricious and baseless is the procedure of those who, when so many names are given to Christ, take the mere appellation the Word, without enquiring, as in the case of His other titles, in what sense it is used; surely they ought to ask what is meant when it is said of the Son of God that He was the Word, and God, and that He was in the beginning with the Father, and that all things were made by Him.

36.266 Ταῦτα δὲ ἡμῖν πάντα εἴρηται τὸ τῶν πολλῶν ἀποκλη ρωτικὸν καὶ ἀβασάνιστον ἐλέγξαι βουλομένοις͵ ὅτι τοσούτων ὀνομάτων εἰς αὐτὸν ἀναφερομένων ἵστανται ἐπὶ μόνης τῆς λόγος ὀνομασίας͵ οὐκ ἐξετάζοντες͵ τί δήποτε λόγος εἶναι θεὸς ἐν ἀρχῇ πρὸς τὸν πατέρα͵ δι΄ οὗ τὰ πάντα ἐγένετο͵ ἀναγέγραπται ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ.





 [42]. Of the Various Ways in Which Christ is the Logos.


37. As, then, from His activity in enlightening the world whose light He is, Christ is named the Light of the World, and as from His making those who sincerely attach themselves to Him put away their deadness and rise again and put on newness of life, He is called the Resurrection, so from an activity of another kind He is called Shepherd and Teacher, King and Chosen Shaft, and Servant, and in addition to these Paraclete and Atonement and Propitiation. And after the same fashion He is also called the Logos, because He takes away from us all that is irrational, and makes us truly reasonable, so that we do all things, even to eating and drinking, to the glory of God, and discharge by the Logos to the glory of God both the commoner functions of life and those which belong to a more advanced stage.

37.267 Ὥσπερ τοίνυν παρὰ τὴν ἐνέργειαν ἐκ τοῦ φωτίζειν τὸν κόσμον͵ οὗ φῶς ἐστι͵ φῶς κόσμου προσαγορεύεται͵ καὶ παρὰ τὸ ποιεῖν ἀποτίθεσθαι τὴν νεκρό τητα τοὺς γνησίως αὐτῷ προσιόντες καὶ ἀναλαμβάνειν καινότητα ζωῆς ἀνισταμένους ἀνάστασις καλεῖται͵ καὶ παρ΄ ἑτέραν πρᾶξιν ποιμὴν καὶ διδάσκαλος καὶ βασιλεύς͵ βέλος τε ἐκλεκτὸν καὶ δοῦλος͵ πρὸς τούτοις παράκλητος καὶ ἱλασμὸς καὶ ἱλαστήριον͵ οὕτως καὶ λόγος͵ καὶ πᾶν ἄλογον ἡμῶν περιαιρῶν καὶ κατὰ ἀλήθειαν λογικοὺς κατασκευάζων͵ πάντα εἰς δόξαν θεοῦ πράττοντας μέχρι τοῦ ἐσθίειν καὶ τοῦ πίνειν͵ εἰς δόξαν θεοῦ ἐπιτελοῦντας διὰ τὸν λόγον καὶ τὰ κοινότερα καὶ τὰ τελειότερα τοῦ βίου ἔργα.

For if, by having part in Him, we are raised up and enlightened, herded also it may be and ruled over, then it is clear that we become in a divine manner reasonable, when He drives away from us what in us is irrational and dead, since He is the Logos (reason) and the Resurrection.

37.268 Εἰ γὰρ μετέχοντες αὐτοῦ ἀνιστάμεθα καὶ φωτιζό μεθα͵ τάχα δὲ καὶ ποιμαινόμεθα ἢ βασιλευόμεθα͵ δῆλον ὅτι καὶ ἐνθέως λογικοὶ γινόμεθα͵ τὰ ἐν ἡμῖν ἄλογα καὶ τὴν νεκρότητα ἀφανίζοντος αὐτοῦ͵ καθ΄ ὃ λόγος ἐστὶ καὶ ἀνάστασις.

