EUCHERIUS
of LYONS
  (ca 440)

 Med. illum. MS.,
 Bodleian lib., Oxford

FORMULAS of SPIRITUAL UNDERSTANDING
 Formularum Spiritalis Intelligentiae, Tr. Karen Rae Keck, 1996 (public domain)
[N.B. Cassian uses formula to refer to a biblical verse used in monologistic prayer: Conf. 10]

PREFACE
Eucherius to his son in Christ, Veranus, greetings.

SANCTI EUCHERII LUGDUNENSIS EPISCOPI FORMULARUM SPIRITALIS INTELLIGENTIAE AD URANIUM. LIBER UNUS

I BELIEVE that you should study diligently these formulae of spiritual knowledge, which I have compiled and which I send you. The following knowledge is meant to bring the teaching of the divine scriptures easily to mind. Because the letter kills and the spirit gives life [II Cor. 3:6], it is indispensable that we enter the interior of spiritual discourse with a quickening spirit.

[Col. 0727A] Formulas spiritalis intelligentiae Latinorum nominum componendas, tibique mittendas pro studio paternae erga te sollicitudinis existimavi, quibus perceptis, in omnia scripta divina facillime ac intellectum reliquorum sensus intenderetur. Nam cum littera occidat, spiritus autem vivificet (II Cor. III, 6), necesse est ad illa spiritalium interiora sermonum spiritu vivificante penetrari.

We remind ourselves and others that, in the future, the whole of scripture will be our [mental] dress; the old, as well as the new, will be the means to allegorical understanding, because as we read in the Old Testament: I will open my mouth in parables; I will speak in old mysteries [Ps. 77(78):2], or again, as it is written in the New Testament, Jesus spoke all these things in parables to the crowds and without parables he would not speak to them [Matt. 13:34].

Universam porro Scripturam tam veteris Instrumenti quam novi, ad intellectum allegoricum esse sumendum, admonet nos vel illud quod in veteri Testamento legimus: Aperiam in parabolis os meum, loquar in aenigmate antiqua (Ps. 77, 2). Vel illud quod item in novo Testamento scribitur: Haec omnia locutus est Jesus in parabolis ad turbas, et sine parabolis non loquebatur [Col. 0727B] eis (Marc. IV, 16).

The heavenly talk of the prophets and the apostles is not to be wondered at; it is brought forth by prayer, not by the usual way that men write. Much will vanish easily if it is gotten readily; great things, which are the true thing, held in the interior, will be brought together, that the blessed sayings of God will be separated from other writings by their worth and type.

Nec mirandum quod sermo divinus, prophetarum apostolorumque ore prolatus, ab usitato illo hominibus scribendi modo multum recesserit, facilia in promptu habens, magna in interioribus suis continens; quia et revera fuit congruum ut sacra Deo dicta a caeteris scripturis, sicut merito, ita et specie, discernerentur,

            The entire worth of heavenly mysteries is not known indiscriminately and randomly, nor is the sacred set before dogs nor pearls before swine [Matt. 7:6], because, in truth, like the silver-plated dove whose posterior parts shine with the radiance of gold [Ps. 67(68):14(13)], so the divine scriptures first shine like silver but glow like gold in their hidden parts.

ne illa coelestium arcanorum dignitas passim atque indiscrete cunctis patesceret, sanctumque canibus, et margaritas porcis exponeret (Matth. VII, 6); et consecrata vasa templi involuta promiscuus populus ferret nec videret (Num. IV, 15, 20), et ut vere ad illius columbae deargentatae (Ps. LXVII, 14) modum, cujus posteriora in specie auri splendentis irradiant, scripturae divinae prima quaeque argento fulgerent, et auro occultiora [Col. 0727C] rutilarent.

Rightly it is so managed, because the purity of eloquence is hidden altogether from the promiscuous eyes of the crowd, as if it were covered by a garment of modesty. And so, the divine is taken care of by the best stewardship; the scriptures themselves protect the heavenly mysteries by cloaking them, just as divinity itself works in its own mysterious way.

