Cassian, CONFERENCE 19:
 Conference of Abba John
on the
AIM of the COENOBITE AND HERMIT
  COLLATIO XIX, CONLATIO abbatis Joannis.
DE FINE COENOBITAE ET EREMITAE

 

 Benedict as Hermit, 1575


(tr. adapted. by L.Dysinger, O.S.B: based on  E.C.S. Gibson, , NPNF 2nd ser. , vol 11, pp. 435-445)


 

 

CHAPTER 1.
Of the coenobium of Abbot Paul and the patience of a certain brother.
CAPUT PRIMUM.
De coenobio abbatis Pauli, et patientia cujusdam fratris.

 

 

AFTER only a few days we made our way once more with great alacrity, drawn by the desire for further instruction, to the coenobium of Abbot Paul, where though a greater number than two hundred of the brethren dwell there, yet, in honour of the festival which was then being held, an enormous collection of monks from other coenobia had come there as well: for the anniversary of the death of a former Abbot who had presided over the same monastery was being solemnly kept. And we have mentioned this assembly for this reason that we may briefly treat of the patience of a certain brother, which was remarkable for immovable gentleness on his part in the presence of all this congregation.

I.  Post dies admodum paucos maioris doctrinae desiderio pertrahente rursus ad abbatis Pauli coenobium summa alacritate perreximus. Vbi licet plus quam ducentorum fratrum numerus moraretur, in honorem tamen sollemnitatis, quae idem temporis agebatur, infinita de aliis quoque coenobiis monachorum turba confluxerat : nam prioris abbatis qui eidem coenobio praefuerat anniuersaria depositio sollemniter curabatur. Cuius conuentus idcirco fecimus mentionem, ut patientiam cuiusdam fratris, quae sub praesentia totius congregationis huius inmobili eius claruit lenitate, breuiter perstringamus.

For though the object of this work has regard to another person; viz., that we may produce the utterances of Abbot John who left the desert and submitted himself to that coenobium with the utmost goodness and humility, yet we think it not at all absurd to relate without any unnecessary verbiage, what we think is most instructive to those who are eager for goodness. And so when the whole body of the monks was seated in separate parties of twelve, in the large open court, when one of the brethren had been rather slow in fetching and bringing in a dish, the aforesaid Abbot Paul, who was busily hurrying about among the troops of brethren who were serving, saw it and struck him such a blow before them all on his open palm that the sound of the hand which was struck actually reached the ears of those whose backs were turned and who were sitting some way off.

2. Nam licet alio operis huius tendat intentio, ut scilicet abbatis Iohannis, qui derelicta heremo illi se coenobio summa humilitatis uirtute subdiderat, proferamus eloquia, nequaquam tamen putamus absurdum, si absque ulla circuitione uerborum magna ut credimus studiosis quibusque uirtutum aedificatio conferatur. In ingenti itaque atrio subdiuali illa monachorum multitudine per duodenarium numerum distinctis orbibus considente cum quidam fratrum susceptum ferculum paulo tardius intulisset, uidens hoc praedictus abba Paulus, qui inter turbas ministrantium fratrum sollicite discurrebat, exerta manu alapa eum sub omnium percussit intuitu, ita ut inlisae sonitus palmae etiam auersorum uel longius considentium auribus resultaret.

But the youth of remarkable patience received it with such calmness of mind that not only did he let no word fall from his mouth or give the slightest sign of murmuring by the silent movements of his lips, but actually did not change colour in the slightest degree or (lose) the modest and peaceful look about his mouth. And this fact struck with astonishment not merely us, who had lately come from a monastery of Syria and had not learnt the blessing of this patience by such clear examples, but all those as well who were not without experience of such earnestness, so that by it a great lesson was taught even to those who were well advanced, because even if this paternal correction had not disturbed his patience, neither did the presence of so great a number bring the slightest sign of colour to his cheeks.

3. Sed id memorabilis patientiae iuuenis tanta animi lenitate suscepit, ut non modo nullus fuerit ex ore eius sermo prolapsus uel tenuissimum murmur tacita labiorum agitatione signatum, sed ne ipsa quidem oris modestia ac tranquillitas aut color saltim quantulumcumque mutatus. Quod factum non solum nobis, qui nuper de Syriae monasterio uenientes patientiae huius uirtutem non tam euidentibus perceperamus exemplis, sed etiam cunctis qui expertes talium non erant studiorum ita mirum fuit, ut etiam summis uiris praecipua per hoc factum inferretur instructio, quod scilicet, etiamsi patientiam eius correptio paterna non mouerat, nec spectaculum quidem tantae multitudinis ullo uultum ipsius ruboris tinxisset indicio.

 

 

CHAPTER 2.
Of Abbot Johns humility and our question.
CAPUT II.
De humilitate abbatis Joannis.

 

 

IN this coenobium then we found a very old man named John, whose words and humility we think ought certainly not to be passed over in silence as in them he excelled all the saints, as we know that he was especially vigorous in this perfection, which though it is the mother of all virtues and the surest foundation of the whole spiritual superstructure, yet is altogether a stranger to our system.

II.  In hoc itaque coenobio repperimus antiquissimum senem nomine Iohannem, cuius uerba pariter et humilitatem qua sanctis omnibus praeminebat nequaquam silentio praetereunda censuimus, scientes eum hac maxime perfectione uiguisse, quae cum sit uirtutum omnium mater ac totius spiritalis structurae solidissimum fundamentum, a nostris penitus exulat institutis.

Wherefore it is no wonder that we cannot attain to the height of those men, as we cannot stand the training of the coenobium I will not say up to old age, but are scarcely content to endure the yoke of subjection for a couple of years, and at once escape to enjoy a dangerous liberty, while even for that short time we seem to be subject to the rule of the Elder not according to any strict rule, but as our free will directs.

2. Unde non mirum est nec ad illorum sublimitatem nos posse conscendere, qui non dicam usque ad senectam in coenobii permanere non possumus disciplina, sed uix biennio subiectionis iugum sustinere contenti ad praesumptionem noxia libertatis protinus euolamus, cum tamen illo ipso paruo tempore non secundum illam districtionis regulam, sed pro nostri arbitrii libertate utcumque senioris subici uideamur imperio.

When then we had seen this old man in Abbot Pauls coenobium, we were struck, first by his age and the grace with which the man was endowed, and with looks fixed on the ground began to entreat him to vouchsafe to explain to us why he had forsaken the freedom of the desert and that exalted profession, in which his fame and celebrity had raised him above others who had adopted the same life, and why he had chosen to enter under the yoke of the coenobium.

3. Hunc igitur senem cum in praedicti abbatis Pauli coenobio uidissemus, aetatem primum et gratiam uiri qua erat praeditus admirati demisso in terram uultu coepimus deprecari, ut nobis pandere dignaretur, quam ob causam relicta heremi libertate et illa professione sublimi, qua eum prae ceteris eiusdem uitae uiris fama celeberrima conmendabat, sub coenobii iugum maluisset intrare.

He said that as he was unequal to the system of the anchorites and unworthy of the heights of such perfection, he had gone back to the infant school, that he might learn to carry out the lessons taught there, according as the life demanded. And when our entreaties were not satisfied and we refused to take this humble answer, at last he began as follows.

