Rome. Imperial Fora from the South 

Emperor Augustus as Jupiter
1st cent. Hermitage







Emperor Maximian offers Incense to the Goddess Diana 
Wall-mosaic, Piazzra Armerina, Sicily, ca. 290 

Incense-offering, 3rd cent.






of the F





(1) [Timeline]
AUGUSTUS 31 B.C.-14 A.D.



(2) [Timeline]


Punishes criticism of government: encourages informants to denounce traitors.  Initiates police state and reign of terror.


(3) [Timeline]


Demands that a statue of himself be erected in the Temple in Jerusalem and accorded divine honors: dies before the project is carried out.


(4)  [Timeline]


    Since the Jews constantly made disturbances at the instigation of Chrestus, he expelled them from Rome. . .” 


He utterly abolished the cruel and inhuman religion of the Druids among the Gauls, which under Augustus had merely been prohibited to Roman citizens; on the other hand he even attempted to transfer the Eleusinian rites from Attica to Rome, and had the temple of Venus Erycina in Sicily, which had fallen to ruin through age, restored at the expense of the treasury of the Roman people. Seutonius, Claudius, 25.


(5) [Timeline] NERO  54-68 

“  ... Punishment was inflicted on the Christians, a class of men given to a new and mischievious superstition...
Suetonius, Nero 16

Tacitus, Annals xv. 44. But all human efforts, all the lavish gifts of the emperor, and the propitiations of the gods did not banish the sinister belief that the conflagration was the result of an order. Consequently, to get rid of the report, Nero fastened the guilt and inflicted the most exquisite tortures on a class hated for their abominations, called Christians by the populace. Christus, from whom the name had its origin, suffered the extreme penalty during the reign of Tiberius at the hands of one of our procurators, Pontius Pilatus, and a most mischievous superstition thus checked for the moment, again broke out not only in Judaea, the first source of the evil, but even in Rome, where all things hideous and shameful from every part of the world find their centre and be­come popular.
Accordingly, an arrest was first made of all who pleaded guilty; then, upon their information, an immense multi­tude was convicted, not so much of the crime of firing the city, as of hatred against mankind.
Mockery of every sort was added to their deaths. Covered with the skins of beasts, they were torn by dogs and perished, or were nailed to crosses, or were doomed to the flames and burnt, to serve as a nightly illumination when day­light had expired. Nero offered his gardens for the spectacle, and was exhibiting a show in the circus, while he mingled with the people in the dress of a charioteer or stood aloft on a car.
Hence, even for criminals who deserve extreme and exemplary punishment, there arose a feeling of compassion; for it was not, as it seemed, for the public good, but to glut one man's cruelty, that they were being destroyed.






(6) [Timeline]


Begins subjugation of rebellious Judea.


(7) [Timeline]

(Son of Vespasian, Brother of Domitian)

Completes subjugation of Judea. Destroys Temple in Jerusalem



(8) [Timeline]

(Son of Vespasian, Brother of Titus)

Demanded the titles and honor of a god
while still living.
Revived the spies and informers of Tiberias' era.


Suetonius, Domitian 12.17.  Besides other taxes, that on the Jews was levied with the utmost rigor, and those were prosecuted who without publicly acknowledging that faith yet lived as Jews, as well as those who concealed their origin and did not pay the tribute levied upon their people.

κἀν τῷ αὐτῷ ἔτει ἄλλους τε πολλοὺς καὶ τὸν Φλάουιον <τὸν> Κλήμεντα ὑπατεύοντα, καίπερ ἀνεψιὸν ὄντα καὶ γυναῖκα καὶ αὐτὴν συγγενῆ ἑαυτοῦ Φλαουίαν Δομιτίλλαν ἔχοντα, 67.14.2 κατέσφαξεν ὁ Δομιτιανός. ἐπηνέχθη δὲ ἀμφοῖν ἔγκλημα ἀθεότητος, ὑφ' ἧς καὶ ἄλλοι ἐς τὰ τῶνουδαίων ἤθη ἐξοκέλλοντες πολλοὶ κατεδικάσθησαν, καὶ οἱ μὲν ἀπέθανον, οἱ δὲ τῶν γοῦν οὐσιῶν ἐστερήθησαν·     67.14.3 ἡ δὲ Δομιτίλλα ὑπερωρίσθη μόνον ἐς Πανδατερίαν.