Recte itaque procuratum est ut eloquiorum illa castitas a promiscuis cunctorum oculis abdito suo quasi quodam velamine pudicitiae contegeretur; ac divina optime dispensatione provisum est ut scripta ipsa ita contegerentur, coelestibus obumbrata mysteriis, sicut secreto ipsa sua suo divinitas operiebatur.

            Therefore, when in sacred books, one finds the eyes of the Lord, the neck of the Lord, the feet, and even the long-reaching arms of the Lord, written of - that God, God who is invisible, incomprehensible, eternally the same, should be limited in body is far from the universal faith of the church - is sought, just as He is disclosed, through the Holy Spirit, in the exposition of the image.

Igitur cum in libris sanctis oculi Domini, os Domini, uterus Domini, manus, pedes Domini, arma etiam Domini scripta reperiantur, longeque absit a catholica Ecclesiarum fide Deum corpore determinari, qui sit invisibilis, incomprehensibilis, incommutabilis et infinitus, requirendum est qualiter ista per Spiritum sanctum figurali expositione reserentur.

            Here, we find the interior of the Lord's temple, here the holy of holies.

Hic enim inveniuntur illa Dominici interiora templi (Ezech. XL); hic illa sancta sanctorum [728A] mysteria, aenigmatibus retectis.

[1] The body, therefore, is the sacred scripture, as it has come down to us, as it is in letters,

[2] with the soul of moral sense, which is uttered in figures of speech,

[3] with the spirit of superior understanding, which is called anagogy.

Corpus ergo Scripturae sacrae, sicut traditur, in littera sive historia:

est anima in morali sensu, qui tropicus dicitur;

spiritus in superiore intellectu, qui anagoge appellatur.

How the pattern is found in the three-fold nature of the scriptures! The sanctifying confession of the Trinity preserves us through all things so that our spirit, our mind, and our body are irreproachably one, in the coming and justice of our Lord and God, Jesus Christ, whom we serve [I Thes. 5:23].

Quam triplicem Scripturarum regulam convenienter observat confessio sanctae Trinitatis, sanctificans nos per omnia, ut integer spiritus noster, et anima et corpus sine querela in adventum Domini nostri Jesu Christi judiciumque servetur (I Thess. V, 24).

            The wisdom of the world divides its philosophy into three parts: physics, ethics, and logic, that is, natural, moral, and rational.

Sapientia autem mundi hujus philosophiam suam in tres partes divisit, physicam, ethicam, logicam, id est, naturalem, moralem, rationalem.

[1] Natural pertains to the causes of nature, which the universe holds;

[2] moral pertains to truth, which it sees as custom;

[3] rational pertains to the disputes about elevated things that God, who is the Father of all, has proven.

Sed naturalem illam pertinentem ad causas naturae, quae universa continet;

moralem, quae respiciat ad mores;

rationalem vero quae de sublimioribus disputans, Deum [Col. 0728B] omnium patrem esse confirmet.

Indeed, this differentiation is not dissimilar to our three-fold method of teaching, by which the heavenly scriptures are taught as philosophy, according to history, according to rhetoric, according to anago[g]y [sic analogy], to whose who think otherwise.

Quam tripartitam doctrinae disputationem non adeo abhorret illa nostrorum in disputatione distinctio, qua docti quique hanc coelestem Scripturarum philosophiam secundum historiam, secundum tropologiam, secundum anagogen disserendam putarunt.

[1] History, for this reason, instills in us the truth of deeds or faith in reporting.

[2] Tropology takes the mind mysteriously back to the correction of life.

[3] Ana[g]ogy leads secretly to the heavenly figures.

[4] There are those who think that allegory is thrown in the fourth place in the class of knowledge, and they would confirm this by foreshadowing of future deeds in stories.

Quapropter historia veritatem nobis factorum ac fidem relationis inculcat.

 Tropologia ad vitae emendationem mysticos intellectus refert.

Anagoge ad sacratiora coelestium figurarum secreta perducit.