Consider, however, whether all men have in some way part in Him in His character as Logos. On this point the Apostle teaches us that He is to be sought not outside the seeker, and that those find Him in themselves who set their heart on doing so; Say not (Rom 10:6-8) in your heart, Who shall ascend into heaven? That is to bring Christ down; or, Who shall descend into the abyss? That is to bring Christ up from the dead. But what says the Scripture? The Word is very near you, in your mouth and in your heart, as if Christ Himself were the same thing as the Word said to be sought after.

37.269 Ἐπίστησον δὲ εἰ μετέχουσί πως αὐτοῦ πάντες ἄνθρωποι͵ καθ΄ ὃ λόγος ἐστί. Διόπερ ζητεῖσθαι οὐκ ἔξω τῶν ζητούντων ὑπὸ τῶν εὑρεῖν αὐτὸν προαιρουμένων διδάσκει ἡμᾶς ὁ ἀπόστολος͵ λέγων· Μὴ εἴπῃς ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ σου· Τίς ἀναβήσεται εἰς τὸν οὐρανόν; τοῦτ΄ ἔστι Χριστὸν καταγαγεῖν· ἤ· Τίς καταβήσεται εἰς τὴν ἄβυσσον; τοῦτ΄ ἔστι Χριστὸν ἐκ νεκρῶν ἀναγαγεῖν. Ἀλλὰ τί λέγει ἡ γραφή; Ἐγγύς σου τὸ ῥῆμά ἐστι σφόδρα ἐν τῷ στόματί σου καὶ ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ σου· ὡς τοῦ αὐτοῦ ὄντος Χριστοῦ καὶ ῥήματος τοῦ ζητουμένου.

But when the Lord Himself says If I had not come and spoken unto them, they had not had sin; but now they have no cloak for their sin, (Jn 15:22) the only sense we can find in His words is that the Logos Himself says that those are not chargeable with sin to whom He (reason) has not fully come, but that those, if they sin, are guilty who, having had part in Him, act contrary to the ideas by which He declares His full presence in us. Only when thus read is the saying true: If I had not come and spoken to them, they had not had sin.

37.270 Ἀλλὰ καὶ ὅτε αὐτός φησιν ὁ κύριος· Εἰ μὴ ἦλθον καὶ ἐλάλησα αὐτοῖς͵ ἁμαρτίαν οὐκ εἴχοσαν· νῦν δὲ πρόφασιν οὐκ ἔχουσιν περὶ τῆς ἁμαρτίας αὐτῶν͵ οὐκ ἄλλο νοητέον ἢ ὅτι ὁ λόγος φησίν͵ οἷς οὐδέπω συμπεπλήρωται μὴ εἶναι ἁμαρτίαν͵ τούτους δὲ ἐνόχους αὐτῆς τυγχάνειν͵ οἳ ἂν μετεσχη κότες ἤδη αὐτοῦ πράττωσι παρὰ τὰς ἐννοίας τὰς ἐξ ὧν οὗτος ἐν ἡμῖν συμπληροῦται͵ καὶ μόνως οὕτως ἀληθὲς τὸ Εἰ μὴ ἦλθον καὶ ἐλάλησα αὐτοῖς͵ ἁμαρτίαν οὐκ εἴχοσαν.

Should the words be applied, as many are of opinion that they should, to the visible Christ, then how is it true that those had no sin to whom He did not come? In that case all who lived before the advent of the Saviour will be free from sin, since Jesus, as seen in flesh, had not yet come.

37.271 Φέρε γὰρ ἐπὶ Ἰησοῦ τοῦ ὁρατοῦ͵ ὡς οἱ πολλοὶ οἰήσονται͵ τοῦτ΄ ἐξεταζέσθω· πῶς δὲ ἀληθὲς τὸ μὴ ἔχειν ἁμαρτίαν τούτους͵ οἷς οὐκ ἐλήλυθε; Πάντες γὰρ οἱ πρὸ τῆς ἐπιδημίας τοῦ σωτῆρος ἔσονται ἁμαρτίας πάσης ἀπολελυ μένοι͵ ἐπεὶ οὐκ ἐληλύθει ὁ βλεπόμενος κατὰ σάρκα Ἰησοῦς.