Cassius Dio
Roman History 
Epitome of Book 67:14,1-3
Greek: Historiae Romanae : Cassii Dionis Cocceiani historiarum Romanarum 
(Weidmann, Berlin pyr 1895-190. rpr. 1955)

14 … And the same year Domitian slew, along with many others, Flavius Clemens the consul, although he was a cousin and had as his wife Flavia Domitilla, who was also a relative of the emperor's. The charge brought against them both was that of atheism, a charge on which many others who drifted into Jewish ways were condemned. Some of these were put to death, and the rest were at least deprived of their property. Domitilla was merely banished to Pandateria.



(THE FIVE Good Emperors)



(9) [Timeline]

NERVA 96-98
(Elected Emperor by Senate on assassination of Domitian)

Dio Cassius says Nerva forbade accusations of maiestas (treason)
or of
Jewish practice 


(10)  [Timeline]

  TRAJAN  98-117
(Adoptive son of Nerva)

Pliny correspondence: Christians to be executed if obstinate, freed if recant.  Not to be sought out 



(11) [Timeline]

HADRIAN 117-138
(allegedly designated heir on Trajan's Deathbed)

Christians are to be executed if won't recant; but false informants to be dealt with harshly.

Ἀδριανοῦ ὑπὲρ Χριστιανῶν ἐπιστολή.

Epistle of {H}Adrian on Behalf of the Christians.

Μινουκίῳ Φουνδανῷ. 68.6Ἐπιστολὴν ἐδεξάμην γραφεῖσάν μοι ἀπὸ Σερηνίου Γρανιανοῦ, λαμπροτάτου ἀνδρός, ὅντινα σὺ διεδέξω. 68.7 οὐ δοκεῖ οὖν μοι τὸ πρᾶγμα ἀζήτητον καταλιπεῖν, ἵνα μήτε οἱ ἄνθρωποι ταράττωνται καὶ τοῖς συκοφάνταις χορηγία κακουργίας παρασχεθῇ.

     I have received the letter addressed to me by your predecessor Serenius Granianus, a most illustrious man; and this communication I am unwilling to pass over in silence, lest innocent persons be disturbed, and occasion be given to the informers for practising villany.

68.10 εἴ τις οὖν κατηγορεῖ καὶ δείκνυσί τι παρὰ τοὺς νόμους πράττοντας, οὕτως διόριζε κατὰ τὴν δύναμιν τοῦ ἁμαρτήματος· ὡς μὰ τὸνἩρακλέα, εἴ τις συκοφαντίας χάριν τοῦτο προτείνοι, διαλάμβανε ὑπὲρ τῆς δεινότητος, καὶ φρόντιζε ὅπως ἂν ἐκδικήσειας.

     If, therefore, any one makes the accusation, and furnishes proof that the said men do anything contrary to the laws, you shall adjudge punishments in proportion to the offences. And this, by Hercules; you shall give special heed to, that if any man shall, through mere calumny, bring an accusation against any of these persons, you shall award to him more severe punishments in proportion to his wickedness

                      Antoninus Pius

(12) [Timeline]

(Designated heir by Hadrian)


                      Marcus Aurelius


(Designated heir by Antoninus on pressure from Hadrian)

Authorizes amphitheater - torture by wild beasts for Christians in Gaul in 177




52 Diocletian





Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the “Military Anarchy” or the “Imperial Crisis” (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the “Dominate,” the “Tetrarchy,” the “Later Roman Empire,” or the “Byzantine Empire.” His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.  [Ralph W. Mathisen, ]

(245–313), Roman Emperor from 284 to 305. Diocles, who was born of humble parents at Salona in Dalmatia, took up a military career, serving with distinction under Probus and Aurelian. On 17 Sept. 284, on the murder of Numerian, the army proclaimed him Emperor at Chalcedon. He was defeated in the ensuing hostilities against Carinus, Numerian’s joint-Emperor; but as Carinus was promptly slain by his own officers, Diocletian (as he now chose to call himself) became undisputed master.

Endowed with immense energy, great gifts of organization, and a mind dominated by logic, he made it his main purpose to stabilize and reform the Empire. To this end,[:]

[1] he created an absolute monarchy, centring all power in himself as the semi-Divine ruler,
  and making his palace the domus divina
  and his own person sacred;

[2] and henceforth the Senate was to be permanently in a subordinate position.

[3] In 286 he associated Maximian in the government as co-Augustus, taking the Eastern Empire for himself and giving Maximian the West.
   In 293 he turned the ‘imperial college’ into a tetrarchy by the creation of two ‘Caesars’, Constantius Chlorus and Galerius.