 Sunt etiam qui allegoriam in hoc scientiae genere quarto in loco adjiciendam putent, quam gestorum narrationem, futurorum umbram praetulisse confirment.

            Here, in truth, are many similar examples made manifest:

Haec vero ipsa ut subjectis plenius manifestentur exemplis,

[1] the heaven which we [intuit accords with] history;

[2] the [heavenly life accords with tropology];

[3]  baptism of water [accords with] allegory;

[4] the angels [accord with] ana[g]ogy. It is everywhere: and the waters above the heavens praise the Lord [Ps. 148:4].  

  1. coelum est secundum historiam hoc quod intuemur,

  2. secundum [Col. 0728C] tropologiam vita coelestis;

  3. aquae secundum allegoriam baptismus,

  4.  secundum anagogen angeli, unde est illud: Et aquae quae super coelos sunt laudent nomen Domini (Ps. CXLVIII, 4).

All the discipline of our religion emanated from that fountain of increased knowledge: they call the first practice in accordance with understanding, that is, reality and contemplation. One fullfills his real life in the correction of his habits; another steeps himself in contemplation of the heavenly and discussion of divine scripture. Real knowledge, therefore, is spread from various sources.

Omnis autem disciplina nostrae religionis ex illo duplicis scientiae fonte manavit: cujus primam practicen, secundam theoricen vocaverunt, id est actualem, et contemplativam. Unam, quae actualem vitam morum emendatione consummet; aliam, quae in contemplatione coelestium et divinarum Scripturarum disputatione versetur. Ergo actualis scientia in diversa studia diffunditur,

       Contemplation, moreover, is derived in two parts, that is, it consists in historical discourse and in understanding spiritual knowledge. But now, let us put forth the clear formulas of spiritual knowledge, which we have promised, putting the usually accepted forms of each name with the associated text of divine reading. Let us pray thus to the Lord that He will open the closed passages of scripture and that we may offer these, by which the hidden may be known to our mind:

contemplativa in duas derivatur partes, id est in historica disputatione, et spiritalis intelligentiae interpretatione consistit. Sed his nunc remotis, formulas intelligentiae spiritalis quas spopondimus proponamus, [Col. 0729A] currentes per singulorum nominum figuras, quibus ista in illo divinae lectionis inserta textu accipi solent. Oremus itaque Dominum ut revelet abscondita Scripturarum suarum, et proferamus quomodo secretiora intellectu sentiendum sit.

 

  PREFACE: Letter to Veranus

PraefatioI. De divinis nominibus.[ in PL not in CSEL]

  Book I: The Members of the Lord

II. De his quae appellantur membra Domini, vel quae de eo significantur.

  Book II: On Heavenly Objects

III. De supernis creaturis.

  Book III: On Earthly Things

IV. De terrenis.

  Book IV: On the Animals

V. De animantibus.

  Book V: On the Various Names and Titles

VI. De variis nominum et rerum appellationibus.

  Book VI: On the Interior Man

VII. De interiori homine.

  Book VII: On the Useful or the Ordinary

VIII. De his quae in usu atque in medio habentur.

  Book VIII: On the Various Meanings of Words and Names

IX. De variis verborum vel nominum significationibus.

  Book IX: On Jerusalem and her Enemies

X. De Jerusalem, vel adversis ejus.

  Book X: On Numbers

XI. De numeris, quorum significationes in allegoriam trahuntur

     And so, as he who will present a gift to the Lord, let us, therefore, explicate now these meanings of names and words, in accordance with those which are most justly called allegory.

Ergo ipsas jam nunc nominum atque verborum significantias, secundum quas vel maxime in allegoriam trahuntur, prout donum Dei suggesserit, explicemus.

 

THE MEMBERS of the LORD; THEIR NAMES and SIGNIFICANCE

CAPUT II. De his quae appellantur membra Domini, vel quae de eo significantur.

