Bishop Kallistos Ware, “Spiritual Direction in the Christian East.” Thomas (Fr. Louis) Merton, O.C.S.O.; “Spiritual Direction” [in the West]. Abbot Francis Benedict, O.S.B., “Implications of Spiritual Direction.” Demacopolous: “Five Models of Spiritual Direction in the Early Church”.
(2) CLASSICAL PHILOSOPHERS as SPIRITUAL GUIDES
Ilsetraut Hadot, “The Spiritual Guide”. Three pre-Christian models of the “Soul-Guide” or psychopomp: (1) Philosopher; (2) Angel; (3) Ancestor. Galen, On the Traditions of Plato and Hippocrates and On the Passions and Errors of the Soul. Porphyry, The Life of Plotinus. Plotinus, Enneads;
(3) BIBLICAL MODELS of SPIRITUAL GUIDANCE
The biblical significance of the terms: (1) TEACHER / διδάσκαλος; DISCIPLE / μαθητής ; INSTRUCTOR / παιδευτή ; (2) CONSOLER / παράκλητος; ADVISOR / σύμβουλος ; HELPER / βοηθός ; (3) SHEPHERD / ποιμήν ; GUIDE / ὁδηγός ; ANGEL / ἄγγελος ; (4) HEALER / ἰατρός; TRANSFORM. / μεταμορφωσις; RENEWAL / ἀνακαίνωαις; RESTORATION / ἀποκατάστασις.
(4) MARTYRS and VISIONARIES as SPIRITUAL GUIDES: Intercessors and Ministers of Reconciliation
Christ’s Descent into Hell and the Apokatastasis; Polycarp of Smyrna; The Shepherd of Hermas; The Martyrdom of Perpetua and Felicity; Cyprian of Carthage.
(5) ECCLESIASTICAL LEADERSHIP as SPIRITUAL GUIDANCE (Part 1)
The Apostle Peter as model; Clement of Rome; Ignatius of Antioch; Irenaeus of Lyons; Athanasius. [Textbook: Demacopoulos, 21-50 (“Athanasius of Alexandria and Ambivalence Regarding Spiritual Direction”)]
(6) CONTEMPLATIVE EXEGESIS as SPIRITUAL GUIDANCE
Philo of Alexandria; Cyprian; Clement of Alexandria; Origen/Gregory Thaumaturgus; Guigo II (the Carthusian), Lectio Divina as a window into the soul.
(7a) CHRISTIAN ASCETICS as SPIRITUAL GUIDES, (Part 1): Early Abbas and Ammas
Athanasius, The Life of Antony; the Apophthegmata (Sayings) of the Desert Fathers; St. Syncletica; St. Macrina. [Textbook: Demacopoulos, 51-82 (“Gregory Nazianzen’s Sturggle for Synthesis” )].
(7b) CHRISTIAN ASCETICS as SPIRITUAL GUIDES, (Part 2): Evagrius Ponticus
“Introduction to the Life and Thought of Evagrius Ponticus”; Praktikos and the spiritual journey; Gnostikos and spiritual guidance. [Textbook: Byrne, pp. 3-15, (Benedicta Ward, S.L.G., “Spiritual Direction in the Desert Fathers”)].
(7c) CHRISTIAN ASCETICS as SPIRITUAL GUIDES, (Part 3): Evagrius Ponticus and John Cassian
Evagrian spiritual direction; Antirrhesis; Exegesis; John Cassian on discernment; John Cassian on friendship and anger. [Textbook: Demacopoulos, 107-126, (“John Cassian and The Spiritual Direction of the Ascetic Community” )]
(8) SPIRITUAL DIRECTION as MUTUAL SERVICE: Models of Spiritual Guidance in Ascetical Communities
John Chryssavgis “From Egypt to Palestine: Discerning a Thread of Spiritual Direction”; Basil the Great on lay ascetical communities; Augustine of Hippo; Barsanuphius and John. [Textbook: Demacopoulos, 83-106, (“Augustine of Hippo and Resistance to the Ascetic Model of Spiritual Direction”)]
(9) EARLY MANUALS of SPIRITUAL (SELF-) DIRECTION
Benedict of Nursia, The Rule of Benedict (RB-80, Appendix 2 “The Abbot”). Irenee Hausherr, S.J., “The Monastic Theology of St. John Climacus”; John Climacus, The Ladder; The Syriac Liber Graduum (Book of Steps); Dhuoda, Manual for William. [Textbook: Demacopoulos, 51-82. (“Gregory Nazianzen’s Sturggle for Synthesis”)]
(10) ECCLESIASTICAL LEADERSHIP as SPIRITUAL GUIDANCE (Part 2)
Basil of Caesarea on Canonical Penances; Ambrose of Milan (On the Sacraments); Augustine of Hippo; Gregory the Great, Dialogues, Regula Pastoralis. [Textbook: Demacopoulos, 127-164 (“Pope Gregory and the Asceticizing of Spiritual Direction”)]
(11) FROM SECRET-KEEPER TO SOUL-FRIEND: Classical, Celtic, and Medieval Models of Friendship and Spiritual Guidance
The biblical significance of the terms: FRIEND / φίλος; FRIENDSHIP / φιλία. Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, Ambrose, and Gregory the Great on friendship; Aelred of Rievaulx, The Mirror of Charity and On Spiritual Friendship. [Textbook: Byrne, pp. 30-42, (Diarmuid O’Laoghaire, S.J., “Soul-Friendship”)]
(12) CHARISMATIC GUIDES and UNCREATED LIGHT, Prayer and Liturgy as Bases of Spiritual Direction
Cyril of Jerusalem; Dionysius the Pseudo-Areopagite; Symeon the New Theologian; Gregory Pallamas and hesychasm.
This Webpage was created for a workshop held at Saint Andrew's Abbey, Valyermo, California in 2003