4. Ille uelut inparem se anachoreticae disciplinae et summitate tantae perfectionis indignum ad iuniorum scolas reuertisse dicebat, si tamen uel ipsorum instituta secundum professionis meritum posset inplere. Cuius responsionis humilitatem cum refragatio nostrae deprecationis excluderet, ad extremum ita exorsus est.

 

 

CHAPTER 3.
Abbot Johns answer why he had left the desert.
CAPUT III.
Responsio abbatis Joannis cur eremum reliquisset.

 

 

THE system of the anchorites, which you are surprised at my leaving, I not only neither reject nor refuse, but rather embrace and regard with the utmost veneration: in which system, and after I had passed thirty years living in a coenobium, I rejoice that I have also spent twenty more, so that I can never be accused of sloth among those who tried it in a half-hearted way.

III.  Anachoreticam disciplinam, quam me deseruisse miramini, non solum non respuo nec refuto, sed tota potius ueneratione conplector atque suscipio : in qua post triginta annos, quos in coenobii commoratione transegeram, ita alios uiginti explesse me gaudeo, ut inter illos qui eam uel mediocriter adpetebant non usque quaque segnitiae denotarer.

But because its purity, of which I had had some slight experience, was sometimes soiled by the presence of anxiety about carnal matters, it seemed better to return to the coenobium to secure a readier attainment of an easier aim undertaken, and less danger from venturing on the higher life of the humble solitary. For it is better to seem earnest with smaller promises than careless in larger ones. And therefore if possibly I bring forward anything somewhat arrogantly and indeed somewhat too freely, I beg that you will not think it due to the sin of boasting but rather to my desire for your edification; and that, as I think that, when you ask so earnestly, nothing of the truth should be kept back from you, you will set it down to love rather than to boasting.

2. Sed quia degustata eius puritas sollicitudine interdum carnalium rerum interpolata sordebat, recurrere ad coenobium commodius uisum est, ut et promptior adrepti propositi planioris consummatio consequeretur et minus de praesumptae sublimioris professionis humilitate periculum. Melius enim est deuotum in minoribus quam indeuotum in maioribus promissionibus inueniri. Et idcirco si quid elatius, immo liberius fortasse protulero, quaeso ut non iactantiae uitio, sed aedificationis uestrae depromptum studio censeatis, et quia uobis tam studiose quaerentibus nihil de ueritate existimo subtrahendum, caritati potius quam iactantiae deputetis.

For I think that some instruction may be given to you if I lay aside my humility, and simply lay bare the whole truth about my aim. For I trust that I shall not incur any reproach of vainglory from you because of the freedom of my words, nor any charge of falsehood from my conscience because of any suppression of the truth.

3. Arbitror enim instructionis uobis aliquid posse conferri, si paulisper humilitate seposita simpliciter omnem propositi mei patefecero ueritatem. Confidio enim, quia nec apud uos de libertate dictorum cenodoxiae notam neque apud conscientiam meam de suppressione ueritatis quoddam mendacii crimen incurram.

 

 

CHAPTER 4.
Of the excellence which the aforesaid old man showed in the system of the anchorites.
CAPUT IV.
De virtute praedicti senis, quam in anachoretica exercuit disciplina.

 

 

IF then anyone else delights in the recesses of the desert and would forget all human intercourse and say with Jeremiah: I have not desired the day of man: Thou knowest, (Jer. 17:16) I confess that by the blessing of Gods grace, I also secured or at any rate tried to secure this. And so by the kind gift of the Lord I remember that I was often caught up into such an ecstasy as to forget that I was clothed with the burden of a weak body, and my soul on a sudden forgot all external notions and entirely cut itself off from all material objects, so that neither my eyes nor ears performed their proper functions. And my soul was so filled with divine meditations and spiritual contemplations that often in the evening I did not know whether I had taken any food and on the next day was very doubtful whether I had broken my fast yesterday.

IIII.  Si quis igitur alius secretis heremi delectatus obliuioni tradere potuit humana consortia ac secundum Hieremiam dicere : Et diem hominis non desideraui , tu scis, ego quoque id domino sua gratia largiente uel adsecutum uel certe adsequi adnisum fuisse me fateor. Itaque pio domini nostri munere memini me in huiusmodi raptum frequenter excessum, ut obliuiscerer me sarcina corporeae fragilitatis indutum, mentemque meam ita omnes exteriores sensus subito respuisse et a cunctis materialibus rebus omnimodis exulasse, ut neque oculi neque aures meae proprio fungerentur officio. Et ita diuinis meditationibus ac spiritalibus theoriis animus replebatur, ut saepe ad uesperam cibum me percepisse nescirem ac sequenti die de hesterna absolutione ieiunii penitus dubitarem.

For which reason, a supply of food for seven days, i.e., seven sets of biscuits were set apart in a sort of hand-basket, and laid by on Saturday, that there might be no doubt when supper had been omitted; and by this plan another mistake also from forgetfulness was obviated, for when the number of cakes was finished it showed that the course of the week was over, and that the services of the same day had come round, and that the festival and holy day and services of the congregation could not escape the notice of the solitary. But even if that ecstasy of mind of which we have spoken should happen to interfere with this arrangement, yet still the method of the days work would show the number of the days and check the mistake.

2. Ob quam etiam causam septem dierum cibus, hoc est septem paxamatiorum paria sequestrata in prochirio id est admanuensi sporta die sabati reponuntur, ut refectio praetermissa non lateat. Qua consuetudine illius quoque obliuionis error excluditur, ut expletum ebdomadae cursum ac sollemnitatem diei ipsius reuolutam finitus panum indicet numerus, festiuitasque diei sacrae et congregationis sollemnitas solitarium latere non possit. Quodsi etiam hunc ordinem ille quem praediximus mentis excessus forte turbauerit, nihilominus cotidiani operis modus dierum numerum signans arcet errorem.

And to pass over in silence the other advantages of the desert (for it is not our business to treat of their number and quantity, but rather of the aim of solitude and the coenobium) I will the rather briefly explain the reasons why I preferred to leave it, which you also wanted to know, and will in a concise discourse glance at all those fruits of solitude which I mentioned, and show to what greater advantages on the other side they ought to be held inferior.

3. Et ut ceteras heremi uirtutes silentio praetermittam (non enim est nobis de earum numerositate ac multitudine, sed de solitudinis atque coenobii fine tractandum), causas potius ob quas illam deserere maluerim, quas etiam uos agnoscere uoluistis, breuiter explicabo, omnesque illos quos conmemoraui solitudinis fructus quibus e diuerso sublimioribus meritis duxerim postponendos, breui oratione perstringam.

 

 

CHAPTER 5.
Of the advantages of the desert.
CAPUT V.
De commodis eremi.

 

 

SO long then as owing to the fewness of those who were then living in the desert, a greater freedom was afforded to us in a wider expanse of the wilderness, so long as in the seclusion of larger retreats we were caught up to those celestial ecstasies, and were not overwhelmed by a great quantity of brethren to visit us, and thus owing to the necessity of showing hospitality overburdened in our thoughts by the distractions of great cares, I frequented with insatiable desire and all my heart the peaceful retreats of the desert and that life which can only be compared to the bliss of the angels.