The eyes of the Lord are understood by divine examination; in the psalm: the eyes of the Lord are toward the righteous. [Ps. 33(34):16(15)]

Oculi Domini intelliguntur inspectio divina. In psal.: Oculi Domini super justos (Ps. XXXIII, 16). 

The ears of the Lord are worthy when they hear; in the psalm: and his ears toward their cries. [Ps. 33(34):16(17)]

Aures Domini, cum exaudire dignatur. In psal.: Et aures ejus in preces eorum (Ibid.).

The mouth of the Lord is conversation with man; in the prophet: the mouth of the Lord has spoken. [Is. 1:20]

Os Domini, sermo ad homines. In propheta: Os Domini locutum est (Isai. I, 20).

The word of the Lord is his son; in the psalm: my heart is inditing a good word. [Ps. 44(45):1(2)]

[Col. 0737D] Verbum Domini, Filius. In psalmo: Eructavit cor meum verbum bonum (Ps. XLIV, 2).

The arm of the Lord is his son, through whom all was made; in the prophet: the arm of the Lord is shown to him. [Is. 53:1]

Brachium Domini, vel manus, Filius, per quem omnia operatus est. In propheta: Et brachium Domini cui revelatum est (Isai. LIII, 1).

The right hand of the Lord is like the arm of the Lord; in the psalm: the right hand of the Lord made strength. [Ps. 117(118):16 Vulgate]

Dextera Domini, idem quod supra in psalmo: Dextera Domini fecit virtutem (Ps. CXVII, 16).

The womb of the Lord, from which he brings forth his son, is hidden; in the psalm: out of the womb before the morning star have I begotten you. [Ps. 109(110):3]

Uterus Domini, secretum, ex quo Filium protulit. In psalm. Ex utero ante luciferum genui te (Ps. CIX, 3).

 

 

The feet of the Lord are for ever stable; in the psalm: and darkness under his feet. [Ps. 17(18):10(11) Vulgate]

Pedes [Col. 0738A] Domini, stabilitas aeternitatis. In psalmo: Et caligo sub pedibus ejus (Ps. XVII, 10).

The footprints of the Lord are signs of his secret work; in the psalm: and they do not know your footprints. [Ps. 76(77):20(19) Vulgate]

Vestigia Domini, operum secretorum signa. In psalmo: Et vestigia tua non cognoscentur (Ps. LXXVI, 20).

The footsteps of the Lord are the coming or the path of the Lord; in the psalm: they have seen your footsteps, O Lord. [Ps. 67(68):25(24) Vulgate]

Gressus Domini, adventus, vel visitatio Domini. In psalmo: Visi sunt ingressus tui, Deus (Ps. LXVII, 25).

The arms of the Lord are a help to his saints; in the psalm: take up arms and a shield. [Ps. 34(35):2]

Arma Domini, adjutorium ejus in sanctos. In psalmo: Apprehende arma et scutum (Ps. XXXIV, 2).

The protection of the Lord is a shield; in the psalm: O Lord, you have crowned us with the shield of your goodwill. [Ps. 5:12]

Scutum, protectio Domini. In psalmo: Domine, ut scuto bonae voluntatis tuae coronasti nos (Ps. V, 13).

The vengeance of the Lord is a spear; in the psalm: hurl your spear and put an end to the impious. [Ps. 34(35):3]

Framea, ultio divina in impios. In psalmo: Effunde frameam, et conclude (Ps. XXXIV, 3).

The tension of divine threat is a bow; in the psalm: he has stretched his bow and prepared it. [Ps. 7:13(12)]

Arcus, intentio comminationis divinae. In psalmo: Arcum suum tetendit, et paravit illum (Ps. VII, 13).

The precepts of the Lord or of the Apostles are arrows; in the psalm: he has sent his arrows and has scattered them. [Ps. 17(18):15(14)]

Sagittae, praecepta divina, apostoli, vel prophetae. In psalmo: Misit sagittas [Col. 0738B] suas, et dissipavit eos (Ps. XVII, 15). Item: Sagittae in manu potentis (Ps. CXXVI, 4; CXIX, 4).

