LITURGICAL CYCLES:
RHYTHMS of PRAYER
 

 Christ Creates Light and Water,
 Med. MS. Moulins, BM1f4

LITURGY

λειτουργία (leitourgia) from λεώς (leōs)people[Att. and Ion. for λαός/laos]  and ἔργον (ergon)work’).

The original Greek word was used of a public work of any kind, not only religious; but in the Septuagint (Greek translation of the Hebrew Scriptures) it is applied particularly to the services of the Temple. The word in English is used [...] of all the prescribed services of the Church, e.g. incl. the canonical hours, as contrasted with private devotion.

Livingstone, The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church

Liturgy, as distinct from private devotion, is generally characterized by a strong biblical orientation and is normally celebrated in community

 

 

 


THE EUCHARIST: FROM JESUS' SEDER
to
CHRISTIAN HIGH MASS
 

 

 

 

 

The Last Supper, St. Apollinare, Ravenna 6th c.

The Mass of St. Giles, Master of St. Giles, 1550

1 Corinthians 11:23-30

FOR I received from the Lord what I also delivered to you, that the Lord Jesus on the night when he was betrayed took bread,  24 and when he had given thanks, he broke it, and said,

“This is my body which is for you. Do this in remembrance of me.”

Ἐγὼ γὰρ παρέλαβον ἀπὸ τοῦ κυρίου, καὶ παρέδωκα ὑμῖν, ὅτι κύριος Ἰησοῦς ἐν τῇ νυκτὶ παρεδίδετο ἔλαβεν ἄρτον 24 καὶ εὐχαριστήσας ἔκλασεν καὶ εἶπεν·

τοῦτό μού ἐστιν τὸ σῶμα τὸ ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν· τοῦτο ποιεῖτε εἰς τὴν ἐμὴν ἀνάμνησιν.

25 In the same way also the cup, after supper, saying,

“This cup is the new covenant in my blood. Do this, as often as you drink it, in remembrance of me.” 

25 ὡσαύτως καὶ τὸ ποτήριον μετὰ τὸ δειπνῆσαι λέγων·

τοῦτο τὸ ποτήριον καινὴ διαθήκη ἐστὶν ἐν τῷ ἐμῷ αἵματι· τοῦτο ποιεῖτε, ὁσάκις ἐὰν πίνητε, εἰς τὴν ἐμὴν ἀνάμνησιν.  

26 For as often as you eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the Lord’s death until he comes.  26  ὁσάκις γὰρ ἐὰν ἐσθίητε τὸν ἄρτον τοῦτον καὶ τὸ ποτήριον πίνητε, τὸν θάνατον τοῦ κυρίου καταγγέλλετε ἄχρι οὗ ἔλθῃ.
27  Whoever, therefore, eats the bread or drinks the cup of the Lord in an unworthy manner will be guilty of profaning the body and blood of the Lord.  28 Let a man examine himself, and so eat of the bread and drink of the cup.  29 For any one who eats and drinks without discerning the body eats and drinks judgment upon himself.  30 That is why many of you are weak and ill, and some have died. 27 Ὥστε ὃς ἂν ἐσθίῃ τὸν ἄρτον πίνῃ τὸ ποτήριον τοῦ κυρίου ἀναξίως, ἔνοχος ἔσται τοῦ σώματος καὶ τοῦ αἵματος τοῦ κυρίου.  28  δοκιμαζέτω δὲ ἄνθρωπος ἑαυτὸν καὶ οὕτως ἐκ τοῦ ἄρτου ἐσθιέτω καὶ ἐκ τοῦ ποτηρίου πινέτω· 29 γὰρ ἐσθίων καὶ πίνων κρίμα ἑαυτῷ ἐσθίει καὶ πίνει μὴ διακρίνων τὸ σῶμα. 30 διὰ τοῦτο ἐν ὑμῖν πολλοὶ ἀσθενεῖς καὶ ἄρρωστοι καὶ κοιμῶνται ἱκανοί.