V. Quamdiu igitur raritate eorum, qui in heremo tunc temporis morabantur, libertas largior nobis diffusiore solitudinis uastitate blandita est, quamdiu maioribus remoti secretis frequentissime ad caelestes illos rapiebamur excessus, nec tanta uisitantium fratrum inruens multitudo parandae hummanitatis necessitate sensus nostros ingentium curarum distentionibus adgrauabat, solitudinis plane tranquilla secreta et illam conuersationem angelicae beatitudini conparandam insatiabili desiderio ac toto animi ardore sectatus sum.

But when, as I said, a larger number of the brethren began to seek a dwelling in that desert, and by cramping the freedom of the vast wilderness, not only caused that fire of divine contemplation to grow cold, but also entangled the mind in many ways in the chains of carnal matters, I determined to carry out my purpose in this system rather than to grow cold in that sublime mode of life, by providing for carnal wants; so that, if that liberty and those spiritual ecstasies are denied me, yet as all care for the morrow is avoided, I may console myself by fulfilling the precept of the gospel, and what I lose in sublimity of contemplation, may be made up to me by submission and obedience. For it is a wretched thing for a man to profess to learn any art or pursuit, and never to arrive at perfection in it.

2. Sed cum maior ut dixi numerus fratrum habitationem illius solitudinis coepisset expetere et coangustata uastioris heremi libertate non modo ignem illum diuinae contemplationis frigere fecisset, sed etiam multimodis mentem carnalium rerum uinculis conpediret, elegi huius disciplinae utcumque inplere propositum quam in illa tam sublimi professione carnalium necessitatum prouisione torpere, ut, si mihi illa libertas ac spiritales denegantur excessus, abiecta tamen crastinae diei penitus sollicitudine euangelici  me praecepti consummatio consoletur, et id, quod mihi de illa theoretica sublimitate subtrahitur, hac oboedientiae subiectione pensetur. Miserum namque est cuiuslibet artis ac studii disciplinam quempiam profiteri et ad perfectionem eius minime peruenire.

 

 

CHAPTER 6.
Of the conveniences of the coenobium.
CAPUT VI.
De utilitate coenobii.

 

 

WHEREFORE I will briefly explain what advantages I now enjoy in this manner of life. You must consider my words and judge whether those advantages of the desert outweigh these comforts, and by this you will also be able to prove whether I chose to be cramped within the narrow limits of the coenobium from dislike or from desire of that purity of the solitary life. In this life then there is no providing for the days work, no distractions of buying and selling, no unavoidable care for the years food, no anxiety about bodily things, by which one has to get ready what is necessary not only for ones own wants but also for those of any number of visitors, finally no conceit from the praise of men, which is worse than all these things and sometimes in the sight of God does away with the good of even great efforts in the desert.

VI. Quamobrem quantis nunc in hac conuersatione perfruar commodis, breuiter explicabo. Vos utrum illa solitudinis lucra his beneficiis ualeant conpensari digesta narratione perpendite, per quam etiam hoc probare possibile est, utrum fastidio an desiderio solitariae illius puritatis his maluerim coenobii angustiis coartari. In hac igitur conuersatione diurni operis nulla prouisio, uenditionis uel coemptionis nulla distentio, non annui panis ineuitablis cura, non sollicitudo corporalium rerum, qua non tantum propriis, sed etiam multorum aduenientium usibus necessaria praeparantur, postremo nulla adrogantia laudis humanae, quae inmundior his omnibus in conspectu dei etiam magnos heremi labores nonnumquam euacuare consueuit.

But, to pass over those waves of spiritual pride and the deadly peril of vainglory in the life of the anchorite, let us return to this general burden which affects everybody, i.e., the ordinary anxiety in providing food, which has so far exceeded I say not the measure of that ancient strictness which altogether did without oil, but is beginning not to be content even with the relaxation of our own time according to which the requirements of all the supply of food for a year were satisfied by the preparation of a single pint of oil and a modius of lentils prepared for the use of visitors; but now the needful supply of food is scarcely met by two or three times that amount.

2. Verum ut in illa anachoretica disciplina illos elationum spiritalium fluctus et exitiabilis cenodoxiae pericla praeteream, ad hoc generale cunctorum pondus, id est communem parandi uictus sollicitudinem reuertamur, quae eo usque mensuram non dico illius antiquae districtionis excessit, quae usum penitus olei nesciebat, sed ne hac quidem nostri temporis remissione coepit esse contenta, in qua uno olei sextario itidemque lenticulae modio aduenientium usibus praeparato totius refectionis annuae explebantur officia, ita ut duplicato nunc et triplicato modo necessitas uictualis uix queat expediri.

And to such an extent has the force of this dangerous relaxation grown among some that, when they mix vinegar and sauce, they do not add that single drop of oil, which our predecessors who followed the rules of the desert with greater powers of abstinence, were accustomed to pour in simply for the sake of avoiding vainglory, (Cf. Conference VIII) but they break an Egyptian cheese for luxury and pour over it more oil than is required, and so take, under a single pleasant relish, two sorts of food which differ in their special flavour, each of which ought singly to be a pleasant refreshment at different times for a monk.

3. Et in tantum apud nonnullos uis noxiae huius remissionis increuit, ut aceto muriaeque permixtis non illam unam olei admisceant guttam, quam praecessores nostri, qui heremi instituta maiore abstinentia uirtute sectati sunt, repellendae tantum cenodoxiae gratia stillare consueuerant, sed infringentes Aegyptiacum pro salibus caseum plus olei quam necesse est superfundant, et ita duos cibos propria suauitate distantes, qui singillatim diuersoque tempore monachum reficere iucundissime potuissent, sub unius saporis oblectatione percipiant.

To such a pitch however has this `ulik kthsis, i.e., acquisition of material things grown, that actually under pretence of hospitality and welcoming guests anchorites have begun to keep a blanket in their cells--a thing which I cannot mention without shame--to omit those things by which the mind that is awed by and intent on spiritual meditation is more especially hampered; viz., the concourse of brethren, the duties of receiving the coming and speeding the parting guest, visits to each other and the endless worry of various confabulations and occupations, the expectation of which owing to the continuous character of these customary interruptions keeps the mind on the stretch even during the time when these bothers seem to cease.

4. In tantum sane haec `ulikh kthsis  id est materialium rerum possessio supercreuit, ut sagum quoque, quod absque uerecundia referre non possum, sub obtentu humanitatis ac susceptionis huius anachoretae in suis habere cellulis coeperint : ut illa praeteream quibus adtonita anima ac spiritalibus theoriis semper intenta specialius ingrauatur, concursus scilicet fratrum, susceptionis quoque ac deductionis officia, mutuas uisitationes diuersarumque confabulationum atque occupationum interminabilem curam, quarum etiam illo tempore, quo haec uidentur inpedimenta cessare, tamen animum consuetudinariae inquietudinis adsiduitate suspensum expectatio ipsa distendit.

And so the result is that the freedom of the anchorites life is so hindered by these ties that it can never rise to that ineffable keenness of heart, and thus loses the fruits of its hermit life. And if this is now denied to me while I am living in the congregation and among others, at least there is no lack of peace of mind and tranquillity of heart that is freed from all business. And unless this is ready at hand for those also who live in the desert, they will indeed have to undergo the labours of the anchorites life, but will lose its fruits which can only be gained in peaceful stability of mind.