And more— all those to whom He has never been preached will have no sin, and if they have no sin, then it is clear they are not liable to judgment.

37.272 Ἀλλὰ καὶ πάντες͵ οἷς οὐδαμῶς ἀνηγγέλη περὶ αὐτοῦ͵ οὐχ ἕξουσιν ἁμαρτίαν͵ καὶ δῆλον ὅτι οἱ μὴ ἔχοντες ἁμαρτίαν κρίσει οὐχ ὑπόκεινται.

But the Logos in man, in which we have said that our whole race had part, is spoken of in two senses; first, in that of the filling up of ideas which takes place, prodigies excepted, in every one who passes beyond the age of boyhood, but secondly, in that of the consummation, which takes place only in the perfect.

37.273 Λόγος δὲ ὁ ἐν ἀνθρώποις͵ οὗ μετέχειν εἰρήκαμεν τὸ γένος ἡμῶν͵ διχῶς λέγεται͵ ἤτοι κατὰ τὴν συμπλήρωσιν τῶν ἐννοιῶν͵ ἥτις ἐν παντὶ τῷ ὑπερβεβηκότι τὸν παῖδα τυγχάνει͵ ὑπεξαιρουμένων τῶν τεράτων͵ ἢ κατὰ τὴν ἀκρότητα͵ ἥτις ἐν μόνοις τοῖς τελείοις εὑρίσκεται.

The words, therefore, If I had not come and spoken to them, they would not have had sin, but now they have no cloak for their sin, are to be understood in the former sense; but the words, All that ever came before me are thieves and robbers, and the sheep did not hear them, (Jn 10:8) in the latter.

37.274 Κατὰ μὲν οὖν τὸ πρό τερον τὸ Εἰ μὴ ἦλθον καὶ ἐλάλησα αὐτοῖς͵ ἁμαρτίαν οὐκ εἴχοσαν· νῦν δὲ πρόφασιν οὐκ ἔχουσιν περὶ τῆς ἁμαρτίας αὐτῶν τὰ ῥητὰ ἐκδεκτέον· κατὰ δὲ τὸ δεύτερον· Πάντες ὅσοι πρὸ ἐμοῦ ἦλθον͵ κλέπται εἰσὶ καὶ λῃσταί͵ καὶ οὐκ ἤκουσεν αὐτῶν τὰ πρόβατα.

For before the consummation of reason comes, there is nothing in man but what is blameworthy; all is imperfect and defective, and can by no means command the obedience of those irrational elements in us which are tropically spoken of as sheep. And perhaps the former meaning is to be recognized in the words The Logos was made flesh, but the second in The Logos was God.

37.275 Πρὸ γὰρ τῆς τελειώ σεως τοῦ λόγου πάντα ψεκτὰ τὰ ἐν ἀνθρώποις͵ ἅτε ἐνδεῆ καὶ ἐλλιπῆ͵ οἷς τελείως οὐχ ὑπακούει τὰ ἐν ἡμῖν ἄλογα͵ πρό βατα τροπικώτερον εἰρημένα. Καὶ τάχα κατὰ μὲν τὸ πρότε ρον ὁ λόγος σὰρξ ἐγένετο͵ κατὰ δὲ τὸ δεύτερον θεὸς ἦν ὁ λόγος.

We must accordingly look at what there is to be seen in human affairs between the saying, The Word (reason) was made flesh and The Word was God. When the Word was made flesh can we say that it was to some extent broken up and thinned out, and can we say that it recovered from that point onward till it became again what it was at first, God the Word, the Word with the Father; the Word whose glory John saw, the verily only-begotten, as from the Father.