The discourse of the Lord is a vindicating sword; in the apostle: the discourse of the Lord is living, and it is as efficacious and penetrating as a two-edged sword. [Hebr. 4:12]

Gladius, vindicta, vel sermo Domini. In Apostolo: Vivus est enim sermo Dei, et efficax, et penetrabilior omni gladio ancipiti (Hebr. IV, 12).

The discourse of the Lord is also a javelin.

Romphea, idem quod supra.

The trumpet of God is the voice of the Lord made manifest; in the apostle: in the command and voice of the archangel and in the trumpet of God. [I Thess. 4:15]

Tuba Domini, vox manifesta Domini. In Apostolo: In jussu, et in voce archangeli, et tuba Dei (I Thess. IV, 15).

The chariot of the Lord, the seat of the Lord, is the four-sided gospel; in the psalm: the chariot of the Lord has 20,000 sides. [Ps. 67(68):18(17)]

Currus Dei, sedes Dei, vel quadriformitas Evangeliorum. In psalmo: Currus Dei decem millibus multiplex (Ps. LXVII, 18).

The rod of the Lord is a sign of his rule or of the correction of discipline; in the psalm: the rod of equity, the rod of your reign. [Ps. 44(45):7(6)]

Virga Domini, regni significatio, vel correptio disciplinae. In psalmo: Virga aequitatis, virga regni tui (Ps. XLIV, 7). Manus Domini, minae, vel vindictae ejus.

The staff of the Lord is the sustaining consolation of God; in the psalm: your rod and your staff, they comfort me. [Ps. 22(23):4]

Baculus Domini, sustentatio consolationis Domini. In psalmo: Virga tua et baculus tuus ipsa me consolata sunt (Ps. XXII, 4

 

CAPUT III. De supernis creaturis.

The embers of the fire are examples of charity or of repentance; in the psalm: with the embers of the desolate. [Ps. 119(120):4 Vulgate]

Carbones, ignis charitatis, aut exemplorum, aut poenitentiae. In psalmo: Cum carbonibus desolatoriis (Ps. CXIX, 4).

Smoke is the beginning of future contrition or of a threat from God; in the psalm: smoke rises in his anger. The same in another part: like noxious smoke in the eyes, it is vanity. [Ps. 17(18):9(8); unidentified]

Fumus, initia compunctionis futurae, vel ipsius comminationis Dei. In psalmo: Ascendit fumus in ira ejus (Ps. XVII, 9). Item in aliam partem, sicut fumus oculis noxius, id est vanitas.

Fire is the Holy Spirit; in the acts of the apostles: and fire appeared to them in forked tongues and sat above each of them, and they were filled with the Holy Spirit. [Acts 2:3-4]

Ignis, Spiritus sanctus. In Actibus Apostolorum: Et apparuerunt illis dispertitae linguae, tamquam ignis, seditque [Col. 0738D] supra singulos eorum, et repleti sunt omnes Spiritu sancto (Act. II, 3).

 

II. On Heavenly Objects

CAPUT III. De supernis creaturis.

 

 

The heavens are the apostles or the saints, the same where the Lord dwells; in the psalm: The heavens tell the glory of the Lord. [Ps. 18(19):2(1)]

Coelum, apostoli, sive sancti, ideo quod Dominus inhabitet in eis. Coeli enarrant gloriam Dei (Ps. XVIII, 2).

The clouds are the prophets and the saints, which rain the word of the Lord; in Isaiah: I shall order the clouds above to rain. [Is. 5:6]

Nubes, prophetae, sive sancti, qui pluant verbum Domini. In Isaia: Mandabo nubibus desuper ne pluant (Isai. V, 6).

The thunder is the voice of the evangelists, which sound in the sky; in the psalm: The voice of the thunder in the heaven. [Ps. 76(77):19(18) Vulgate]

Tonitrua, voces Evangelii: eo quod de coelo ex dictis Dei intonent. In Psalmo, Vox tonitrui tui in rota (Ps. LXXVI, 19); hoc est, in toto. 