5. Atque ita fit, ut anachoreseos illa libertas huiuscemodi nexibus inpedita ad illam cordis ineffabilem alacritatem numquam omnino conscendat ac fructum heremiticae professionis amittat. Qui si mihi in congregatione nunc atque in turbis sito fuerit denegatus, saltim quies animae cordisque tranquillitas omnibus occupationibus absoluta non deerit. Quae nisi illis quoque qui in solitudine conmorantur praesto fuerit, labores quidem anachoreseos sustinebunt, fructu uero ipsius fraudabuntur, qui non nisi quieta mentis stabilitate conquiritur.

Finally even if there is any diminution of my purity of heart while I am living in the coenobium, I shall be satisfied by keeping in exchange that one precept of the Gospel, which certainly cannot be less esteemed than all those fruits of the desert; I mean that I should take no thought for the morrow, and submitting myself completely to the Abbot seem in some degree to emulate Him of whom it is said: He humbled Himself, and became obedient unto death; and so be able humbly to make use of His words: For I came not to do mine own will, but the will of the Father which sent me. (Phil. 2:8; S. John 6:38)

6. Postremo etiamsi mihi in coenobio constituto ab illa puritate cordis fuerit aliquid inminutum, ero solius euangelici praecepti conpensatione contentus, quod certum est omnibus illis heremi fructibus non posse postponi, ut scilicet de crastino nihil cogitem et usque ad finem subiectus abbati illum aliquatenus uidear aemulari de quo dicitur : Humiliauit semet ipsum factus oboediens usque ad mortem , merearque illius uerbis humiliter dicere : Quia non ueni facere uoluntatem meam sed uoluntatem eius qui misit me patris .

 

 

CHAPTER 7.
A question on the fruits of the coenobium and the desert.
CAPUT VII.
Interrogatio de coenobii, vel solitudinis fructu.

 

 

GERMANUS: Since it is evident that you have not, like so many, just touched the mere outskirts of each mode of life, but have ascended to the very heights, we should like to know what is the end of the coenobites life and what the end of the hermits. For no one can doubt that no man can discourse with greater fulness or fidelity, on these subjects than one who, taught by long use and experience, has followed them both, and so can by veracious teaching show us their value and aim.

VII.  GERMANVS : Quia te utriusque professionis nos quemadmodum multos principia tantummodo contigisse, sed ipsa fastigia conscendisse manifestum est, quisnam coenobiotae, quis heremitae sit finis optamus agnoscere. Nulli namque dubium est neminem de his uel fidelius posse uel plenius disputare quam illum, qui utramque perfectionem longo usu ac magistra experientia consecutus meritum earum ac finem ueridica potest insinuare doctrina.

 

 

CHAPTER 8.
The answer to the question proposed.
CAPUT VIII.
Responsio.

 

 

JOHN: I should absolutely maintain that one and the same man could not attain perfection in both lives unless I was hindered by the example of some few. And since it is no small matter to find a man who is perfect in either of them, it is clear how much harder and I had almost said impossible it is for a man to be thoroughly efficient in both. And if this has ever happened, it cannot come under any general rule.

VIII. IOHANNES : Vnum eundemque hominem in utraque professione perfectum esse non posse absolute pronuntiare potuissem, nisi me paucorum admodum retardaret exemplum. Magnum siquidem est in qualibet earum consummatum quempiam repperiri : quanto magis ad plenum utramque perficere arduum ac paene dixerim homini inpossible esse perspicuum est. Quod tamen si quandoque prouenerit, non statim ad generalem formulam referri potest.

For a general rule must be based not on exceptional instances, i.e., on the experience of a very few, but on what is within the power of the many or rather of all.But what is attained to here and there by but one or two, and is beyond the capacity of ordinary goodness, must be kept out of general rules as something permitted outside the condition and nature of human weakness, and should be brought forward as a miracle rather than as an example. 2. Non enim a parte minima, id est de consideratione paucorum, sed ex his quae multorum, immo omnium subiacent facultati, uniuersalis est regula proponenda. Si qua uero rarissime atque a paucissimis obtinentur ac possibilitatem communis uirtutis excedunt, uelut supra condicionem humanae fragilitatis naturamque concessa a praeceptis sunt generalibus sequestranda nec tam pro exemplo quam pro miraculo proferenda.

 Wherefore I will, as my slender ability allows, briefly intimate what you want to know.

 Quamobrem id quod inquiritis secundum mediocritatem sensus mei breuiter intimabo.

The aim indeed of the coenobite is to mortify and crucify all his desires and, according to that salutary command of evangelic perfection, to take no thought for the morrow. And it is perfectly clear that this perfection cannot be attained by any except a coenobite, such a man as the prophet Isaiah describes and blesses and praises as follows: If thou turn away thy foot from the Sabbath, from doing thy own will in my holy day, and glorify Him, while thou dost not thine own ways, and thine own will is not found to speak a word: then shalt thou be delighted in the Lord, and I will lift thee up above the high places of the earth, and will feed thee with the inheritance of Jacob thy father. For the mouth of the Lord hath spoken it. (Is. 58:13, 14)

3. Finis quidem coenobiotae est omnes suas mortificare et crucifigere uoluntates ac secundum euangelicae perfectionis salutare mandatum nihil de crastino cogitare . Quam perfectionem prorsus a nemine nisi a coenobiota inpleri posse certissimum est. Quem uirum Esaias propheta describens ita beatificat atque conlaudat : Si auerteris a sabbato pedem tuum, facere uoluntatem tuam in die sancto meo, et glorificaueris eum dum non facis uias tuas, et non inuenitur uoluntas tua, ut loquaris sermonem : tunc delectaberis super dominum, et sustollam te super altitudinem terrae, et cibabo te hereditate Iacob patris tui. Os enim domini locutum est .

But the perfection for a hermit is to have his mind freed from all earthly things, and to unite it, as far as human frailty allows, with Christ: and such a man the prophet Jeremiah describes when he says: Blessed is the man who hath borne the yoke from his youth. He shall sit solitary and hold his peace, because he hath taken it upon himself; the Psalmist also: I am become like a pelican in the desert. I watched and became as a sparrow alone upon the housetop.  (Lam. 3:27, 28; Ps. 101 (102):7, 8)  To this aim then, which we have described as that of either life, unless each of them attains, in vain does the one adopt the system of the coenobium, and the other of the hermitage: for neither of them will get the good of his method of life.

4. Heremitae uero perfectio est exutam mentem a cunctis habere terrenis eamque, quantum humana inbecillitas ualet, sic unire cum Christo. Quem uirum Hieremias propheta describens beatus, inquit, uir qui tulit iugum ab adulescentia sua, sedebit solitarius et tacebit, quia leuauit super se . Psalmista quoque : Similis factus sum pellicano solitudinis. Vigilaui, et factus sum sicut passer solitarius in tecto . Ad hunc igitur finem, quem uniuscuiusque professionis esse praediximus, nisi eorum uterque peruenerit, frustra et ille coenobii et iste anachoreseos expetit disciplinam : neuter enim uirtutem suae professionis inpleuit.

19.9_tolerating_imperfections_of_others_of_both hermitage_and_cenobium

 

CHAPTER 9.
Of true and complete perfection.
CAPUT IX.
De consummata ac vera perfectione.