37.276 Τούτῳ δ΄ ἀκόλουθόν ἐστι ζητεῖν εἴ τι ἔστι μεταξὺ τοῦ ὁ λόγος σὰρξ ἐγένετο καὶ θεὸς ἦν ὁ λόγος ἐν τοῖς ἀνθρωπίνοις ἰδεῖν͵ οἷον ἀναστοιχειουμένου τοῦ λόγου ἀπὸ τοῦ γεγονέναι αὐτὸν σάρκα καὶ κατὰ βραχὺ λεπτυνο μένου͵ ἕως γένηται͵ ὅπερ ἦν ἐν ἀρχῇ͵ θεὸς λόγος ὁ πρὸς τὸν πατέρα· οὗ λόγου τὴν δόξαν εἶδεν ὁ Ἰωάννης ἀληθῶς μονο γενοῦς ὡς ἀπὸ πατρός.

But the Son may also be the Logos (Word) , because He reports the secret things of His Father who is intellect in the same way as the Son who is called the Word. For as with us the word is a messenger of those things which the mind perceives, so the Word of God, knowing the Father, since no created being can approach Him without a guide, reveals the Father whom He knows.

38.277 Δύναται δὲ καὶ ὁ λόγος υἱὸς εἶναι παρὰ τὸ ἀπαγγέλλειν τὰ κρύφια τοῦ πατρὸς ἐκείνου͵ ἀνάλογον τῷ καλουμένῳ υἱῷ λόγῳ νοῦ τυγχάνοντος. Ὡς γὰρ ὁ παρ΄ ἡμῖν λόγος ἄγγελός ἐστι τῶν ὑπὸ τοῦ νοῦ ὁρωμένων͵ οὕτως ὁ τοῦ θεοῦ λόγος͵ ἐγνωκὼς τὸν πατέρα͵ οὐδενὸς τῶν γενητῶν προσβαλεῖν αὐτῷ χωρὶς ὁδηγοῦ δυναμένου͵ ἀποκαλύπτει ὃν ἔγνω πατέρα.

For no one knows the Father save the Son, (Mt 11:27) and he to whomsoever the Son reveals Him, and inasmuch as He is the Word He is the Messenger of Great Counsel, (Is 9:5-6) who has the government upon His shoulders; for He entered on His kingdom by enduring the cross. In the Apocalypse, moreover, the Faithful and True (the Word) , is said to sit on a white horse, the epithets indicating, I consider, the clearness of the voice with which the Word of truth speaks to us when He sojourns among us.

38.278 Οὐδεὶς γὰρ ἔγνω τὸν πατέρα͵ εἰ μὴ ὁ υἱὸς καὶ ᾧ ἂν ὁ υἱὸς ἀποκαλύψῃ· καὶ καθ΄ ὃ λόγος ἐστί͵ μεγάλης τυγχάνει βουλῆς ἄγγελος ὤν͵ οὗ ἐγενήθη ἡ ἀρχὴ ἐπὶ τοῦ ὤμου αὐτοῦ· ἐβασίλευσε γὰρ διὰ τοῦ πεπονθέναι τὸν σταυρόν. Ἐν δὲ τῇ Ἀποκαλύψει ἐπὶ λευκοῦ ἵππου καθέζεσθαι λέγεται λόγος πιστὸς καὶ ἀληθινός͵ ὡς οἶμαι͵ παριστὰς τὸ σαφὲς τῆς φωνῆς͵ ὃ ἠχεῖται ὁ ἡμῖν ἐπιδημῶν ἀληθείας λόγος.

This is scarcely the place to show how the word horse is often used in passages spoken for our encouragement in sacred learning. I only cite two of these: A horse is deceitful for safety, and Some trust in chariots and some in horses, but we will rejoice in the name of the Lord our God.

38.279 Οὐ τοῦ παρόντος δὲ καιροῦ δεῖξαι͵ ὅτι ἐπὶ τῆς φωνῆς πολλαχοῦ τῆς γραφῆς͵ ἐν ᾗ ἐστι τὰ προκείμενα͵ δι΄ ὧν ὠφε λούμεθα θείων μαθημάτων ἀκροώμενοι͵ κεῖται ἡ ἵππος προσηγορία. Μόνον δὲ ἑνὸς καὶ δευτέρου ὑπομνηστέον͵ τοῦ Ψευδὴς ἵππος εἰς σωτηρίαν καὶ Οὗτοι ἐν ἅρμασι καὶ οὗτοι ἐν ἵπποις͵ ἡμεῖς δὲ ἐν ὀνόματι κυρίου θεοῦ ἡμῶν μεγαλυνθησόμεθα.