The flashes are the splendor of the evangelists; in the psalm: Your lightning lights the globe of the earth. [Ps. 76(77):19(18)]

Coruscationes, splendores Evangelii. In psalm.: Illuxerunt coruscationes tuae orbi terrae [Col. 0739B] (Ibid.).

The lightning is the strength of the word of Jesus Christ; in the psalm: the lightning multiplied and disturbed them. [Ps. 17(18):15(14)]

Fulgura, virtutes, vel verba Jesu Christi. In psalm.: Et fulgura multiplicavit, et conturbavit eos: id est, inimicos, vel Judaeos.

The angelic thrones, like the saints, are themselves the power of Your rule; in the psalm: Your throne, O God, is for ever and ever; the same in another part about the devil: I place my throne in the north wind. [Ps. 44(45):7(6); Is. 14:13]

Throni, angeli, vel sancti, vel ipsa regnandi potestas. In psalmo, Thronus tuus Deus in saeculum saeculi (Ps. XLIV, 7). Item in aliam partem de diabolo: Ponam thronum meum ad aquilonem (Isai. XIV, 13).

The angels and the saints are the seat of the One Who is Above, because the Lord sits on them; in the psalm: The Lord sits above the seat of His saints. [Ps. 46(47):9(8) Vulgate]

Sedes, idem quod supra, angeli vel sancti, eo quod in his Dominus sedeat, et per eos sua judicia decernat. In psalmo, Deus sedet super sedem sanctam suam (Ps. XLVI, 9).

The sun is Lord Jesus Christ, who shines on the earth; in Solomon: therefore, the sun of justice does not shine on us. [Wis. 5:6]

Sol, Dominus Jesus Christus, qui fulgeat terris. In Salomone quod dicturi sunt reprobi in fine: Ergo sol justitiae non luxit nobis (Sap. V, 6). 

The moon is the church, which is resplendent in the night of this world; in the psalm: He made the moon for its time. [Ps. 103(104):19]

Luna Ecclesia, eo quod in hac mundi nocte resplendeat. In psalmo: Fecit lunam in tempore (Ps. CIII, 19). 

The stars are the saints and the learned; in Daniel: the learned shall burn like the stars, and the angels will shine as well. [Dan. 12:3]

. Stellae, sancti, sive docti, vel qui ad justitiam erudiunt. In Daniele: Docti tamquam stellae fulgebunt (Dan. XII, 3).

The clouds are truly the mysteries of God; in the prophet: and the rain the clouds of his feet. [Nah. 1:3]

Nebulae, velamentum mysteriorum Dei; interdum et angeli Dei. In propheta: Et nebulae pulvis pedum ejus (Nahum. I, 3).

The mist is the working of the divine mysteries; in the psalm: and the mist is beneath His feet. [Ps. 17(18):10(11)]

Caligo, divinorum secretorum operimentum. In psal.: Et caligo sub pedibus ejus (Ps. XVII, 10).

The deep is the profundity of the Scriptures; in the psalm: deep calls to deep. [Ps. 41(42):8(7)]

Abyssus profunditas Scripturarum. In psalm.: Abyssus abyssum invocat (Ps. XLI, 8).

The dew is the word of God, which moistens the [hearts] of men; in the psalm: like the dew of Hermon which falls on Mount Sion. [Ps. 132(133):3]

Ros, verbum Domini; ideo quod madefaciat hominum corda, ut, Rorate, coeli, desuper (Isai. XLV, 8). Et in psalm.: Sicut ros Hermon, qui descendit in montem Sion (Ps. CXXXII, 3).

The rain is the precepts and decrees of the Lord, which water the land, that is, men; in the psalm: O Lord, You separated the plentiful rain from Your inheritance. [Ps. 67(68):10(9) Vulgate]

Pluvia praecepta vel mandata Domini; [Col. 0740C] vel verba sanctorum apostolorum; eo quod terram, id est homines irriget. In psal.: Pluviam voluntariam segregabit Deus haereditati tuae (Ps. LXVII, 10).