[4] He further divided the Empire into twelve dioceses, each consisting of several provinces, which, from the 4th cent., formed the basis of the territorial organization of the Church.

...[T]he economy, was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian’s attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A “Maximum Price Edict” issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the “compulsory services.” They included such occupations as

members of town councils,
and tenant farmers.

These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called “Great Persecution.”

With this strong organization, the Empire was consolidated and somewhat extended. Diocletian also introduced far-reaching military, administrative, fiscal, and economic reforms, including the celebrated Edict on Maximum Prices (‘De pretiis return venalium’) of 301. On 1 May 305 he formally abdicated at Nicomedia, compelling his reluctant colleague Maximian to take the same step. He lived his last years in retirement at his large palace at Spalato (Split).

For the greater part of his reign the Christians seem to have enjoyed the tranquillity which had been theirs since the Rescript of Gallienus (260; Euseb. VII.13). Only the Manichees were repressed, by an edict of c.298 (dated 31 March but without the year), as a sect lately originating in Persia.

It was in 303 that the Great Persecution broke out.

[1.] An edict issued at Nicomedia on 23 Feb. enjoined the demolition of churches and the burning of Christian books. Some incidents which followed (fires in the palace at Nicomedia, reports of unrest at Melitene and in Syria) led to further edicts.

[2-3.] The next two were directed solely against the clergy.

[2] sacred books confiscated,

[3] clergy imprisoned and forced to sacrifice by torture.

The punishment inflicted for resistance was imprisonment, torture, and, in some cases, death.

[4.] A fourth edict issued early in 304 enjoined sacrifice to the gods on all subjects.

The persecution brought a considerable number of martyrs. Its severity varied in different parts of the Empire acc. to the changing fortunes of the Imperial rulers in the next decade. Its final collapse was due to Constantine’s defeat of Maxentius at the Milvian Bridge on 28 Oct. 312 and the ‘Edict of Milan’ early in the next year.

Good discussion in C. Anc. H. 12 (1939), esp. chs. 9 (by H. Mattingly), 10, and 11 (by W. Ensslin); and, for the Persecution, ch. 19 (by N. H. Baynes). W. Ensslin, Zur Ostpolitik des Kaisers Diokletian, Sb. (Bayr.), 1942, Heft 1; W. Seston, Dioclétien et la tétrarchie. 1. Guerres et réformes, 284–300 (Bibliothèque des Écoles Françaises d’Athènes et de Rome, 162; 1946); S. Williams, Diocletian and the Roman Recovery (1985); B. Rémy, Dioclétien et la tetrarchie (Que sais-je? 1998). T. D. Barnes, The New Empire of Diocletian and Constantine (Cambridge, Mass., and London, 1982), passim. A. H. M. Jones, The Later Roman Empire 284–602 (3 vols., Oxford, 1964), 1, pp. 37–76, with refs. in 3, pp. 2–10. W. Ensslin in PW, Zweite Reihe, 7 (1948), cols. 2419–95, s.v. ‘Valerius (142) Diocletianus’ W. Seston in RAC 3 (1957), cols. 1036–53,

PW A. Pauly, Real-Encyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, ed. G. Wissowa and others (1893 ff.).

RAC Reallexikon fur Antike and Christentum, ed. T. Klauser, E. Dassmann, and others (Stuttgart, 1950 ff.).



55 Galerius







An Illyrian of humble birth, he rose in the army and in 293 was appointed by *Diocletian as his co-adjutor (‘Caesar’) in the E.; on Diocletian’s abdication in 305 he succeeded him as Augustus. According to Christian writers his influence had inspired the persecution initiated in 303. Unable to enforce his dominance in the W., and suffering from an illness gloatingly described by Lactantius (De Mortibus Persecutorum, 33), he finally issued an edict of toleration in 311 ( He died soon afterwards.




from Lactantius, De Mort. Pers. ch. 34, 35. Opera, ed. O. F. Fritzsche, II, P. 273. (Bibl. Patt. Ecc. Lat. XI, Leipzig, 1844.)