Nor must we leave unnoticed a passage in the forty-fourth Psalm, frequently quoted by many writers as if they understood it: My heart has belched forth a good word, I speak my works to the King. Suppose it is God the Father who speaks thus;

38.280 Τὸ δὲ Ἐξηρεύξατο ἡ καρδία μου λόγον ἀγαθόν͵ λέγω ἐγὼ τὰ ἔργα μου τῷ βασιλεῖ ἐν τεσσαρακοστῷ τετάρτῳ ψαλμῷ ἀναγεγραμμένον͵ συνεχέστατα ὑπὸ τῶν πολλῶν φερόμενον ὡς νενοημένον͵ ἡμῖν οὐκ ἀβασάνιστον ἐατέον. Ἔστω γὰρ τὸν πατέρα ταῦτα λέγειν.

what is His heart, that the good word should appear in accordance with His heart? If, as these writers suppose, the Word (Logos) needs no interpretation, then the heart is to be taken in the natural sense too. But it is quite absurd to suppose God’s heart to be a part of Him as ours is of our body.

38.281 Τίς οὖν ἡ καρδία αὐτοῦ͵ ἵνα ἀκολούθως τῇ καρδίᾳ ὁ ἀγαθὸς λόγος φανῇ; Εἰ γὰρ ὁ λόγος οὐ δεῖται διηγήσεως͵ ὡς ἐκεῖνοι ὑπολαμβάνουσι͵ δῆλον ὅτι οὐδ΄ ἡ καρδία· ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀτοπώτατον͵ νομίζειν τὴν καρδίαν ὁμοίως τῇ ἐν τῷ ἡμετέρῳ σώματι εἶναι μέρος τοῦ θεοῦ.

We must remind such writers that as when the hand of God is spoken of, and His arm and His finger, we do not read the words literally but enquire in what sound sense we may take them so as to be worthy of God, so His heart is to be understood of His rational power, by which He disposes all things, and His word of that which announces what is in this heart of His.

38.282 Ἀλλ΄ ὑπομνη στέον αὐτοὺς ὅτι ὥσπερ χεὶρ καὶ βραχίων καὶ δάκτυλος ὀνο μάζεται θεοῦ͵ οὐκ ἐρειδόντων ἡμῶν τὴν διάνοιαν εἰς ψιλὴν τὴν λέξιν͵ ἀλλ΄ ἐξεταζόντων πῶς ταῦτα ὑγιῶς ἐκλαμβάνειν καὶ ἀξίως θεοῦ δεῖ͵ οὕτως καὶ τὴν καρδίαν τοῦ θεοῦ τὴν νοητικὴν αὐτοῦ καὶ προθετικὴν περὶ τῶν ὅλων δύναμιν ἐκληπτέον͵ τὸν δὲ Λόγον τῶν ἐν ἐκείνῃ τὸ ἀπαγγελτικόν.

But who is it that announces the counsel of the Father to those of His creatures who are worthy and who have risen above themselves, who but the Saviour? That belched [[or poured]] forth is not, perhaps, without significance; a hundred other terms might have been employed; My heart has produced a good word, it might have been said, or My heart has spoken a good word. But in belching, some wind that was hidden makes its way out to the world, and so it may be that the Father gives out views of truth not continuously, but as it were after the fashion of belching, and the word has the character of the things thus produced, and is called, therefore, the image of the invisible God. We may enter our agreement, therefore, with the ordinary acceptation of these words, and take them to be spoken by the Father.