 

 

BUT this is merikē, i.e., no thorough and altogether complete perfection, but only a partial one. Perfection then is very rare and granted by Gods gift to but a very few. For he is truly and not partially perfect who with equal imperturbability can put up with the squalor of the wilderness in the desert, as well as the infirmities of the brethren in the coenobium. And so it is hard to find one who is perfect in both lives, because the anchorite cannot thoroughly acquire aktēmosunē, i.e., a disregard for and stripping oneself of material things, nor the coenobite purity in contemplation, although we know that Abbot Moses and Paphnutius and the two Macarii were masters of both in perfection.

VIIII. Sed hoc , id est non integra et in omnibus consummata perfectio, sed pars perfectionis est. Rara est ergo et paucissimis dono dei concessa perfectio. Is enim uere et non ex parte perfectus est, qui et in heremo squalorem solitudinis et in coenobio infirmitatem fratrum aequali magnanimitate sustentat. Et ideo in utraque professione per omnia consummatum inuenire difficile est, quia nec anachoreta 󊒈, id est contemptum ac priuationem materialium rerum, nec coenobiota theoreticam ad integrum potest adsequi puritatem, licet utrumque perfecte abbatem Moysen atque Pafnutium duosque Macarios nouerimus possedisse.

And so they were perfect in either life, and while they withdrew further than all the dwellers in the desert and delighted themselves unceasingly in the retirement of the wilderness, and as far as in them lay never sought intercourse with other men, 2. Et ita erant in utraque professione perfecti et, cum ultra omnes heremi accolas secedentes insatiabiliter secreto solitudinis pascerentur quantumque in ipsis erat nequaquam inquirerent humana consortia,
yet they put up with the presence and the infirmities of those who came to them so that when a large number of the brethren came to them for the sake of seeing them and profiting by it, they endured this almost continuous trouble of receiving them with imperturbable patience, tamen ita frequentiam ac fragilitates ad se concurrentium sustinebant, ut cum ad eos uisitationis uel profectus gratia innumera fratrum multitudo conflueret, tam iugem paene susceptionis inquietudinem immobili patientia tolerantes

 and men fancied that all the days of their life they had neither learnt nor practised anything but how to show common civility to those who came, so that it was a puzzle to all to say in which life their zeal was mainly shown, i.e., whether their greatness adapted itself more remarkably to the purity of the hermitage or to the common life.

nihil aliud uel didicisse uel exercuisse omni uitae suae tempore crederentur, quam ut conmunibus tantum aduenientium officiis deseruirent, ita ut apud cunctos esset ambiguum, in qua potissimum professione eorundem esset maior industria, id est utrum in illa heremitica puritate an in ista conuersatione communi magnanimitas eorum mirabilius aptaretur.

 

 

CHAPTER 10.
Of those who while still imperfect retire into the desert.
CAPUT X.
De his qui imperfecti eremum petunt.

 

 

BUT some are sometimes so tantalized by the silence of the desert lasting all through the day that they altogether dread intercourse with men, and, when they have even for a little while broken through their habit of retirement owing to the accident of a visit from some of the brethren, boil over with marked vexation of mind, and show clear signs of annoyance. And this especially happens in the case of those who have betaken themselves to the solitary life without a well-matured purpose and without being thoroughly trained in the coenobium, as these men are always imperfect and easily upset, and incline to one side or the other, as the gales of trouble may drive them.

X. Solent autem nonnulli ita diuturno silentio solitudinis efferari, ut prorsus hominum consortia perhorrescant, et cum uel paululum a secreti sui consuetudine interueniente fratrum uisitatione discesserint, notabili mentis angore et euidentibus pusillanimitatis indiciis aestuare. Quod uel maxime his euenire consueuit qui non perfecte in coenobiis instituti nec excoctis prioribus uitiis ad solitariam se uitam inmaturo desiderio transtulerunt : qui in utraque parte inperfecti semper ac fragiles quocumque aura commotionis inpulerit, inclinantur.

For as they boil over impatiently at intercourse or conversation with the brethren, so while they are living in solitude they cannot stand the vastness of that silence which they themselves have courted, inasmuch as they themselves do not even know the reason why solitude ought to be wanted and sought for, but imagine that the value and the main part of this life consist in this; viz., in avoiding intercourse with the brethren and simply shunning and loathing the sight of a man.

2. Nam quemadmodum consortio uel interpellatione fratrum inpatienter exaestuant, ita in solitudine consistentes eius ipsius quod expetunt silentii non ferunt uastitatem, quippe qui ne ipsam quidem rationem norunt, cuius causa desiderari uel expeti debeat solitudo, sed hanc esse uirtutem ac professionis huius existimant summam, ut fratrum consortia declinantes humanos tantummodo refugiant ac detestentur aspectus.

 

 

CHAPTER 11.
A question how to cure those who have hastily left the congregation of the coenobium.
CAPUT XI.
Interrogatio de remedio eorum qui cito de coenobiis discedunt

 

 

GERMANUS: By what treatment can any help be given to us or to others who are thus weak and only up to this; who had received but little instruction in the system of the coenobium when we began to aspire to dwell in solitude before we had got rid of our faults; or by what means shall we be able to acquire the constancy of an imperturbable mind, and immovable steadfastness of patience; we who all too soon gave up the common life in the coenobium, and forsook the schools and training ground for these exercises, in which our principles ought first to have been thoroughly schooled and perfected?

XI. GERMANVS : Quo ergo uel nobis uel ceteris qui eiusdem fragilitatis atque mensurae sunt remedio poterit subueniri, qui coenobialibus disciplinis tenuiter instituti ante expulsionem omnium uitiorum habitationem solitudinis coepimus adfectare, uel quo pacto inperturbatae mentis constantiam et inmobilem patientiae poterimus adprehendere firmitatem, qui ipsas quodammodo scolas et exercitationis huius palaestram, in qua ad plenum erudiri ac perfici principia nostra debuerant, intempestiue intermissa coenobii congregatione dereliquimus?

How then can we now while we are living alone gain perfection in long-suffering and patience; or how can conscience, that searcher out of inward motives, discover whether these virtues exist in us or are wanting, so that because we are severed from intercourse with men, and not irritated by any of their provocations, we may not be deceived by false notions, and fancy that we have gained that imperturbable peace of mind?

2. Qualiter ergo nunc solitarie conmorantes perfectionem longanimitatis ac patientiae consequemur, uel quemadmodum has sibi inesse uel deese uirtutes exploratrix internorum motuum conscientia deprehendet, ne forte, quia ab hominum consortio segregati nullis eorundem inritationibus prouocamur, falsa existimatione decepti tranquillitatem nos mentis inmobilem possedisse credamus?

 

 

CHAPTER 12.
The answer telling how a solitary can discover his faults.
CAPUT XII.
Responsio quomodo possit solitarius vitia sua agnoscere.

 

 

JOHN: To those who are really seeking relief, healing remedies from the true Physician of souls will certainly not be wanting; and to those above all will they be given who do not disregard their ill-condition (either because they despair of it, or because they do not care about it), nor hide the danger they are in from their wound, nor in their wanton heart reject the remedy of penitence, but with an humble and yet careful heart flee to the heavenly Physician for the diseases they have contracted from ignorance or error or necessity. And so we ought to know that if we retire to solitude or secret places, without our faults being first cured, their operation is but repressed, while the power of feeling them is not extinguished.