(Ch. 34.) AMONG other arrangements which we are always accustomed to make for the prosperity and welfare of the republic, we had desired formerly to bring all things into harmony with the ancient laws and public order of the Romans, and to provide that even the Christians who had left the religion of their fathers should come back to reason ; Inter caetera quae pro Reipublicae semper commodis atque utilitate disponimus, nos quidem volueramus antehac, juxta leges veteres et publicam disciplinam, Romanorum cuncta corrigere, atque id providere, ut etiam Christiani, qui parentum suorum reliquerant sectam, ad bonas mentes redirent.
since, indeed, the Christians themselves, for some reason, had followed such a caprice and had fallen into such a folly that they would not obey the institutes of antiquity, which perchance their own ancestors had first established; but at their own will and pleasure, they would thus make laws unto themselves which they should observe and would collect various peoples in diverse places in congregations. Siquidem eadem ratione tanta eosdem Christianos voluntas invasisset, et tanta stultitia occupasset, ut non illa veterum instituta sequerentur, quae forsitan primum parentes eorumdem constituerant: sed pro arbitrio suo, atque ut hisdem erat libitum, ita sibimet leges facerent, quas observarent, et per diversa varios populos congregarent.
Finally when our law had been promulgated to the effect that they should conform to the institutes of antiquity, many were subdued by the fear of danger, many even suffered death. And yet since most of them persevered in their determination, and we saw that they neither paid the reverence and awe due to the gods nor worshipped the God of the Christians, Denique cum ejusmodi nostra jussio extitisset, ut ad [Col.0249B] veterum se instituta conferrent, multi periculo subjugati, multi etiam deturbati sunt; atque cum plurimi in proposito perseverarent, ac videremus nec diis eosdem cultum ac religionem debitam exhibere, nec christianorum Deum observare,
in view of our most mild clemency and the constant habit by which we are accustomed to grant indulgence to all, we thought that we ought to grant our most prompt indulgence also to these, so that they may again be Christians and may hold their conventicles, provided they do nothing contrary to good order. But we shall tell the magistrates in another letter what they ought to do.  contemplatione mitissimae nostrae clementiae intuentes et consuetudinem sempiternam, qua [Col.0250A] solemus cunctis hominibus veniam indulgere, promptissimam in his quoque indulgentiam nostram credidimus porrigendam; ut denuo sint Christiani, et conventicula sua componant, ita ut ne quid contra disciplinam agant. Alia autem epistola judicibus significaturi sumus, quid debent observare.
Wherefore, for this our indulgence, they ought to pray to their God for our safety, for that of the republic, and for their own, that the republic may continue uninjured on every side, and that they may be able to live securely in their homes. Unde juxta hanc indulgentiam nostram debebunt Deum suum orare pro salute nostra, et Reipublicae, ac sua, ut undiqueversum Respublica perstet incolumis, et securi vivere in sedibus suis possint.
(c.35)This edict is published at Nicomedia on the day before the Kalends of May, in our eighth consulship and the second of Maximinus. Hoc edictum proponitur Nicomediae pridie Kalendas Maias, ipso octies, et Maximino iterum Consulibus.







THEODORIC (c.455–526), King of the Ostrogoths from 475, and ruler of Italy from 493. He spent his early years as a hostage at Constantinople, and subsequently, as leader of his people in the Balkans, was at times allied with the E. Empire and at times at war with it. In 487 he was commissioned by the Emp. Zeno to overthrow the usurper Odoacer who [having deposed the last Western Emperor, the child Romulus in 476.]was then ruling in Italy. Theodoric defeated and killed Odoacer, and ruled Italy until his death, paying only lip-service to his imperial overlords in Constantinople. His rule gave Italy a period of prolonged peace. Although he and his people were Arians in a country that was solidly Catholic, he pursued a policy of toleration of the religious and cultural traditions of his Roman subjects, allowing the Catholic Church to retain all its churches, property, and privileges. In his capital, Ravenna, and in other towns with Gothic settlers, two rival hierarchies, Arian and Catholic, coexisted. Such a policy was in marked contrast to the intolerance of religious dissent in contemporary Byzantium or in some other Arian kingdoms.