38.283 Τίς δὲ ἀπαγγέλλει τὴν βουλὴν τοῦ πατρὸς τοῖς τῶν γενητῶν ἀξίοις καὶ παρ΄ αὐτοὺς γεγενημένος ἢ ὁ σωτήρ; Τάχα δὲ καὶ οὐ μάτην τὸ ἐξηρεύξατο· μυρία γὰρ ἕτερα ἐδύνατο λέγεσθαι ἀντὶ τοῦ ἐξηρεύξατο· προ έβαλεν ἡ καρδία μου λόγον ἀγαθόν͵ ἐλάλησεν ἡ καρδία μου λόγον ἀγαθόν· ἀλλὰ μήποτε ὥσπερ πνεύματός τινος ἀποκρύπτου εἰς φανερὸν πρόοδός ἐστιν ἡ ἐρυγὴ τοῦ ἐρευγο μένου͵ οἱονεὶ διὰ τούτου ἀναπνέοντος͵ οὕτω τὰ τῆς ἀληθείας θεωρήματα οὐ συνέχων ὁ πατὴρ ἐρεύγεται καὶ ποιεῖ τὸν τύπον αὐτῶν ἐν τῷ λόγῳ͵ καὶ διὰ τοῦτο εἰκόνι καλουμένῳ τοῦ ἀοράτου θεοῦ. Καὶ ταῦτα μέν͵ ἵνα συμπεριφερόμενοι τῇ τῶν πολλῶν ἐκδοχῇ παραδεξώμεθα ἀπὸ τοῦ πατρὸς λέγεσθαι τὸ Ἐξηρεύξατο ἡ καρδία μου λόγον ἀγαθόν.

It is not, however, a matter of course, that it is God Himself who announces these things. Why should it not be a prophet? Filled with the Spirit and unable to contain himself, he brings forth a word about his prophecy concerning Christ: My heart has belched forth a good word, I speak my works to the King, my pen is the tongue of a ready writer. Excellent in beauty is He beyond the sons of men. Then to the Christ Himself: Grace is poured out on Your lips. (Ps. 44)

39.284 Οὐ πάντη δὲ αὐτοῖς παραχωρητέον ὡς ὁμολογουμένως ταῦτα ἀπαγγέλλοντος τοῦ θεοῦ. Διὰ τί γὰρ οὐχὶ ὁ προφήτης ἔσται λέγων͵ πληρωθεὶς τοῦ πνεύματος καὶ προφερόμενος λόγον ἀγαθὸν περὶ προφητείας τῆς περὶ Χριστοῦ͵ συνέχειν αὐτὸν οὐ δυνάμενος͵ τὸ Ἐξηρεύξατο ἡ καρδία μου λόγον ἀγαθόν͵ λέγω ἐγὼ τὰ ἔργα μου τῷ βασι λεῖ· ἡ γλῶσσά μου κάλαμος γραμματέως ὀξυγράφου· ὡραῖος κάλλει παρὰ τοὺς υἱοὺς τῶν ἀνθρώπων· εἶτα πρὸς αὐτὸν τὸν Χριστόν· Ἐξεχύθη ἡ χάρις ἐν χείλεσί σου;

If the Father were the speaker, how could He go on after the words, Grace is poured out on your lips, to say, Therefore God has blessed you for ever, and a little further on, Therefore God, your God, has anointed you with the oil of gladness above your fellows.

39.285 Πῶς γάρ͵ εἰ ὁ πατὴρ ταῦτ΄ ἔλεγεν͵ ἐπεφέρετο τῷ Ἐξεχύθη ἡ χάρις ἐν χείλεσί σου τὸ Διὰ τοῦτο εὐλόγησέ σε ὁ θεὸς εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα καὶ μετ΄ ὀλίγα Διὰ τοῦτο ἔχρισέ σε ὁ θεός͵ ὁ θεός σου͵ ἔλαιον ἀγαλλιάσεως παρὰ τοὺς μετόχους σου;

Some of those who wish to make the Father the speaker may appeal to the words, Hear, O daughter, and behold and incline your ear, and forget your people and your father. The prophet, it may be said, could not address the Church in the words, Hear, O daughter.