XII. IOHANNES : In ueritate quaerentibus medicinam remedia curationum ab illo uerissimo animarum medico deesse non possunt, his praesertim qui ualitudines suas non desperando aut neglegendo contempserint nec uulnerum suorum pericla celauerint aut medellam paenitentiae procaci mente respuerint, sed pro languoribus ignorantiae uel errore uel necessitate contractis himili et tamen cauta ad caelestem medicum mente confugerint. Ideoque nosse debemus, quod si ad solitudinem uel ad abdita loca nondum curatis uitiis secedamus, effectus eorum tantummodo reprimatur, non extinguatur affectus.

For the root of all sins not having been eradicated is still lying hid in us, or rather creeping up, and that it is still alive we can tell by these signs. For instance, if, when we are living in solitude we receive the approach of some brethren, or any very slight tarrying on their part, with any anxiety or fretfulness of mind, we should recognize that an incentive to the most hasty impatience is still existing in us. But if when we are hoping for the coming of a brother, and from some cause he perhaps delays a little, our mental indignation either silently blames his slowness, and annoyance at this inconvenient waiting disturbs our mind, the examination of our conscience will show that the sin of anger and vexation is plainly still remaining in us.

2. Latitat enim intra nos, immo etiam serpit radix omnium quae extirpata non fuerit peccatorum, quam adhuc in nobis uiuere his deprehendimus indiciis. Verbi gratia cum in solitudine constituti aduentum fratrum uel breuissimam eorum moram cum quadam aestuantis animi anxietate suscipimus, inesse adhuc in nobis uiuacissimae inpatientiae fomitem nouerimus. Cum uero cuiusquam fratris speramus aduentum, si eo pro necessitate aliqua paululum forsitan demorante uel tacita indignatio animi eius culpauerit tarditatem et mentem nostram intempestiuae expectionis sollicitudo turbauerit, irae atque tristitiae manifesta in nobis uitia residere conscientiae nostrae probabit examen.

Again, if when a brother asks for our book to read, or for some other article to use, his request annoys us, or a refusal on our part disgusts him, there can be no doubt that we are still entangled in the meshes of avarice or covetousness. But if a sudden thought or a passage of Holy Scripture brings up the recollection of a woman and we feel that we are at all attracted towards her, we should know that the fire of fornication is not yet extinguished in us. But if on a comparison of our own strictness with the laxity of another even th slightest conceit tries our mind, it is clear that we are affected with the dreadful plague of pride.

3. Item si fratre uel codicem ad legendum uel quamlibet aliam ad utendum speciem postulante aut nos illius petitio contristauerit aut illum negatio nostra reppulerit, dubium non est nos adhuc auaritiae seu filargyriae laqueis conpediri. Quodsi recordationem nobis femineam uel cogitatio subita uel sacrae series lectionis adtulerit et in ea quadam nos senserimus titillatione pulsatos, sciamus necdum extinctum in membris nostris fornicationis ardorem. Si uero de conparatione districtionis nostrae et remissionis alienae uel tenuissima mentem nostram temptarit elatio, certum est nos dira superbiae peste corruptos.

When then we detect these signs of faults in our heart, we should clearly recognize that it is only the opportunity and not the passion of sin of which we are deprived. And certainly these passions, if at any time we were to mingle in the ordinary life of men, would at once start up from their lurking places in our thoughts and prove that they did not then for the first time come into existence when they broke out, but that they were then at last made public, because they had been long lying hid. And so even a solitary can detect by sure signs that the roots of each fault are still implanted in him, if he tries not to show his purity to men, but to maintain it inviolate in His sight, from whom no secrets of the heart can be hid.

4. Cum haec ergo uitiorum in corde nostro deprehenderimus indicia, manifeste cognoscamus nobis non adfectum, sed effectum deesse peccati. Quae utique passiones, si nos quandoque conuersationi miscuerimus humanae, protinus de cauernis nostrorum sensuum procedentes probant se non tunc primum cum eruperint nasci, sed tunc demum quia diu latuerint publicari. Et ita uniuscuiusque uitii radices in se esse defixas certis indiciis etiam solitarius deprehendet, quisque puritatem suam non hominibus ostentare, sed illius conspectui inuiolatam studerit exhibere, quem latere omnia cordis arcana non possunt.

 

 

CHAPTER 13.
A question how a man can be cured who has entered on solitude without having his faults eradicated.
CAPUT XIII.
Interrogatio, quomodo sanari possit qui non expurgatis vitiis solitudinem ingressus sit.

 

 

GERMANUS: We very clearly and plainly see the proofs by which the signs of infirmities are inferred, and the method of discerning diseases, i.e., how the faults which are concealed in us can be detected: for our every day experience and the daily motions of our thoughts show us all these as they have been stated. It remains then that as the proofs and causes of our maladies have been exposed to us in a most clear way so their remedies and cures may also be shown. For no one can doubt that one who has first discovered the grounds and beginnings of ailments, with the approving witness of the conscience of those affected, can best discourse on their remedies.

XIII. GERMANVS : Argumenta quibus infirmitatum indicia colligantur et rationem discernendarum aegritudinum, id est quo pacto uitia quae celantur in nobis ualeant deprehendi, dilucide satis aperteque percepimus : omnia siquidem cotidiana experientia ac diurnis cogitationum nostrarum motibus ita ut dicta sunt intuemur. Superest igitur, ut quemadmodum probationes causaeque morborum euidentissima nobis ratione patefactae sunt, ita etiam curationum medella monstretur. Nulli namque dubium est illum posse rectissime de remedio malarum ualitudinum disputare, qui earum prius causas atque origines conscientia aegrotantium adtestante deprehenderit.

And so though the teaching of your holiness has laid bare the secrets of our wounds whereby we venture to have some hope of a remedy, because so clear a diagnosis of the disease gives promise of the hope of a cure, yet because, as you say, the first elements of salvation are acquired in the coenobium, and men cannot be in a sound condition in solitude, unless they have first been healed by the medicine of the coenobium, we have fallen again into a dangerous state of despair lest as we left the coenobium in an imperfect condition we may not now that we are in the desert succeed in becoming perfect.

2. Itaque licet doctrina beatitudinis tuae uulnerum nostrorum arcana nudauerit, quo fit ut sperare aliquid de remediis audeamus, quia tam euidens declaratio morbi spem remedii pollicetur, tamen quia primum, ut ais, in congregationibus initium salutis adquiritur et sani in solitudine esse non possunt nisi quos prius coenobiorum medicina sanauerit, perniciosa rursum desperatione concidimus, ne forte qui inperfecti coenobium reliquimus nequaquam iam in heremo perfecti esse ualeamus.

 

 

CHAPTER 14.
The answer on their remedies.
CAPUT XIV.
Responsio super eorum medicina.

 

 

JOHN: For those who are anxious for the cure of their ailments a saving remedy is sure not to be wanting, and therefore remedies should be sought by the same means that the signs of each fault are discovered. For as we have said that the faults of mens ordinary life are not wanting to solitaries, so we do not deny that all zeal for virtue, and all the means of healing are at the disposal of all those who are cut off from mens ordinary life.