The chief source for his life is Jordanes, Getica (ed.ed. *Mommsen, MGH, Auctores Antiquissimi, 5 (pars 1; 1882), pp. 53–138) and for his rule in Italy, *Cassiodorus, Variae (ed. id., ibid. 12 (1884) and by Å. J. Fridh, CCSL 96 (1973), pp. 1–499; Eng. tr. by S. J. B. Barnish (Translated Texts for Historians, 12; Liverpool, 1992)). Studies by M. Brion (Paris, 1935) and W. Ensslin (Munich [1947]). Good modern account of his life and rule by H. Wolfram, Geschichte der Goten (Munich, 1979; 2nd edn., 1980), esp. pp. 326–411; rev. Eng. tr. (Berkeley, Calif., and London [1988]), pp. 261–332. J. Moorhead, Theodoric in Italy (Oxford, 1992). P. Heather, ‘Theodoric, king of the Goths’, Early Medieval Europe, 4 (1995), pp. 145–73. For his churches in Ravenna, see F. W. Deichmann, Ravenna: Hauptstadt des spätantiken Abendlandes (2 vols. in 3 parts + plans, Wiesbaden, 1969–76); for his mausoleum, R. Heidenreich and H. Johannes, Das Grabmal Theodorichs zu Ravenna (ibid., 1971).


MGH Monumenta Germaniae Historica.



This Webpage was created for a workshop held at Saint Andrew's Abbey, Valyermo, California in 1990....x....   “”.


The United Roman Empire


31-14 1 Augustus
14-37 2 Tiberius
37-41 3 Gaius (Caligula)
41-54 4 Claudius
54-68  5




68 C. Iulius Vindex

68 L. Clodius Macer

68-69 6



C. Nymphidius Sabinus

69 7 Otho
69 8 Vitellius
69-79 9 Vespasian
79-81 10 Titus
81-96 11 Domitian

89 L. Antonius Saturninus

96-98 12 Nerva
98-117 13 Trajan
117-138 14 Hadrian
138-161 15 Antoninus Pius
161-180 16 Marcus Aurelius 

175 Avidius Cassius

161-166   L. Verus
180-192 17 Commodus
192-193 18 Pertinax
193 19 Didius Julianus
193-211 20 Septimius Severus

193-194 Pescennius Niger

193-197 Clodius Albinus

211-217 21 Antoninus (Caracalla)
211 22 Geta
217-218 23 Macrinus
218 24 Diadumenianus
218-22 25








Gellius Maximus


222-235 30 Severus Alexander 

225-227 L. Seius Sallustius


235-238 31 Maximinus Thrax



238 32




Gordian I 

Gordian II

Pupienus (Maximus)


238-244 36 Gordian III 

240 Sabinianus

244-249 37 Philip the Arab

248 Pacatianus

248 Iotapianus



247-249   Philip Iunior
249-251 38 Decius

250 T. Julius Priscus

250 Iulius Valens Licinianus

251 Herennius Etruscus

251 Hostilian 

251-253 39 Trebonianus Gallus


253 Uranius Antoninus

253 40 Aemilius Aemilianus
253-260 41 Valerian


253-268 42 Gallienus

260 Ingenuus

260 Regalianus

260-261 Macrianus Senior

260-261 Macrianus Iunior

260-261 Quietus

261 Piso

261 Valens

261 Ballista

261 Mussius Aemilianus

262 Memor

262, 268 Aureolus



268-270 43 Claudius II Gothicus 


270 Quintillus

270-275 44 Aurelian

271-272 Domitianus

271-272 Urbanus

271-272 Septimius

273 Firmus

270-271? Felicissimus

272 Vaballathus

260-274 45 Gallic Emperors 

260-269 Postumus

269 Laelianus

269 Marius

269-270 Victorinus

271-274 Tetricus I

273?-274 Tetricus II

274 Faustinus

275-276 46 Tacitus
276 47 Florianus 
276-282 48 Probus

280 Bonosus

280-281 Proculus

281 Saturninus

282-283 49 Carus
283-284 50 Numerianus
283-285 5` Carinus
284-305  52 Diocletian

297(296?) L. Domitius Domitianus 

297-298? Aurelius Achilleus

303? Eugenius

285-ca.310 53 Maximianus Herculius

285 or 286Amandus

285 or 286Aelianus

ca. 286-293 Iulianus

286?-297?   British Emperors 

286/7-293 Carausius

293-296/7 Allectus

293-306 54 Constantius I Chlorus
293-311 55 Galerius
305-313 56 Maximinus Daia
305-307 57 Severus II
306-312 58 Maxentius