 

 


BASIC STRUCTURE of the EUCHARIST
(“Mass”, “The Synaxis”, “The Mysteries”)

 

 

 

1) LITURGY of the WORD

Entrance hymn (s); Confession of Sin; “Lord have mercy” (Kyrie Eleison); [Hym – Gloria in Excelsis] Readings from Hebrew Scriptures and/or New Testament Letters; (solemn) Reading of Gospel; Sermon, Intercessory Prayers

2) LITURGY of the EUCHARIST

Procession and Offering of Bread and Wine; Preface (prayers over Gifts); Hymn: “Holy Holy” (Sanctus); Consecration (“Words of Institution”); Hymn: “Lamb of God” (Agnus Dei); Elevation of Elements; Communion; Hymns; Concluding Prayers.

 

 

 


MONASTIC EUCHARISTIC PRACTICE
 

 

 

 


   FOURTH CENTURY EGYPTIAN MONASTICISM
 

 

Eucharistic celebrations on Saturday evening and Sunday morning.  Communion is taken to hermits who live at a distance from the cœnobium; however some hermits who live in extremely remote sites participate in the Eucharist and receive communion only very rarely

 

 


   FIFTH CENTURY RULE of THE MASTER (? Northern Italy)
 

 

On weekdays there is a brief communion service (probably with Terce) from reserved elements.  On Sundays and Feasts the monks go to the local parish church for Mass.  There are no priests in the monastic community

 

 


   SIXTH CENTURY BENEDICTINE MONASTICISM
 

 

On weekdays there is a brief communion service (probably with Terce) from reserved elements.  On Sundays and Feasts Mass is celebrated in the monastery by priest-monks

 

 


   SEVENTH CENTURY WESTERN MONASTICISM
 

 

Gregory the Great emphasizes the value of frequent celebrations of the Eucharist “to keep the dread Lord at bay”.  Masses for the dead become increasingly common.

 

 


   TENTH CENTURY CLUNIAC MONASTICISM
 

 

Western monasticism becomes overwhelmingly clerical.  Every day each priest-monk celebrates at least one (“low”, recited) private mass, usually for a deceased benefactor, and also attends the more solemn (“high”, sung) Conventual Mass, attended by the whole monastic community and public.

 

 


   TWENTIETH CENTURY WESTERN MONASTICISM
 

 

A single, daily celebration of the Eucharist by the whole monastic community is the norm.  In some communities it stands alone, in others it is combined with an hour of the Divine Office, such as Lauds, Terce, or Vespers.  Following the Second Vatican Council “concelebration” of the same mass by several priests is permitted and encouraged.  Private masses, although permitted, are no longer encouraged.  A very few Benedictine monasteries begin to debate whether the older pattern of masses celebrated only on feasts and Sundays should be revived.


 

 

 


SUNDAY: THE LITURGICAL WEEK
 

 

 

 

 

MON TUES WED THURS FRIDAY SAT SUNDAY
       

 
        CHRIST'S
DEATH
  CHRIST'S
RESURRECTION
    FAST   FAST   FEAST

 


EASTERN and BYZANTINE LITURGICAL TRADITIONS

MON TUES WED THURS FRIDAY SAT SUNDAY
Holy Angels St. John the Baptist Cross & Theotokos Holy Apostles & St. Nicholas Cross & Theotokos All Saints & the Departed Resurrection of Christ

 

 

 

 

 


DAILY HORARIUM: THE LITURGICAL DAY
 

 

 

 

MATINS (Vigils)

LAUDS (Morning Prayer)

PRIME

TERCE

SEXT

NONE

VESPERS (Evening Prayer)

COMPLINE (Night Prayer)

 

 


MEDIEVAL SPIRITUALITY
 

 

 

MATINS

The Second Coming of Christ

Watchfulness in Darkness

LAUDS

Rising Sun; Darkness banished

Resurrection of Christ

PRIME

The New Day

Preparation for the day’s work

TERCE

Come, Holy Spirit

Descent of the Holy Spirit

SEXT

Deliverance from sin

Christ on the Cross

NONE

Perseverance

The Death of Christ; the Last things

VESPERS

Thanksgiving

Last Supper

COMPLINE

Contrition: Protection for the night

Heavenly banquet
Our Lord in Gethsemane

 

 

 

 

 


CURRENT ROMAN CATHOLIC PRACTICE
 

 

 

OFFICE of READINGS (Vigils or Matins)

MORNING PRAYER (Lauds)