The snow is the great brightness of justice; in the psalm: You will wash me, and I shall be whiter than snow. [Ps. 50(51):9(7)]

Nives, pro candore justitiae, et pro baptismo. In psalm.: Lavabis me, et super nivem dealbabor (Ps. L, 9).

The hail is the threats of the Lord, which beat the stubborn; in the psalm: hail and the coals of fire. The same in another part: and it fell into their vineyard like hail. [Ps. 17(18):13(12); Ps. 77(78):47]

Grando, comminationes Domini, quibus contumaces everberat. In psalm.: Grando et carbones ignis (Ps. XVII, 13). Item in aliam partem: Et occidit in grandine vineas eorum (Ps. LXXVII, 46).

The hoarfrost is abstinence because through it, the passion of the body freezes; in the psalm: I am made like a bottle in the frost. [Ps. 118(119):83]

Pruina, abstinentia, eo quod per hanc frigescat calor corporis. In psalm.: Factus sum sicut uter in pruina (Ps. 118, 83).

The storm is the force of trial and examination; in the psalm: He who saves me made me from a weak soul and a storm. [Ps. 54(55):9(8) Vulgate]

Tempestas, persecutionum vel tribulationum impetus. In psalm.: Qui salvum [Col. 0740D] me fecit a pusillanimitate spiritus et tempestate (Ps. 54, 9).

The ice is the hardness of sinners; in Solomon: your sin is dissolved like ice in clear weather. [Eccl. 3:17]

Glacies, durities peccatorum. In Salomone: Sicut in sereno glacies, ita solventur peccata tua (Eccl. III, 17).

The wind is the breath of the saints; in the psalm: He has flown upon the wings of the wind. The same in a bad part in Matthew: And the winds blew. [Matt. 7:25]

Venti, animae sanctorum. In psalm.: Volavit super pinnas ventorum (Ps. XVII, 11). Item in malam partem. In Matthaeo: Flaverunt venti (Matt. VII, 2).

The north wind is the devil, or bad, faithless men; in the prophet: from the north wind, evil broke out above the earth. [Jer. 1:44]

Aquilo, diabolus, vel homines infideles, aut mali, vel frigus peccatorum. In propheta: Ab aquilone exardescent mala super terram. 

The right wind is the same as the north wind; in Solomon: a hard wind is from the north. Moreover, it is called by the name right because the devil himself assumes that name of good, or because of the right would be the west, that is, sin, from his point of view. [Prov. 25:23]  

Dexter, idem quod supra. In Salomone: Aquilo durus ventus (Prov. XXV, 23). Nomine autem dexter vocatur, eo quod diabolus nomen sibi dextri praesumat, tamquam boni; sive [Col. 0741A] quod occidentem, id est peccatum, respicientibus dexter fiat.

The south wind is the ardor of faith; in the psalm: like a stream in the south. [Ps. 125(126):4 Vulgate]

Auster, calor fidei. In psal.: Sicut torrens in austro (Ps. CXXV, 4).

 

Est et Spiritus sanctus, ut ibi, Surge, aquilo, et veni auster (Cant. IV, 6): id est, Recede, diabole, et veni, spiritus alme.

The empty air is a messenger; in the apostle: thus, I fight, not beating the air, that is, not pursuing emptiness. [1 Cor. 9:26]

Aer, inanitatis enuntiatio. In Apostolo: Sic pugno, non quasi aerem verberans (I Cor. IX, 26); id est, non inania consectans.

The [proper] time is the ordering of divine will; in the psalm: he made the moon in due season. [Ps. 103(104):19 Vulgate]

Tempora, opportuna distributio voluntatis divinae. In Psalmo: Fecit lunam in tempora (Ps. CIII, 19).

Spring is the renewal of life, as baptism is the renewal of life through the resurrection; in the psalm: You have made summer and spring. [Ps. 73(74):17]

Ver vitae renovatio, vel per baptismum, vel per resurrectionem. In psalmo: Aestatem et ver tu fecisti ea (Ps. LXXIII, 17).