39.286 Ἀνθυπενέγκοι δέ τις βουλόμενος ἐκ τοῦ πατρὸς τὰ ἐν τῷ ψαλμῷ ἀπαγγέλλεσθαι τὸ Ἄκουσον͵ θύγατερ͵ καὶ ἴδε καὶ κλίνον τὸ οὖς σου͵ καὶ ἐπιλάθου τοῦ λαοῦ σου καὶ τοῦ οἴκου τοῦ πατρός σου· οὐ γὰρ ὁ προφήτης πρὸς τὴν ἐκκλησίαν ἐρεῖ τὸ Ἄκουσον͵ θύγατερ.

It is not difficult, however, to show that changes of person occur frequently in the Psalms, so that these words, Hear, O daughter, might be from the Father, in this passage, though the Psalm as a whole is not.

39.287 Οὐ χαλεπὸν δὲ δεῖξαι καὶ ἀπὸ ἑτέρων ψαλμῶν͵ ὅτι προσώπων γίνονται ἐπὶ πλεῖον ἐναλλαγαί͵ ὥστε καὶ ἐνθάδε δύνασθαι ἀπὸ τοῦ Ἄκουσον͵ θύγατερ τὸν πατέρα λέγειν.

To our discussion of the Word we may here add the passage, By the word of the Lord were the heavens founded, and all the power of them by the breath of His mouth. Some refer this to the Saviour and the Holy Spirit. The passage, however, does not necessarily imply any more than that the heavens were founded by the reason (logos) of God, as when we say that a house is built by the plan (logos) of the architect, or a ship by the plan (logos) of the shipbuilder. In the same way the heavens were founded (made solid) by the Word of God, for they are of a more divine substance, which on this account is called solid; it has little fluidity for the most part, nor is it easily melted like other parts of the world, and specially the lower parts. On account of this difference the heavens are said in a special manner to be constituted by the Word of God.

39.288 Παραθετέον δὴ εἰς τὴν περὶ τοῦ λόγου ἐξέτασιν καὶ τὸ Τῷ λόγῳ τοῦ κυρίου οἱ οὐρανοὶ ἐστερεώθησαν͵ καὶ τῷ πνεύματι αὐτοῦ πᾶσα ἡ δύναμις αὐτῶν· ἅπερ τινὲς ἡγοῦνται ἐπὶ τοῦ σωτῆρος καὶ τοῦ ἁγίου τάσσεσθαι πνεύματος͵ δυνά μενα δηλοῦν τὸ λόγῳ θεοῦ τοὺς οὐρανοὺς ἐστερεῶσθαι͵ ὡς εἰ λέγοιμεν λόγῳ ἀρχιτεκτονικῷ τὴν οἰκίαν καὶ λόγῳ ναυ πηγικῷ τὴν ναῦν γεγονέναι͵ οὕτως οὖν λόγῳ θεοῦ τοὺς οὐρανούς͵ θειοτέρου τυγχάνοντας σώματος καὶ διὰ τοῦτο καλουμένου στερεοῦ͵ οὐκ ἔχοντος τὸ ἐπιπολὺ ῥευστὸν καὶ εὐδιάλυτον τῶν λοιπῶν καὶ κατωτέρω͵ ἐστερεῶσθαι καὶ διὰ τὸ διάφορον ἐσχηκέναι ἐξαιρέτως τῷ θείῳ λόγῳ.

The saying then stands, first, In the beginning was the Logos; we are to place that full in our view; but the testimonies we cited from the Proverbs led us to place wisdom first, and to think of wisdom as preceding the Word which announces her. We must observe, then, that the Logos is in the beginning, that is, in wisdom, always. Its being in wisdom, which is called the beginning, does not prevent it from being with God and from being God, and it is not simply with God, but is in the beginning, in wisdom, with God.