Daytime prayer (The “Little Hours”):

Midmorning prayer (Terce)

Midday prayer (Sext)

Midafternoon prayer (None)

EVENING PRAYER (Vespers

Night Prayer (Compline)


The OFFICE of READINGS (Vigils or Matins):

a hymn

one or two long psalms divided into three parts

a long passage from scripture, usually arranged so that in any one week, all the readings come from the same text

a long hagiographical passage, such as an account of a saint‘s martyrdom, or a theological treatise commenting on some aspect of the scriptural reading, or a passage from the documents of the Second Vatican Council

on nights preceding Sundays and feast days, the office may be expanded to a vigil by inserting three Old Testament canticles and a reading from the gospels

the hymn Te Deum (solemnities, feasts, and Sundays outside of Lent)

the concluding prayer

a short concluding verse (especially when prayed in groups)


MORNING PRAYER (“Lauds”) and EVENING PRAYER (“Vespers”)

a hymn, composed by the Church

two psalms, or one long psalm divided into two parts, and a scriptural canticle (taken from the Old Testament in the morning and the New Testament in the evening)

Brief Scripture Reading

a responsory,

a canticle taken from the Gospel of Luke: the Canticle of Zechariah (Benedictus) for morning prayer, and the Canticle of Mary (Magnificat) for evening prayer

intercessions (prayers of petition)

the Lord’s Prayer

the concluding prayer, composed by the Church

a blessing given by the priest or deacon leading Morning or Evening Prayer, or in the absence of clergy and in individual recitation, a short conclusion


The “LITTLE HOURS” (Terce/Sext/None: Midmorning/Midday/Midafternoon)

Hymn

Three brief Psalms, or, Three Portions of Longer Psalms (often Psalm 119)

Brief Scripture Reading

responsorial verse

concluding prayer

a short concluding verse


NIGHT PRAYER (Compline):

examination of conscience

hymn

a psalm, two short psalms, or Psalm 91

reading from scripture

the responsory In manus tuas, Domine (Into Your Hands, Lord)

the Canticle of Simeon, Nunc dimittis, (Lord, now let your servant depart), framed by the antiphon Protect us, Lord

a concluding prayer

a short concluding blessing

a hymn to the Blessed Virgin Mary

In each office, the psalms and canticle are begun and concluded with antiphons, and after each is prayer the Gloria Patri (“Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit…”)

 

 


CURRENT EASTERN ORTHODOX PRACTICE
 

 

 

Greek

English

Time

Spiritual Association

Mesonyktikon (Μεσονυκτικόν)

MIDNIGHT OFFICE

Midnight

Prayed in monasteries in the middle of the night.

Orthros
(Ὂρθρος)

MATINS or ORTHROS

Dawn

the watches before dawn. Praising God at the rising of the sun.

Prōtē Hōra
(Πρῶτη Ὣρα)

First Hour (PRIME)

~7 AM

the Creation, Banishment of Adam and Eve from Paradise, appearance of Christ before Caiaphas.

Tritē Hōra
(Τρίτη Ὣρα)

Third Hour (TERCE)

~9 AM

descent of the Holy Spirit.

Hektē Hōra
(Ἓκτη Ὣρα)

Sixth Hour (SEXT)

Noon

Christ’s crucifixion

Ennatē Hōra (Ἐννάτη Ὣρα)

Ninth Hour (NONE) *

~3 PM

the death of Christ

Hesperinos
 
(Ἑσπερινός)

VESPERS

Sunset

The beginning of the (liturgical) day. Meditating on Christ as the “Light.”

Apodeipnon
 (Ἀπόδειπνον)
lit. “after-supper”

COMPLINE

Bedtime

Our death.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


EASTER and CHRISTMAS: THE LITURGICAL YEAR
 

 

 

 

 

FALL

  ADVENT

WINTER

  CHRISTMAS

Preparation for Christmas (Advent)

Christ's Birth (Christmas)

and Epiphany (Manifestation of Christ)

SPRING

  LENT

  EASTER

Preparation for Easter (Lent)

Christ's Resurrection (Holy Week and Easter)

SUMMER

  PENTECOST

  ORDINARY TIME

The Feast of the Holy Spirit (Pentecost)

The Season of Ordinary Time

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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