308-309 L. Domitius Alexander

308-324 59 Licinius


324 Martinianus

306-337 60 Constantine I 

333/334 Calocaerus

337-340 61 Constantine II
337-350 62 Constans I
337-361 63 Constantius II

350-353 Magnentius

350 Nepotian



361-363 64 Julian
363-364 65 Jovian
364-375 66 Valentinian I 

372?-374 or 375Firmus

364-378 67 Valens

365-366 Procopius

366 Marcellus

367-383 68 Gratian
375-392 69 Valentinian II
378-395 70 Theodosius I the Great

383-388 Magnus Maximus

384-388 Flavius Victor

392-394 Eugenius

The Western Empire


393-423 Honorius

406-407 Marcus

407 Gratian

407-411 Constantine III

409/10-411 Constans II

409-411 Maximus

409-410, 414-415 Priscus Attalus

411-413 Jovinus

412-413 Sebastianus

421 Constantius III

423-425 Johannes

425-455 Valentinian III
455 Petronius Maximus
455-456 Avitus
457-461 Majorian
461-465 Libius Severus
467-472 Anthemius

468 Arvandus

470 Romanus

472 Olybrius
473-474 Glycerius
474-475 Julius Nepos
475-476 Romulus Augustulus
The Eastern Empire


  Dynasty of Theodosius
395-408 Arcadius
408-450 Theodosius II
450-457 Marcian (m. Pulcheria, gnddghtr Theod I)

Dynasty of Leo 

Leo I

474 Leo II
474-491 Zeno

475-476 Basiliscus

484-488 Leontius 

491-518 Anastasius
  Dynasty of Justinian
518-527 Justin
527-565 Justinian I
565-578 Justin II
578-582 Tiberius II (I) Constantine
582-602 Maurice
602-610 Phocas
  Dynasty of Heraclius
610-641 Heraclius
641 Heraclonas

Constantine III

641-668  Constans II 

646-647 Gregory

649-653 Olympius

669 Mezezius

668-685 Constantine IV
685-695 Justinian II (banished) 
695-698 Leontius
698-705 Tiberius III(II)
705-711 Justinian II (restored)

713-716 Anastasius II
716-717 Theodosius III
  Isaurian Dynasty
717-741 Leo III
741-775 Constantine V Copronymus

742-743 Artabasdus

775-780 Leo IV
780-797 Constantine VI
797-802 Irene
802-811 Nicephorus I
811 Strauracius
811-813 Michael I
813-820 Leo V

Phrygian Dynasty 

Michael II 

821-823 Thomas

829-842 Theophilus
842-867 Michael III
  Macedonian Dynasty
867-886 Basil I 

869-879 Constantine

887-912 Leo VI
912-913  Alexander 
913-959 Constantine VII Porphygenitus 
920-944 Romanus I Lecapenus 



959-963 Romanus II
963-969 Nicephorus II Phocas
969-976 John I Tzimiskes
976-1025 Basil II
1025-1028 Constantine VIII (IX) alone 
1028-1034 Romanus III Argyrus 
1034-1041 Michael IV the Paphlagonian 
1041-1042 Michael V Calaphates 
1042 Zoe and Theodora
1042-1055 Constantine IX Monomchus 
1055-1056 Theodora alone
1056-1057 Michael VI Stratioticus 
  Prelude to Comnenian Dynasty
1057-1059 Isaac I Comnenos 
1059-1067 Constantine X (1X) Ducas 
1068-1071 Romanus IV Diogenes 
1071-1078 Michael VII Ducas 
1078-1081 Nicephorus III Botaniates 

Nicephorus Bryennius

Nicephorus Basilacius

1080-1081 Nicephorus Melissenus

  Dynasty of the Comneni
1081-1118 Alexius I Comnenus 
1118-1143 John II Comenus
1143-1180 Manuel I
1180-1183 Alexius II
1183-1185 Andronicus I
1183-1191 Isaac, Emperor of Cyprus
  Dynasty of the Angeli
1185-1195 Isaac II 
1195-1203 Alexius III
1203-1204 Isaac II (restored) with Alexius IV 
1204 Alexius V Ducas Murtzuphlus 
  Lascarid Dynasty in Nicaea
1204-1222 Theodore I Lascaris
1222-1254 John III Ducas Vatatzes 
1254-1258 Theodore II Lascaris 
1258-1261 John IV Lascaris 
  Dynasty of the Palaeologi
1259-1282 Michael VIII Paleologus 
1282-1328 Andronicus II
1328-1341 Andronicus III
1341-1391 John V 

1347-1354 John VICantancuzenus 

1376-1379 Andronicus IV
1379-1391 John V (restored) 
1390 John VII
1391-1425 Manuel II
1425-1448 John VIII
1449-1453 Constantine XI (XIII) Dragases