XIIII. IOHANNES : De morborum suorum curatione sollicitis remedium salutare deesse non poterit, et idcirco eodem modo, quo uniuscuiusque uitii deprehenduntur indicia, etiam remedia sunt petenda. Nam quemadmodum solitariis humanae conuersationis uitia diximus non deesse, ita uirtutum studia et instrumenta sanitatum omnibus ab humana conuersatione discretis suppetere non negamus.

When then anyone discovers by those signs which we described above, that he is attacked by outbreaks of impatience or anger, he should always practise himself in the opposite and contrary things, and by setting before himself all sorts of injuries and wrongs, as if offered to him by somebody else, accustom his mind to submit with perfect humility to everything that wickedness can bring upon him; and by often representing to himself all kinds of rough and intolerable things, continually consider with all sorrow of heart with what gentleness he ought to meet them. And, by thus looking at the sufferings of all the saints, or indeed at those of the Lord Himself, he will admit that the various reproaches as well as punishments are less than he deserves, and prepare himself to endure all kinds of griefs.

2. Cum se igitur inpatientiae seu irae perturbationibus incursari illis quibus supra ostendimus indiciis unusquisque deprehenderit, contrariis semet ipsum obiectionibus semper exerceat, et propositis sibi multimodis iniuriarum dispendiorumque generibus uelut ab alio sibimet inrogatis adsuefaciat mentem suam omnibus quae inferre inprobitas potest perfecta humilitate subcumbere, atque aspera sibi quaeque et intolerabilia frequenter obponens quanta eis occurrere debeat lenitate omni iugiter cordis contritione meditetur : et ita respiciens ad illas sanctorum omnium siue ipsius domini passiones uniuersa non solum conuiciorum, sed etiam poenarum genera inferiora meritis suis esse pronuntians ad omnem se dolorum tolerantiam praeparabit.

And when occasionally he has been recalled by some invitation to the assembly of the brethren--a thing which cannot but happen every now and then even to the strictest inmates of the desert,--if he finds that his mind is silently disturbed even for trifles, he should like some stern censor of his secret emotions charge himself with all those various hard wrongs, to the perfect endurance of which he was training himself by his daily meditations, and blaming and chiding himself as follows, say My good man, are you the fellow who while training yourself in the practising ground of solitude, ventured most determinedly to think that you would get the better of all bad qualities, and who just now, when you were representing to yourself not only all sorts of bitter reproaches, but also intolerable punishments, fancied that you were pretty strong and able to stand against all storms?

3. Cumque aliquando ad coetus fratrum aliqua fuerit inuitatione reuocatus, quod non potest non uel raro etiam districtissimis heremi adcolis prouenire, si mentem suam etiam pro uilibus quibusque rebus deprehenderit tacite fuisse conmotam, ut quidam occultorum motuum seuerissimus censor mox sibi illa durissima iniuriarum genera, quibus ad perfectam tolerantiam semet ipsum cotidianis meditationibus exercebat, exprobret atque ita se obiurgans et increpans adloquatur: tune ille es, bone uir, qui te, dum in illa solitudinis tuae exerceris palaestra, omnia superaturum mala constantissime praesumebas, qui dudum, cum tibi non solum summas conuiciorum acerbitates, uerum etiam intoleranda supplicia ipse proponeres, satis ualidum atque ad omnes procellas inmobilem te credebas?

How is it that that unconquered patience of yours is upset by the first trial even of a light word? How is it that even a gentle breeze has shaken that house of yours which you fancied was built so strongly on the solid rock? Where is that which you announced when during a time of peace you were in your foolish confidence longing for war? I am ready, and am not troubled; and this which you used often to say with the prophet: Prove me, O Lord, and try me: search out my reins and my heart; and: prove me, O Lord, and know my heart: question me and know my paths; and see if there be any way of wickedness in me. (Ps. 118 (119):60; 25 (26):2; 138 (139):23, 24)  How has a tiny ghost of an enemy frightened your grand preparations for war?

4. Quomodo inuicta illa patientia tua leuissimi uerbi prolusione confusa est? Quomodo domum tuam supra illam solidissimam petram tanta ut tibi uidebatur mole constructam leuis aura conmouit? Vbi est illud quod inani fiducia bellum in pace desiderans proclamabas : Paratus sum, et non sum turbatus , et cum propheta saepe dicebas : Proba me domine , et tempta me : ure renes meos et cor meum, et : Proba me domine, et scito cor meum : interroga me, et cognosce semitas meas. Et uide, si uia iniquitatis in me est ? Quomodo ingentem certaminis adparatum exigua hostis umbra conterruit?

With such reproaches and remorse a man should condemn himself and not allow the sudden temptation which has upset him to go unpunished, but by chastising his flesh with a severer penalty of fasting and vigils; and, by punishing his sin of lightness of mind by continual pains of self-restraint, he should while living in solitude consume in this fire of practice what he ought to have thoroughly driven out in the life of the coenobium. This at any rate we must firmly and resolutely hold to in order to secure a lasting and unbroken patience; viz., that for us, to whom by the Divine law not merely vengeance for, but even the recollection of injuries is forbidden, it is not permissible to be roused to anger because of some loss or annoyance.

5. Tali ergo semet ipsum conpunctionis animaduersione condemnans inultam suae conmotionis obreptionem esse non sinat, sed artiore carnem suam ieiunii ac uigiliarum correptione castigans ac iugibus continentiae poenis culpam suae mobilitatis excrucians illud, quod ad plenum excoquere in coenobii conuersatione debuerat, in solitudine constitutus hoc exercitationis igne consumat. Illud sane ad obtinendam iugem ac stabilem patientiam constanter atque inmobiliter est tenendum, non licere nobis, quibus lege diuina non solum ultio iniuriarum, sed etiam memoria prohibetur . Cuiuslibet detrimenti uel inritationis obtentu ad iracundiam conmoueri.

For what greater injury can happen to the soul than for it, owing to some sudden blindness from rage, to lose the brightness of the true and eternal light and to fail of the sight of Him Who is meek and lowly of heart? (S. Matt. 11:29) What I ask could be more dangerous or awkward than for a man to lose his power of judging of goodness, and his standard and rule of true discernment, and for one in his sober senses to do what even a drunken man, and a fool would not be pardoned for doing?

6. Quod enim grauius animae potest euenire dispendium, quam ut per conmotionis subitam caecitatem ueri atque aeterni luminis claritate priuata ab illius qui mitis et humilis corde est  contemplatione discedat? Quid rogo perniciosius quidue deformius, quam ut quis honestatis iudicium et regulam ac disciplinam rectae discretionis amittat et ea sanus ac sobrius perpetret, quae ne temulentus quidem ac sensu indigens ueniabiliter admisisset?

One then who carefully considers these and other injuries of the same kind, will readily endure and disregard not only all kinds of losses, but also whatever wrongs and punishments can be inflicted by the cruellest of men, as he will hold that there is nothing more damaging than anger, nor more valuable than peace of mind and unbroken purity of heart, for the sake of which we should think nothing of the advantages not merely of carnal matters but also of those things which appear to be spiritual, if they cannot be gained or done without some disturbance of this tranquillity.