Summer is the prefiguration of the joy to come; in the psalm: the same as above.

Aestas venturae jucunditatis praefiguratio. In psalmo, ut supra.

Winter is persecution and tribulation; in the gospel: let your flight be neither in winter nor on the Sabbath. [Matt. 24:20]

Hiems, praesens vita, persecutio, vel tribulatio. In Evangelio: Ut non fiat [Col. 0741B] vestra fuga hieme, vel sabbato (Matt. XXIV, 20).

The years are sometimes taken for eternity, thus: your years do not run short, for the time being and for the brevity of life, and so: you shall meditate upon your years, as if they were like a spider's web.[Ps 89:3]

Anni, aliquando pro aeternitate accipiuntur, ut ibi: Et anni tui non deficient (Ps. CI, 28). Interdum et pro brevitate hujus vitae, ut hic: Anni nostri tamquam aranea meditabuntur (Ps. LXXXIX, 3).

Day and night are righteousness and iniquity, faith and infidelity, prosperity and adversity; in the psalm: The Lord has shown His mercy by day and has declared it in the night. [Ps. 41(42):8]

Dies et nox, justitia et iniquitas, fides et infidelitas, prospera et adversa. In psal.: In die mandavit Dominus misericordiam suam, et in nocte declaravit (Ps. XLI, 9).

Light and darkness are thus taken to be like day and night; in the epistle of John: he who loves his brother remains in the light; however, he who hates his brother is in darkness. [I John 2:10-11]

Noctis autem nomine, vel error ignorantiae caecitas, vel etiam mortis acerbitas accipitur. Lumen et tenebrae, ita maxime accipiuntur ut dies et nox. In ep. Joan.: Qui diligit fratrem suum, in lumine manet: qui autem odit fratrem suum, in tenebris est (I Joan. II, 10).

The shade is divine protection; in the psalm: take me under the shadow of Your wings. [Ps. 16(17):8]

Per lumen etiam intentio cordis declaratur. Umbra, protectio divina. In ps.: Sub umbra alarum tuarum protege me (Ps. XVI, 8).

The five hundredth hour, which they take to mean years, is said to be the number of days allotted to the world in this present age; in the letter of John: little children, the last days are here. [I John 2:18]

Hora, quingenti (ut putant quidam) anni: si quando dies pro toto mundi istius saeculo accipitur: in Epistola Jo.: Filioli mei, novissima hora est (I Joan. II, 18).

The east saves greatly; in Luke: the dayspring has come to us from on high; and in Zechariah: behold the man, Orient is his name. [Luke 1:78; Zech. 6:12]

Oriens, quia ab illa parte lux oritur, Salvator: maxime in Luca: Visitavit nos Oriens ex alto. Et in Zach.: Ecce vir Oriens nomen ejus (Luc. I, 78).

The west is the lessening of a better life; in the prophet: our sun has set at midday. [Am. 8:9]

Occidens, vitae melioris defectus. In propheta: Occidet vobis sol in meridie (Zach. VI, 12).

The morning light is the doing of good, or baptism, or resurrection; in the psalm: I shall stand before You in the morning, and I shall see You. [Ps. 5:3]

Mane, lux actuum bonorum, vel baptismum, vel resurrectio Dominica. In psal.: Mane astabo tibi, et videbo (Ps. V, 5);

Midday is the clarity of great teaching and great deeds; in Solomon: where do you lie at noon? and in the bad part of the psalm: a demon at noon, that is, a demon made manifest. [Cant. 1:6; Ps. 90(91):6 Vulgate]

Meridies, plana doctrinarum factorumque claritas. In Salom.: Ubi cubas in meridie (Cant. I, 6). Et in [Col. 0742B] malam partem in psal.: A daemonio meridiano (Ps. XC, 6), id est manifesto.

 


This Webpage was created for a workshop held at Saint Andrew's Abbey, Valyermo, California in 1990....x....   .