39.289 Ἐπεὶ οὖν πρόκειται τὸ Ἐν ἀρχῇ ἦν ὁ λόγος σαφῶς ἰδεῖν͵ ἀρχὴ δὲ μετὰ μαρτυριῶν τῶν ἐκ τῶν παροιμιῶν ἀποδέδοται εἰρῆσθαι ἡ σοφία͵ καὶ ἔστι προεπι νοουμένη ἡ σοφία τοῦ αὐτὴν ἀπαγγέλλοντος λόγου͵ νοητέον τὸν λόγον ἐν τῇ ἀρχῇ͵ τοῦτ΄ ἔστι τῇ σοφίᾳ͵ ἀεὶ εἶναι· ὄντα δὲ ἐν τῇ σοφίᾳ͵ καλουμένῃ ἀρχῇ͵ μὴ κωλύεσθαι εἶναι πρὸς τὸν θεόν͵ καὶ αὐτὸν θεὸν τυγχάνοντα͵ καὶ οὐ γυμνῶς εἶναι αὐτὸν πρὸς τὸν θεόν͵ ἀλλὰ ὄντα ἐν τῇ ἀρχῇ͵ τῇ σοφίᾳ͵ εἶναι πρὸς τὸν θεόν.

For he goes on: He was in the beginning with God. He might have said, He was with God; but as He was in the beginning, so He was with God in the beginning, and All things were made by Him, being in the beginning, for God made all things, as David tells us, in wisdom.

39.290 Ἐπιφέρει γοῦν καί φησιν· Οὗτος ἦν ἐν ἀρχῇ πρὸς τὸν θεόν· ἐδύνατο γὰρ εἰρηκέναι· Οὗτος ἦν πρὸς τὸν θεόν· ἀλλ΄ ὥσπερ ἦν ἐν ἀρχῇ͵ οὕτως καὶ πρὸς τὸν θεὸν ἐν ἀρχῇ ἦν. Καὶ πάντα δι΄ αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο ὄντος ἐν τῇ ἀρχῇ· πάντα γὰρ ἐν σοφίᾳ ὁ θεὸς κατὰ τὸν Δαβὶδ ἐποίησε.

And to let us understand that the Word has His own definite place and sphere as one who has life in Himself (and is a distinct person) , we must also speak about powers, not about power. Thus says the Lord of powers, (A.V. hosts) we frequently read; there are certain creatures, rational and divine, which are called powers: and of these Christ was the highest and best, and is called not only the wisdom of God but also His power.

39.291 Καὶ ἔτι εἰς τὸ παραδέξασθαι τὸν λόγον ἰδίαν περιγρα φὴν ἔχοντα͵ οἷον τυγχάνοντα ζῆν καθ΄ ἑαυτόν͵ λεκτέον καὶ περὶ δυνάμεων͵ οὐ μόνον δυνάμεως· Τάδε γὰρ λέγει κύριος τῶν δυνάμεων πολλαχοῦ κεῖται͵ λογικῶν τινων θείων ζῴων δυνάμεων ὀνομαζομένων͵ ὧν ἡ ἀνωτέρω καὶ κρείττων Χριστὸς ἦν͵ οὐ μόνον σοφία θεοῦ ἀλλὰ καὶ δύναμις προσαγο ρευόμενος.

As, then, there are several powers of God, each of them in its own form, and the Saviour is different from these, so also Christ, even if that which is Logos in us is not in respect of form outside of us, will be understood from our discussion up to this point to be the Logos, who has His being in the beginning, in wisdom. This for the present may suffice, on the word: In the beginning was the Logos.

39.292 Ὥσπερ οὖν δυνάμεις θεοῦ πλείονές εἰσιν͵ ὧν ἑκάστη κατὰ περιγραφήν͵ ὧν διαφέρει ὁ σωτήρ͵ οὕτως καὶ λόγοςεἰ καὶ ὁ παρ΄ ἡμῖν οὐκ ἔστι κατὰ περιγραφὴν ἐκτὸς ἡμῶννοηθήσεται ὁ Χριστὸς διὰ τὰ προεξητασμένα͵ ἐν ἀρχῇ͵ τῇ σοφίᾳ͵ τὴν ὑπόστασιν ἔχων. Ταῦτα ἡμῖν ἐπὶ τοῦ παρόντος ἀρκέσει εἰς τὸ Ἐν ἀρχῇ ἦν ὁ λόγος.










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