7. Haec ergo et cetera his similia detrimenta quisque perpenderit, non solum uniuersa damnorum genera, sed etiam iniuriarum atque poenarum quaecumque possunt a crudelissimis inrogari facili sustentatione despiciet, nihil dispendiosius iracundia nec pretiosius tranquillitate animi ac perpetua cordis sui iudicans puritate, ob quam non solum carnalium, sed etiam illarum quae spiritales uidentur rerum spernenda sunt commoda, si alias adquiri uel perfici nisi cum huius tranquillitatis perturbatione non possunt.

 

 

CHAPTER 15.
A question whether chastity ought to be ascertained just as the other feelings.
CAPUT XV.
Interrogatio, an ita castitas sicut et caeterae passiones debeat explorari.

 

 

GERMANUS: As the cure for other ailments, viz., anger, vexation, and impatience, has been shown to consist in opposing to them their contraries, so also we should like to learn what sort of treatment we ought to use against the spirit of fornication: I mean, whether the fire of lust can be quenched by the representation, as in those other cases, of greater inducements and things to excite it: because not merely to increase the incentives to lust within us, but even to touch them with a passing look of the mind, we believe to be utterly fatal to chastity.

XV. GERMANS : Sicut ceterorum uulnerum, id est irae, tristitiae, inpatientiae, per obiectionem contrariarum rerum medella monstrata est, ita etiam contra spiritum fornicationis quod curationis genus nos oporteat adhibere uolumus edoceri, id est utrum concupiscentiae ignis propositis sicut illic maioribus inritationum augmentis possit extingui : quod satis castitati credimus esse contrarium, si non solum exaggerentur in nobis libidinis incentiua, sed uel praetereunte adtingantur mentis intuitu.

 

 

CHAPTER 16.
The answer giving the proofs by which it can be recognized.
CAPUT XVI.
Responsio, quibus documentis possit agnosci.

 

 

JOHN: Your shrewd question has anticipated the subject, which even if you had said nothing must have arisen from our discourse, and therefore I do not doubt that it will be effectually grasped by your minds, since indeed your sharp wits have outstripped our instruction. For the puzzle of any question is easily removed, when the inquiry anticipates the answer, and is the first to travel along the road which it is to follow. And so to the treatment of those faults of which we have spoken above, intercourse with other men is not merely no hindrance, but a considerable help,

XVI. IOHANNES : Quaestionem, quae etiam tacentibus uobis narrationem nostram fuerat secutura, sagax interrogatio uestra praeuenit, et idcirco efficaciter eam sensibus uestris concipiendam esse non ambigo, quando equidem institutionem nostram acumen uestri praecessit ingenii. Sine labore enim cuiuslibet quaestionis dilucidatur obscuritas, cum absolutionem eius anticipans inquisitio quo ducenda est antecedit. Itaque remediis quidem illorum quae supra diximus uitiorum non solum nihil officiunt, uerum etiam multum conferunt humana consortia.

for the more often that the outbursts of their impatience are exposed, the more thorough is the sorrow and compunction which they bring on those who have failed, and the speedier is the recovery of health which they confer on those who struggle against them. Wherefore even when we are living in solitude, though the incentive to irritation and matter for it cannot arise from men, yet we ought of set purpose to meditate on incitements to it, that as we are fighting against it with a continual struggle in our thoughts a speedier cure for it may be found for us.

2. Nam frequentia inpatientiae suae crebrius patefacta quanto magis adsiduum superatis dolorem conpunctionis intulerint, tanto uelociorem laborantibus conferunt sanitatem. Ob quod etiam in solitudine consistentes, cum inritationum fomes atque materia ab hominibus non possit exsurgere, tamen earundem incitamenta debemus etiam de industria retractare, ut aduersus ea iugi cogitationum conluctatione pugnantibus nobis medella promptior conferatur.

But against the spirit of fornication the system is different, and the method an altered one. For as we must deprive the body of opportunities of lust, and contact with flesh, so we must deprive the mind of the recollection of it. For it is sufficiently dangerous for bosoms that are still weak and infirm even to tolerate the slightest recollection of this passion, in such a way that sometimes at the remembrance of holy women, or in reading a story in Holy Scripture a stimulus of dangerous excitement is aroused. For which reason our Elders used deliberately to omit passages of this kind when any of the juniors were present. However for those who are perfect and established in the feelings of chastity there can be no lack of proofs by which they may examine themselves, and establish their perfect uprightness of heart by the uncorrupted judgment of their own conscience.

3. Contra spiritum uero fornicationis diuersa ratio et dispar est causa. Nam quemadmodum corpori usus libidinis carnisque uicinia, ita etiam menti memoria eius penitus subtrahenda. Satis enim perniciosum est adhuc infirmis aegrisque pectoribus uel tenuissimam recordationem huius passionis admittere, ita ut nonnumquam eis etiam sub recordatione sanctarum feminarum uel sub sacrae lectionis historia noxiae titillationis stimulus excitetur. Cuius causa seniores nostri huiuscemodi lectiones sub praesentia iuniorum solent consultissime praeterire. Sane perfectis et adfectu iam castimoniae consummatis probationes quibus examinare se ualeant deesse non possunt, quibus perfecta eorum cordis integritas incorrupto conscientiae suae iudicio conprobetur.

There will then be for the man who is thoroughly established a similar test even in regard to this passion, so that one who is sure that he has altogether exterminated the roots of this evil may for the sake of ascertaining his chastity, call up some picture as with a lascivious mind. But it is by no means proper for such a test to be attempted by those who are still weak (for to them it will be dangerous rather than useful), ut conjunctionem femineam et palpationem quodammodo teneram atque mollissimam corde pertractent.

4. Erit ergo consummato dumtaxat uiro similis etiam super hac passione probatio, ut qui se radices morbi huius penitus extirpasse cognouerit explorandae gratia castitatis imaginationem aliquam inlecebrosa mente concipiat. Ceterum ab his qui adhuc infirmi sunt hanc examinationem nullatenus conuenit adtemptari (erit enim eis magis perniciosa quam utilis), ut coniunctionem femineam et palpationem quodammodo teneram atque mollissimam corde pertractent.

Cum ergo perfecta quis virtute fundatus ad illecebram blandissimorum tactuum, quos cogitando confinxerit, nullum mentis assensum, nullam commotionem carnis in se deprehenderit exagitatam, he will have a very sure proof of his purity, so that training himself to this steadfast purity he will not only possess the blessing of chastity and freedom from defilement in his heart, but even if he is obliged to touch the body of a woman, he will be horrified at it.

5. Cum ergo perfecta quis uirtute fundatus ad inlecebram blandissimorum tactuum, quos cogitando confinxerit, nullum mentis adsensum, nullam commotionem carnis in se deprehenderit exagitatam, certissima puritatis suae capiet documenta, ita ut ad hanc se firmitatem puritatis exercens castitatis atque incorruptionis bonum non solum mente possideat, sed etiam si corporalem feminae adtactum necessitas ulla detulerit, execretur.  

With this Abbot John brought his Conference to an end, as he saw that it was just time for the refreshment of the ninth hour.

Hoc abbas Iohannes, cum horae nonae refectionem inminere sensisset, conlationem fine conclusit.

 

 

 


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